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The Science of Psychology

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The Science of Psychology
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Learning Objective Menu
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • LO 1.1 LO 1.2 LO 1.3 LO 1.4 LO 1.5 LO 1.6 LO 1.7 LO 1.8 LO 1.9 LO 1.10 LO 1.11 LO 1.12 LO 1.13 LO 1.14 Definition and goals of psychology Structuralism and functionalism Early Gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism Modern perspectives Skinner, Maslow and Rogers Psychiatrist, psychologist, and other professionals Psychology is a science; steps in scientific method Naturalistic and laboratory settings Case studies and surveys Correlational technique Experimental approach and terms Placebo and the experimenter effects Conducting a real experiment Ethical concerns in conducting research Principles of critical thinking

LO 1.1 Definition and goals of psychology

What is Psychology?
• Psychology - scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
• Behavior - outward or overt actions and reactions. • Mental processes - internal, covert activity of our minds.

• Psychology is a science
• Prevent possible biases from leading to faulty observations • Precise and careful measurement
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LO 1.1 Definition and goals of psychology

Psychology’s Four Goals
1. Description
• • • What is happening? Why is it happening? Theory - general explanation of a set of observations or facts Will it happen again? How can it be changed?

2. Explanation

3. Prediction
• •

4. Control
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LO 1.2

Structuralism and functionalism

Structuralism
• Structuralism - focused on structure or basic elements of the mind. • Wilhelm Wundt’s psychology laboratory • Germany in 1879 • Developed the technique of objective introspection – process of objectively examining and measuring one’s thoughts and mental activities. • Edward Titchener
• Wundt’s student; brought structuralism to America.

• Margaret Washburn
• Titchener’s student; first woman to earn a Ph.D. in…...

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