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Zara Customers Satisfaction Survey

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Phoebe233
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改革与管理

以 ZARA 为例对品牌服装顾客满意度分析


胜 a,邬关荣 b

(浙江理工大学 a. 服装学院;b. 经济管理学院,杭州 310018 )

摘要:以顾客满意度为切入点,运用理论构造顾客满意度理论模型,通过问卷调查分析 ZARA 服装的顾客满意度,进而研究

ZARA的全新运营模式。
关键词:品牌服装;满意度;ZARA
中图分类号:F768.3

文献标识码:B

文章编号:1001-7003 (2009 )03-0009-03

菲利普 科特勒把顾客满意度定义为:一个人通过
·

因此, 研究品牌服装顾客满意度分析的根本目的

对一个产品的可感知效果 ( 或结果 ) 与他的期望值相比

就是要找出我国服装品牌在走向差异化和国际化的进

较后所形成的愉悦或失望的感觉状态 ,顾客满意度的

程中所需要进行研究和讨论的重要内容。

高低将会决定顾客今后对供方的续行动 ,正面行动如

1

忠 诚 、重 复 购 买 、赞 美 、推 荐 给 其 他 人 等 ,负 面 行 动 如

1.1

停止再购买、索赔、攻击等。 服装零售顾客的满意度是

研究构架
理论模型
顾客满意度指数测评体系的理论模型包括输入变

针对服装零售顾客消费服装产品之后对服装企业产

量和输出变量两部分(图 1 )。 输入变量包括顾客对产

品心理感受的描述。 一般情况下,顾客在购买服装企

品质量、服务质量的感知,以及顾客对产品、服务的期

业的产品时,会对服装产品质量属性,如款式、工艺质

望等;这些输入变量引致出多个输出变量,如顾客满意

量 、舒 适 性 、合 体 性 ,价 格 、品 牌 、广 告 、店 铺 陈 设 和 服

度指数、顾客抱怨以及顾客忠诚,形成理论模型的输出

务水平等因素进行评价, 如果达到预期就会决定购

变量。

买 ,而 在 购 买 之 后 的 消 费 经 历 中 ,顾 客 会 将 实 际 的 消
费感受与购买时的预期进行比较,从而决定顾客对企
业产品的满意程度。

1989 年 , 美 国 密 歇 根 大 学 商 学 院 质 量 研 究 中 心
费 耐 尔 博 士 提 出 了 由 顾 客 期 望 、购 买 后 的 感 知 、购 买

图1

1.2

顾客满意度指数理论模型

指标构成

的价格等多因素组成的计量经济学的逻辑模型。 同

顾客满意度测评指标体系是一个多指标的结构

年,瑞典首先运用费耐尔博士设计的顾客满意度指数
模型。 美国顾客满意度指数模型与瑞典指数模型相

(表 1 )。 每一层次的测评指标都是由上一层测评指标
展开的, 而上一层次的测评指标则是通过下一层测评

比,不同之处在于增加了感知质量这个结构变量 。 同

指标的测评结果反映出来的,其中“顾客满意度指数”

美国模型相比,欧洲的顾客满意度指数模型中增加了
形 象 这 个 结 构 变 量 ,去 掉 了 用 户 抱 怨 ,将 感 知 质 量 分
成 2 个 部 分 :感 知 质 量 1 为 感 知 硬 件 质 量 ,感 知 质 量

2 为感知软件质量。 对 于 有 形 产 品 来 说 ,感 知 硬 件 质
量 为 产 品 本 身 质 量 ,感 知 软 件 质 量 为 服 务 质 量 ;对 于
服 务 产 品 来 说 ,感 知 硬 件 质 量 为 服 务 属 性 质 量 ,感 知
软件质量代表在服务过程中同顾客交互作用的一些
因 素 ,如 服 务 提 供 人 员 的 行 为 、语 言 、态 度 、服 务 场 所

是总的测评目标。 实际上建立顾客满意度测评指标体
系,主要是设定测评指标体系中的三级指标。

1.3

顾客满意度指数测评指标主要采用态度量化方
法,用李克特量表来赋值。 为了便于测量顾客的满意状
态, 本研究假定顾客能根据购买预期与消费感受的比
较结果,对满意状态进行量化打分。

2
2.1

环境等因素。

问卷设计

ZARA 服装顾客满意度分析
问卷调查
顾客作为终端资源, 已经成为服装品牌企业相互

收稿日期:2008-12-04 ;修回日期:2009-02-25

竞争的焦点。 定期测量顾客满意度,成为大型服装品牌

基 金 项 目 :浙 江 省 科 技 厅 基 金 项 目 (2008C25018 );杭 州 市

企 业 监 控 目 标 市 场 的 重 要 手 段 。 ZARA 作 为 西 班 牙

科技局基金项目(20081634M29 )

inditex 集团旗下,全球排名第三、西班牙排名第一的服

作 者 简 介 :刘 胜 (1968 —
与品牌研究。

),男 ,讲 师 ,主 要 从 事 服 装 设 计

装零售商,针对杭州首家 ZARA 旗舰店,笔者采取随机

- 9 -

表1
一级指标

顾客满意度测评指标体系

二级指标
顾客期望
顾客对产品
质量的感知
顾客对服务
质量的感知

顾客满意度指标

顾客对价值
的感知
顾客满意度
顾客抱怨

顾客忠诚

率,n 表示全部被试数量,nij 表示在第 i 个评判项目上 , 评定等级

三级指标
对产品或服务质量的总体期望
对产品或服务满足顾客需求程度的期望
对产品或服务稳定性的期望
对产品质量的总体评价
对产品质量满足需求程度的评价
对产品质量可靠性的评价
对服务质量的总体评价
对服务质量满足需求程度的评价
对服务质量可靠性的评价
给定价格时顾客对质量级别的评价
给定质量时顾客对价格级别的评价
对总成本的感知
对总价值的感知
总体满意度
感知与期望的比较
顾客抱怨
顾客投诉情况
重复购买的类别
能承受的涨价幅度
能抵制的竞争者的降价幅度

方式发放问卷,共发放 110 份问卷,其中 100 份有效问
卷。 利用 100 份有效 ZARA 顾客满意度问卷调查数据,
采用顾客满意度综合评判数学模型, 对 ZARA 的顾客
满意度评判进行了实证分析。

2.2

统计分析

本研究采用模糊综合评价法计算 ZARA 的顾客满
意度 , 模糊综合评价法是针对指标值不能精确确定的
问题,通过确定评价项目集,评价尺度集,用层次分析
法或专家调查法确定评价项目权重、 采用问卷调查法
确定因素评价矩阵进行综合评价的一种方法。

2.2.1

式,个性,价格,跟新速度,服务,营销推广,便利性,店
铺装潢 ) ,并确定每一评价尺度集 V(v1,v2 ,v3 ,v4 ,v5) 表
示 ( 很满意,满意,一般,不满意,很不满意 ) ,即 V=(5 ,4 ,

3,2,1)。

确定因子集的权重 A 用来区别服装零售顾客对满
意度评判的各个项目的看重程度。 目前,确定权重的方
法主要有德尔菲法、层次分析法、主成分分析法、熵值
法、回归分析法等,这些方法都以专家评价为基础 、应
用数学模型、确定评判因子的权重。 本研究以顾客选购
因素的心理份额确定顾客满意度评判项目的权重 ,即
在对顾客满意度调查的同时, 要求顾客对满意度评判
项目按照选购服装时的重要程度, 选择最重要的三个
因素进行排序; 通过计算第一选购因素、 第二选购因
素、第三选购因素中,各选购因素心理份 额 ( 各 选 购 尹
旭的出现频率 ) ,得到选购因素心理份额矩阵 P 为:



0.08 0.25 0.15 0.16 0.20 0.10 0.03 0.00 0.03 0.00
0.03 0.07 0.18 0.10 0.20 0.28 0.06 0.05 0.02 0.01
0.06 0.08 0.30 0.11 0.23 0.04 0.05 0.08 0.08 0.05

(

同时,确定第一选购因素、第二选购因素、第三选
购因素心理份额在选购因素综合心理份额的权重。 根
据一般惯例,采用的权重集为:C=(0.5 ,0.3 ,0.2 ) 。
计算各个评判项目的权重集

2.2.4

根据各选购因素的心理份额,计算顾客满意度模糊综
合评判中各个评判项目的权重集为:A=C×P (0.061,0.162,

0.189,0.132,0.206,0.142,0.043,0.031,0.027,0.007)。
模糊综合评判集

2.2.5

根 据 顾 客 满 意 度 综 合 评 判 的 计 算 公 式 B=A×R=

40.1,44.8) 。
根据综合评判结果可以看出, 顾客在对 ZARA 整
体满意度模糊综合评判中,非常满意的占 44.8 % ,满意
的 占 40.1 % ,一 般 的 占 12.6 % ,不 满 意 的 占 2.3 % ,很
不满意的占 0.2 % ,表示 ZARA 在顾客满意度方面表现
十分优秀。

确定评判矩阵
评判矩阵是在被试完成了各个满意度评价项目的

评判之后,对全部被试的评判结果做出模糊判断,也就
是各个评价等级的发生频率或隶属度, 各个引资模糊
评判结果的矩阵 P 为:

R11 R12 R13…… R1j
!
"
R21 R22 R23…… R2j
"
"
…………………………
"
Ri1 Ri2 Ri3…… Rij
#

确定因子集的权重

2.2.3

(b1,b2,b3…bm),得到的综合评判集为:B=(0.2,2.3,12.6,

确定系统评价项目集
如对于某一产品的评价 U=( 工艺质量,舒适性,款

2.2.2

为 j 等级的被试数量。

$
%
%
%
%
&

顾客产品各项属性满意度评分集

2.2.6

根据产品属性满意度模糊评分集计算公式 CSD=

V×R = (CSD1,CSD2,CSD3…CSDn)=(3.64,3.86,4.66,4.17,
4.25 ,4.74 ,4.03,4.59 ,4.06,4.61),得 到 顾 客 产 品 属 性 满
意度评分集 CSD (表 2 )。
2.2.7 顾客整体满意度评分
根据产品属性的整体满意度模糊评分计算公式

CSD=A×CSD, 计算得到顾客总体满意度评分为:CSD=
85.7 。

其中:Rij=nij/n, 表示第 i 个评判项目上 , 评定等级为第 j 等级的频

- 10 -

根据以上满意度各个项目的评判与总体满意评判

表2

多款式的特点。

顾客满意度量化得分

项目
工艺质量
舒适性
款式
个性
价格
更新速度
服务
营销推广
便利性
店铺装潢

评分

2.3.3

3.64
3.86
4.66
4.17
4.25
4.74
4.03
4.59
4.06
4.61

高效的产品组织体系

ZARA 在 全 球 各 地 都 拥 有 极 富 时 尚 嗅 觉 感 的 买
手, 帮助 ZARA 品牌在全球各地收集该地区现时的流
行产品,并通过购买将产品汇集于指定地点,由专业的
时装设计师依类别、款式及风格进行全新改版,组成新
的产品主题系列。 另一方面,ZARA 聘请 200 多名设计
师从米兰、巴黎时装秀取得设计灵感,利用高档品牌提
前发布时尚信息的传统, 使时尚杂志还在预告当季潮

的 结 果 可 以 看 出 ,ZARA 品 牌 服 装 在 杭 州 整 个 服 装 市

流时,ZARA 橱窗已在展示这些内容。 正是如此,ZARA

场中居于中高端水平,表现为整体满意度相对较高。

才会在流行性这个项目上得高分。

2.3

成因分析

3

结 语

作为时装界知名品牌,ZARA 在杭州的发展,不管

研究和讨论服装品牌顾客满意度分析这一重要

是从工艺质量、舒适性、款式、个性、价格、更新速度、服

内容, 目的就是要找出国内众多服装品牌与国际大

务、营销推广、便利性 , 还是店铺 装 潢 都 受 到 了 顾 客 较

牌之间所存在的差距。 尽管研究和讨论的方法多种

高的评价。 特别是在款式、 更新速度上, 体现出了

多样, 但最终目的都是要提高顾客对品牌的忠诚度

ZARA 作为时装品牌全新运营的优势。

与满意度。 因为只有提高顾客对品牌的满意度,才

2.3.1

能提高顾客对品牌的忠诚度, 也才能相应地提高品

“三位一体”创新模式
针对时装市场需求所具有的 “流行性” 和 “季节

牌 对 市 场 持 久 的 、高 效 的 占 有 率 。
作 为 在 国 际 上 享 有 盛 誉 的 时 装 品 牌 , ZARA 服

性”,ZARA 采用了 “三位一体” 创新模式判断流行趋
势。 这“三位”分别是设计师、市场专家以及进货专家,

装品牌有别于一般服装品牌的运作, 它是建筑在具

组成虚拟团 5 人。 此模式的第一步是由近 400 名“满天

有后现代主义倾向的消费行为之上、 有着深刻符号

飞”的设计师主动收集时尚信息,并进行整理和归类,
绘出设计草图;第二步是“三位”一起对设计方案进行

消 费 烙 印 的 生 活 样 式 。 ZARA 的 成 功 不 仅 体 现 在 以
店铺为核心的生产营销方面的快速反应机制上,更
体现在品牌营销与生活样式结合上、 消费文化的后

修改、完善和细化;第三步是“三位”根据数据库中的信

现代性上。 因此, 我国服装企业只有把自己的品牌

息共同确定生产细节,并将要求交给生产部门。 这种运

定位与国际的生活样式接轨, 真正理解后现代主义

作方式缩短了时装上市的提前期, 增加了对流行趋势

消费行为, 才是我国服装品牌走向差异化和国际化

的准确判断,使得 ZARA 季前生产量仅有 15 % ,大 大

所需要进行实践的重点所在。

低于 75 % 的行业平均水平。

参考文献:

2.3.2

[1] 杨小灵,马军,马宏伟 . 顾客满意度指数(CSI )测评体系研究 [J].

极速供应链
作为时尚品牌, 更新速度确实是一个非常重要

的 项 目 ,它 保 证 了 时 装 的 流 行 性 ,从 而 满 足 了 顾 客 的
时 尚 心 理 。 ZARA 所 做 的 事 情 便 是 真 正 地 从 顾 客 出

甘肃科技,2005 (12 ):15.

[2] 葛星 . 透视世界服装巨人的血管 ZARA 利用 IT 技术打造快速
供应链 [N]. 中国服饰报,2006-04-28 (B22 ).

[3] 梁 燕 . 从 ZARA 看 服 装 品 牌 全 新 运 营 模 式 [J] ,山 东 纺 织 经 济 ,

发,将顾客的想法和需求转化成他们所 期 望 “流 行 ”
的服装, 正如其进行的市场调研一样都是完全从顾
客 自 身 出 发 的 。 所 以 ZARA 只 是 以 最 快 的 速 度 生 产
消费者最想要的款式, 并且每种款式提供的数量都

2005 (3 ):33-37.
——
[4] 邬 关 荣 . 加 工 贸 易 转 型 升 级 研 究 —以 服 装 产 业 为 例 [M]. 北
京:经济科学出版社,2007 :321-336.

[5] PATRICK Vycke.Lifestyle segmentation [J].European Journal of

不 多 ,款 式 不 断 推 陈 出 新 。 也 正 是 这 种 对 时 尚 快 速 反
应 的 理 念 才 使 得 ZARA 可 以 将 它 强 大 的 设 计 和 开 发
能 力 转 化 成 每 年 12 000 件 以 上 的 新 款 服 饰 , 形 成 其

- 11 -

Complication ,2002 (2 ):35-38.…...

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Customer Satisfaction

...included an announcement for the people interested to buy Warid connections to bring the documents like ID card, etc., to the designated franchise and customer care centers.  On October 1, 2007, Warid Telecom expanded its network to five more districts raising total number of districts under Warid coverage to 56, said a press release. Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Sherpur, Rajbari and Narail towns were covered by Warid network.  On November 10, 2007, 61 districts under Warid network coverage.  On June 10, 2008, Warid Telecom expanded its network to 3 more districts Bandarban, Khagrachhari and Rangamati. Now all 64 districts of Bangladesh are under Warid network coverage meaning Warid Telecom now has nationwide coverage.  On December 20, 2010, Warid Telecom was rebranded to airtel. Brand Airtel Airtel was born free, a force unleashed into the market with a relentless and unwavering determination to succeed. A spirit charged with energy, creativity and a team driven “to seize the day” with an ambition to become the most admired telecom service provider globally. Airtel has become one of the most preferable brands among the young people in just 12 months of operations in Bangladesh. Vision & Tagline “By 2015 Airtel will be the most loved brand, enriching the lives of millions.” "Enriching lives means putting the customer at the heart of everything we do. We will meet their needs based on our deep understanding of their ambitions, wherever they are. By having......

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...IMC and Customer Satisfaction IMC and Customer Satisfaction In the Robinson Consultation Firm we plan to get our name out to our customer with some advertising. We will have some ads that will be located in the local newspaper to get us started. We will also use social media sites to get our name and services known. The newspaper will be a good way to bring awareness to small businesses and people who want to start their own business. Once our name becomes known we can then use social media sites as people spread the word. Some work in the beginning may be done at a discount or for free to show people that the services we offer will be affective. This will allow customer to see who our planning can help their business. Once trust is establish and the work pays off then we will have something to show to other customers. So the main part of our advertising will be to get our name known with showing that our services will work and then have our name spread via word of mouth. TV ads will not be used in the beginning stages to save on cost. The firm will have a website that clients can go to see who we are and what we can make happen for them. Just like our clients who will be on the move our advertising plans will be made to suit them. By using these methods we can effectively meet our marketing goals. Our goals will be to get our name out to the public, Let our services do the talking, and to build long lasting relationships with our customers. We can do this by......

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Customer Satisfaction

...A PROJECT REPORT ON Study of Customers Satisfaction towards the “ Pure it” (HUL) (With special reference to Cuttack city) For partial fulfillment of MBA degree course of Biju Pattnaik University of Technology Submitted By: Soumya Prakash Pani Roll No. B/10/01 Reg. No.1006281028 MBA 2010-12 External Guide: Internal Guide: Mr. Pratim Chatterjee Mr. Biswarup Singh Territory Sales Officer Sc Lect. Marketing HUL( Pure it ) IPSAR INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL STUDIES & RESEARCH CDA SECTOR-6 , CUTTACK-753014,ORISSA DECLARATION I, Soumya Prakash Pani, a student of MBA (2010-12) studying at IPSAR (Institute of Professional Studies & Research), Cuttack, solemnly declare that the project work titled- ‘ Study of customers satisfaction towards “Pure it” (HUL)’ was carried out by me at Hindustan Unilever Limited; Cuttack, in partial fulfillment of the MBA programme. This programme was undertaken as a part of academic curriculum according to the University Date : ...

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...Customer Satisfaction towards Retailers ICA, ICA NÄRA and COOP FORUM Author: Phuc Hong Lu Ian Grace.B. Lukoma Subject: Master Thesis in Business Administration 15 ECTS Program: Master of International Management Gotland University Spring semester 2011 Supervisor: Ph.D Bo Lennstrand ABSTRACT In the midst of stiff and fierce competition and increased number of grocery retail outlets providing a variety of products, customers have become accustomed to patronizing multiple outlets. Retailers have recognized this trend and are of the view that customer satisfaction plays a role in the success of business strategies. Therefore it has become important for grocery retail stores to try and manage customer satisfaction. This paper was thus developed to investigate the satisfaction levels of customers in supermarkets. Data was collected from three supermarkets in Visby, Gotland. The study examined the importance of overall dimensions and specific elements of customer satisfaction towards the measurement of satisfaction levels. In addition, comparative analysis was conducted between the three relative grocery stores. Customer satisfaction levels were measured. The highest percentage of customers of the whole sample belonged to medium level of satisfaction. The statistical result concluded that customers of ICA Nära and customers of ICA were higher satisfied than those of Coop Forum. The results showed that customers felt satisfied with Location, Staff courtesy and Reliability of......

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Customer Satisfaction

...Customer Satisfaction Survey for a Modern Greek Bank and Relationships Between Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, Complaints Handling and Recommendation. Spyridon G. Aliferis, University of Paisley Business School, Scotland, UK (June 2006) Dr. Panagiotis Kyriazopoulos ABSTRACT The main subject of this survey is to measure and understand the elements of customer satisfaction and its impact to business growth and future. One of the aims of this survey is to confirm the validity of the hypothesis that modern banks keep their customers very satisfied and that is why they grow over older banks at a higher pace. Another aim of this research is to identify which are the areas that modern banks excel, through which actions they do it and what elements can be improved. Last aim is the identification of relationships and connections between customers’ satisfaction, loyalty, recommendation and complaints handling. It is supposed that the elements of customer’s satisfaction perception include easiness of Access, Service provided, Products and Personnel. The conceptual background deals with the literature review in customer satisfaction, service quality, complaints handling and loyalty. Reichheld & Sasser (1990) argued that loyalty is directly connected with profitability. The survey was conducted by the usage of anonymous questionnaires to customers of a Greek modern bank. The first conclusion was that the respondents were very happy with......

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Customer Satisfaction

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...Customer Satisfaction: Best Practices Customer Satisfaction is the most prominent factor in the success of a company. It is what puts the wheels in motion for a company to establish a strong foundation while simultaneously fulfilling it’s overall purpose to offer the goods and services that it is designed to provide. Consequently; in order to maintain that status and to provide valued goods or services to those customers in which any company is marketing to, it has to understand the customers needs and more specifically what provides the customer with complete satisfaction. Understanding the customer’s needs and what they require in order to be satisfied, opens up doors and provides the company with the opportunity to generate financial growth, repeat business, and a competitive advantage. In doing so, research has indicated that the best practices to measuring customer satisfaction; is to assess the goals that a company expects to deliver and identify the targeted customer, like: the existing, former, potential, or internal customers. Once a company identifies what their targeted goal is and who the targeted audience may be it is imperative that they then seek input from the customer by asking the customer for feedback. The Voice of the Customer (VOC), (Evans & Lindsay, 2011) is the “customer requirements, as expressed in the customer’s own terms (p. 201).” To develop a clear understanding of what a customer requires in their own terms, companies have been......

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Customer Satisfaction

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Customer Satisfaction

...Customer satisfaction, a term frequently used in marketing, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals." It is seen as a key performance indicator within business and is often part of a Balanced Scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy. Within organizations, customer satisfaction ratings can have powerful effects. They focus employees on the importance of fulfilling customers’ expectations. Furthermore, when these ratings dip, they warn of problems that can affect sales and profitability. These metrics quantify an important dynamic. When a brand has loyal customers, it gains positive word-of-mouth marketing, which is both free and highly effective. Therefore, it is essential for businesses to effectively manage customer satisfaction. To be able do this, firms need reliable and representative measures of satisfaction. In researching satisfaction, firms generally ask customers whether their product or service has met or exceeded expectations. Thus, expectations are a key factor behind satisfaction. When customers have high expectations and the reality......

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Customer Satisfaction

...services. The citizen/ customer has a prominent place in these reforms. For many years the topic of customer satisfaction has been on the European agenda and in recent years this has rapidly grown in importance. According to the DGs’ resolution of May 2006, the main focus of the common European work and efforts regarding customer satisfaction should be on the collection of best practices and the preparation of guidelines for questionnaires to measure customer satisfaction. During the Austrian (first half 2006), Finnish (second half 2006) and German (first half 2007) Presidencies of the EU, initiatives were taken to address these aspects. At the IPSG and Customer Satisfaction Expert Group meetings, ways were discussed to gather and present good practices and create guidelines. Based on these good practices, the Customer Satisfaction Expert Group meeting and the IPSG meeting concluded that many interesting and valuable things could be done with these good practices and that the field of customer satisfaction was too large and too important to narrow attention only to customer satisfaction surveys and measurement, and to limit guidelines in this sense. “Measuring” satisfaction is one thing; “managing” satisfaction is another and should be the aim. Based upon the Cabinet Office document of 2006, titled “Customer Insight in Public Services”, a “primer” – in the form of this publication – was created. This publication explains the relevance of customer focus and......

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