The Needle Exchange Program

In: Other Topics

Submitted By lisaspero
Words 754
Pages 4
Needle Exchange Program
Lisa Spero
South University

Needle Exchange Program The Needle Exchange Program is a social service created for intravenous drug users to be able to return their used needles in exchange for new, clean ones. It was initially funded by the federal government, but was banned in 1988, with a short reversal from 2009-2011. Currently there are 16 states and the District of Columbia that have provisions authorizing needle exchange programs.
The programs have been shown to reduce the spread of HIV and Hepatitis C that occurs within the population of IV drug users sharing needles. There is controversy concerning the provision of paraphernalia to illicit drug users and some believe that it promotes the usage rather than people taking responsibility for an illegal habit with grave consequences they risk by choosing to use. The World Health Organization HIV/AIDS Program states that needle exchange programs are most effective when other services are offered that are targeted at IV drug users. Some of those would be HIV testing and counseling, education and treatment of STI’s, prevention and vaccination for Hepatitis B and C, antiretroviral therapy for HIV positive patients other interventions designed specifically for the risks of IV drug use. Advocates hold that those trapped in dangerous behaviors are often unable and/or unwilling to break free of them, and should at least be enabled to continue these behaviors in a less harmful manner. A tendency in the medical profession has been to treat drug dependency as a chronic illness like diabetes, hypertension and asthma, to be treated, evaluated and even insured in like manner. Treating drug dependency as an illness absolves drug users of responsibility for their condition. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), around 1/5 of all new HIV infections and the vast majority of…...

Similar Documents

The History of the Sewing Needle

...Head: THE HISTORY OF THE SEWING NEEDLE 1 The History of the sewing needle Doris Buck DeVry University THE HISTORY OF THE SEWING NEEDLE 2 Annotated Bibliography Beggerow, A. (2008, 02 26). The hand Sewing Needle - History and Facts. Retrieved 03 10, 2012, from EzineArticle: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Hand-Sewing-Needle---History-and-Facts&id=1009010 The first known sewing needle came from southwestern France and dates to about 25,000 years ago. Residues of animal skin pants, shirts, and shoes have been found in a 22,000 year old Cro-Magnon grave near Moscow in Russia. Wild flax fibers from 34,000 year old thread or twine have been found at a cave site in the Republic of Georgia. Beggerow, A. (2009, 04 29). The Hand Sewing Needle. Retrieved 03 10, 2012, from Sewing with Trudy: http://sewingwithtrudy.blogspot.com/2009/04/hand-sewing-needle-history-and-facts.html Even a small thing like a hand sewing needle has had a role in the history of humans. Some facts and history about the hand sewing needle: The first sewing needles were made from bone and were used to sew animal hides together. The oldest known bone sewing needle was one found in what is now southwestern France and has been estimated to be over 25,000 years old. Hoffecker, J. S. (2012, 01 17). Sewing needle. Retrieved 03 10, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sewing_needle Even a small thing like a hand sewing needle has had a role in the......

Words: 506 - Pages: 3

Program

...Abstract: “To solve the problem of time-cost tradeoff in project management with available models, a choice must be made between heuristic approaches and algorithms based upon restrictive assumptions about the shape of the cost-time functions of the activities. The algorithm presented in this article involves a dynamic-programming approach to determine the allocation which minimizes the duration of the project (critical path). The main advantage of this model is its ability to determine the optimum allocation among activities with arbitrary cost-time functions. Also, computational shortcuts for functions with special properties can be used to increase the efficiency of the model” (Don Robinson 158-166). Programming solutions . Developers who program for any project has multiple requirements to be met. The key is understanding the problem to be familiar with the business. A visionary understanding the management of the business. Then a visual plan must be drawn with a step by step process to understand the goals of the company. It is easy to do this if you are the owner of the company and it is difficult to bring it to the IT/developer of the company. I have experienced this personally via my small business even though I tried desperately to bring my ideas, there was always a gap bringing the need and the vision. IF we discuss the need, we had to set multiple meetings where the developer had researched the system and saw the flaws with his own ideas on how to improve it.......

Words: 827 - Pages: 4

Program

... ← Combo Box: - Change the text into “Choose your Destination” ← Frame: - Change the caption into “Please Select” ← Option Button - Make 4 option buttons and rename it into: - Single - Ten - Monthly - Yearly 2. Now, enter these codes inside the Form_load 3. Enter these codes inside the Enter event 4. Enter these codes inside the Quit event Testing 1. After you’ve done all the procedures, click F5 to test whether your program is working properly. 2. If not, debug your program and then test it again. Saving as an .EXE file 1. Create a new folder in the Desktop wherein you can save your program. 2. To save the program as an .EXE file (executable) from the menu bar, click File then choose MakeProject1.exe 3. Name your executable file as "Railway Ticket Rate Viewer" then save it to the new folder you created a while ago. ----------------------- PictureBox Label Label Label TextBox Frame ComboBox Option Button Wherein: sb = South Bend d = Dunes g = Gary ec = East Chicago h = Hammond c = Formula cost Constants Note: Ten Ride Ticket Formula Cost: (10 * rate of destination) – (10* rate of destination * 0.02) Monthly Ride Ticket Formula Cost: (30 * rate of destination) – (30* rate of......

Words: 354 - Pages: 2

Essay Exchange Program

...Given my aspirations to be a successful entrepreneur, I believe that being in an exchange program will help me to understand the world better. Every entrepreneur must encounter different cultures which will widen his perspective in all aspects. I strongly believe that a person who wants to establish a global business must know the world and its different societies. This exchange program will give me two important things: First, I will hone my strengths further because of my exposure to a new environment. Second, I will complement the high quality education that I am receiving at INCAE with an experience living in a completely different place and learning not only the traditions but also the way of thinking of prospective classmates and professors. Another important point, is the opportunity to examine concepts such as leadership and finances in the best business schools in the world. Throughout my career, I have focused on finance, accounting and operations, but I believe that a complete education has to provide a variety of tools for the professional to be successful. That is why I applied to INCAE in the first place because they have courses that motivate the thinking of a leader. Thus, the idea of studying relevant courses with professors who are global opinion leaders or Nobel Prize winners, to complete what I started in INCAE, is crucial to take my career to the next level. I think that I could use my experience and compare it with the new trends to enhance my skills...

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

Aids and Needles

...AIDS and Needles Becton Dickinson, one of the largest manufacturers of medical supplies, dominates the US market in disposable syringes and needles. In 2005, a nurse, Maryann Rockwood (a fictional name), used a Becton Dickinson 5cc syringe and needle to draw blood from a patient known to be infected with HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus). Ms. Rockwood worked in a clinic that served AIDS patients, and she drew blood from these patients several times a day. After drawing the blood on this particular day, she transferred the HIV-contaminated blood to a sterile test tube by sticking the needle through the rubber stopper of the test tube, which she was holding with her other hand. She accidentally pricked her finger with the contaminated needle. She is now HIV positive. A few years earlier, in 2000, Becton Dickinson had acquired exclusive rights to a patent for a new syringe that had a moveable protective sleeve around it. The plastic tube around the syringe could slide down to safely cover the needle. The Becton Dickinson 5cc syringe used by Maryann Rockwood in 2005, however, did not yet have such a protective guard built into it. The AIDS epidemic has posed peculiarly acute dilemmas for health workers, including doctors and nurses. Doctors performing surgery on AIDS patients can easily prick their fingers with a scalpel, needle, sharp instrument, or even bone fragment and can become infected with the virus. The greatest risk is to nurses, who, after routinely removing an......

Words: 1807 - Pages: 8

Needle

...I Just Got Stuck With a Contaminated Needle, HELP! What should I do if I have been stuck with a contaminated needle or got blood in my eye or on open skin? First, let common sense guide you. If you are stuck with a contaminated needle, go to nearest sink, squeeze the skin around the puncture site to let it bleed if possible, then wash with soap and running water. If blood (or visibly bloody body fluid) splashes in your eye, go to the nearest eyewash station or sink and flush your eye with water. Likewise, if a cut or other open skin area is exposed, go to the nearest sink and wash with soap and running water. Second, REPORT your exposure to your supervisor (charge nurse, team leader, etc.) FILL OUT an Employee Accident & Injury Report form (the form employees fill out for accidents at work that you obtain from your supervisor, nursing coordinator, or Sharepoint). SEND your completed accident report to RMH Employee Health. DO NOT take it to the ED. GO TO THE ED for evaluation and treatment of your needlestick, blood exposure. Can I wait a while before going to the ED? No. Quick, timely evaluation and treatment of your exposure is VERY important. Your exposure needs to be evaluated to determine if the exposure is a higher risk for HIV transmission. If it is determined that your exposure is higher risk, you will be offered medications (called Post Exposure Prophylaxis) that have been found to greatly reduce the risk of HIV transmission. BUT these medications are......

Words: 474 - Pages: 2

American Needle vs. the Nfl

...AMERICAN NEEDLE, INC. v. NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE et al. AMERICAN NEEDLE, INC. v. NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE et al. Background In January 2010, the Supreme Court weighed in on a case involving American Needle, Inc. versus the National Football League, et al. American Needle contended that the NFL was creating a monopoly, and restricting competition of head wear for the 32 teams that belonged in the NFL. Their argument was based in the fact that the NFL had awarded the manufacturing of all head wear to Reebok, and did not renew the American Needle, Inc. contract that was previously in effect. Because of this single award to Reebok for all NFL teams, American Needle, Inc could no longer produce head gear for any of the teams. American Needle, Inc felt that all the teams were individual entities and the NFL operating on their behalf was in direct violation of Section 1 of the Sherman Act which disallows unreasonable restraint on competition. The NFL argued that they were a single entity representing all the teams in the NFL and were not a monopoly because they did not restrict any one teams opportunities in business, simply negotiated on their behalf. Court Decision The Supreme Court sided with American Needle, Inc. and decided that all 32 teams in the NFL were significant and individual business entities. It indicated that the NFL teams compete in the sport of football, as well as in the marketplace and were therefore each individually potential clients for vendors.......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Asian Needle Ant

...Climate change Welcomes the Asian Needle Ant into its ecosystem The Asian needle ant is a native species of ant which has begun vastly spreading throughout the ecosystem; eliminating various native ant species and therefore corrupting how the ecosystem functions. The six-legged, brown-red insect appears to have an almost identical appearance to the Fire ant and Argentine ant; as well as 30 other species of ants. The Asian needle ant has already rapidly migrated from Asia, and can already be found in forests in 9 different states around North East America. It is not uncommon for ants to establish populations outside of their native habitat; with over 200 ant species already discovered in other habitats, with the international transportation and tourism trading system said to be the main cause. Guénard, Benoît, (2009) Formicidae. But what causes the Asian needle ants to invade new habitats and eliminate other ant species? Ants and their survival are greatly affected by changes in temperature and humidity. Therefore, climate change causes the colonisation of ant species in colder climates that are more suitable. Studies and experiments based on the distribution of the Argentine ant have proven that the major factor responsible for their numbers increasing Worldwide is due to climate change. The invasion of the Asian needle ant has had a large range of negative impacts on the ecosystem and its natural ecological functioning. The species is one of the most difficult to......

Words: 1283 - Pages: 6

Bus 694 Week 3 Designing an Exchange Management Program

...BUS 694 Week 3 Designing an exchange management program Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/BUS%20694/bus-694-week-3-designing-an-exchange-management-program Description Designing an Exchange Management Program. Review the “Case Application” at the end of Chapter 9: Exchange Risk Management at Merck. Using the 5-step process outlined, develop your own 5-step program for managing exchange risk for your proposed acquisition. Your proposal must be three to five pages (excluding title and reference pages) in length. In addition to the requirements above, your paper: Must be double-spaced and 12 point font. Must be formatted according to APA style. Must reference two scholarly resources in addition to the textbook. Must include a reference page written in APA format. BUS 694 Week 3 Designing an exchange management program Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/BUS%20694/bus-694-week-3-designing-an-exchange-management-program Description Designing an Exchange Management Program. Review the “Case Application” at the end of Chapter 9: Exchange Risk Management at Merck. Using the 5-step process outlined, develop your own 5-step program for managing exchange risk for your proposed acquisition. Your proposal must be three to five pages (excluding title and reference pages) in length. In addition to the requirements above, your paper: Must be double-spaced and 12 point font. Must be formatted......

Words: 493 - Pages: 2

Exchange Student

...Nansi Hermiz Red I.D. 815953613 SDSU Exchange Application/ Sciences Po Motivation Letter 10.08.2013 Studying abroad is something every college student dreams of doing, yet only those who are fearless actually accomplish it. Studying abroad never came to mind until one day I realized that I would be spending plenty of time in Paris, France. I did not want to waste any time in a different country for no reason, so studying abroad was the perfect idea. I was motivated to apply for the SDSU Exchange program once I finish speaking with an excellent Education Abroad advisor named Ryan C. McLemore. He made me realize how worthwhile the program will be and showed me every step of the way to achieving it. I figured I would give it a shot and make my time in Paris, France worthwhile instead of wasting time from achieving my higher education. My biggest preparation for this program is that I am currently engaged to a man who is a legal resident in France and he has helped me quite a bit. Although I have not taken any french classes at SDSU, I am constantly speaking to a French resident for the past 2 years. I have also been to Paris, France multiple times so I know how the living status is there. I plan on applying for the Spring semester abroad for my exchange program so I have around 6 months to go community colleges and language school in Paris before I start my semester in the Sciences Po University that is much more rigorous. I plan on taking all my classes in......

Words: 513 - Pages: 3

Sample Sop for Foreign Exchange Program

...Statement of Purpose for Student Exchange Program I firmly believe that our circumstances drive our thought process and our thought process becomes our identity. To further the development of my thoughts, my perspective and to add meaning to it I find Student Exchange program a perfect fit and my calling. I would certainly like to capitalise on it by learning and understanding how things function differently in International environment. FH Kufstein Tirol University of Applied Sciences ranks in the finest Universities in Europe and since marketing is my field of interest I believe it will be an excellent opportunity for me to work under the finest faculty in the world. I find marketing to be a kind of field that one cannot master by studying through books and classes alone. I believe overall exposure would certainly help in grooming and making of any manager and more so if he is interested in marketing. I am a very curious person by nature and would never want to miss out on gaining new experiences. I feel it would make my Dubai experience more wholesome and complete. Austria is a wonderful country to explore and dwell on my curiosity to learn about how business works in that part of the world, more importantly how people there look at different customer setting to add one important perspective to my global arsenal. SEP would give me the chance to work with multi-nationalities and with this develop a better understanding of myself by understanding different cultures. My......

Words: 285 - Pages: 2

Needle

...Needle | Needles are the heart of the needlepunching process. The schematic diagram of a typical needle is shown in Figure 3.2. As shown, a needle has the following parts: crank, shank, taper, blade, barb, and point. The shank locates in the hole in the needleboard and the crank is clamped between upper surface of the needleboard and the needlebeam, thus holding it firmly and vertically aligned in the loom. Traditionally, the cross-section of a needle is triangular and carries a total of nine barbs, three per apex. The dimensions of the barbs and their relative arrangement vary depending on the application and machine operation. | | | Figure 3.2 | Figure 3.3 | | In general, the nonwoven industry uses two types of needles, known as single reduction needle and double reduction needle. They are shown in Figure 3.3. The single reduction needle has two sections, shank and blade. But the double reduction needle has an intermediate section in-between the shank and the blade. This is a transition stage between the different diameters of the shank and the blade. The single reduction needle is much stiffer than the double reduction needle. The single reduction needle is usually made only for coarser gauge needles. The single reduction needle is used for stiff fibres (waste fibres, shoddy, etc.) | | Figure 3.4 | | | Figure 3.5 | | The barb is known to be the main working component of a needle. The schematic diagram of a barb along with its important parts......

Words: 656 - Pages: 3

Student Exchange Program

..."The Journey is the reward.” As the modern contemporary society becomes more and more intricate, sometimes I sink into deep anxiety and concern about my unclear future and call all of my experience into question. When I feel very depressed about my future like this, however, I always consciously keep telling myself that although it does not guarantee or is not related to my success, all experiences are meaningful, “The Journey is the reward.”. In this line of thought, I try to challenge diverse experiences and find precious meanings in them. My name is Gyung Eun Kim, and I am glad to have this opportunity to apply to Exchange Student Program (ESP). Of course, curriculum in Yonsei University are so systematic and interesting that I have learned various fields of study deeply. I have always dreamed of studying abroad, especially in United States, though, because it can offers a lot of different and valuable experiences First of all, the main advantage of studying in US is that I can learn about my major ‘communication’ from various views. I have dreamed of being journalist since I was in high school, and that’s the main reason why I entered in to Yonsei University and major in Communication now. In major classes, I repeatedly heard that students who want to learn journalism more can experience the most developed and ‘time-honored’ journalism study in United States. That’s because the majority of theories in Communication came from professors of universities in US and US......

Words: 523 - Pages: 3

Program

...What is pseudocode? Pseudocode is a detailed yet readable description of what a computer program or algorithm must do, and is expressed in a formally-styled natural language rather than in a programming language. 3. Computer programs typically perform what three steps? a. Determine the Procedures and Services to Report b. Identify the Correct Codes c. Determine the Need for Modifiers 4. What does the term “user-friendly” mean? That the software or device is easy to use, and that the person using it won't have a hard time learning how to use it or have problems while using it. Algorithm Workbench 1. Design an algorithm that prompts the user to enter his or her height and stores the user’s input in a variable named height. * Display “Height” * Input Height * Display “here is the height that you entered:” , height 2. Design an algorithm that prompts the user to enter his or her favorite color and stores the user’s input in a variable named color. * Display “Favorite color” * Input favorite color * Display “Here is your favorite color you entered:” , color PROGRAMMING EXERCISES 1. Personal Information Design a program that displays the following information: Your name Your address, with city, state, and ZIP Your telephone number Your college major 4. Total Purchase A customer in a store is purchasing five items. Design a program that asks for the price of each item, and then displays the subtotal of the sale, the......

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Acupuncture and Needle Transmitted Infection

...1 Evidence Based Practice Proposal Paper: 2 Acupuncture Treatment and Needle Transmitted Infection 3 4 5 6 7 9 Acupuncture Treatment and Needle Transmitted Infection Problem Identification Acupuncture is a coherent and self-consistent body of knowledge based on a philosophy which differs radically from the conventional Western worldview. Rather than seeing disease as the result of a single causative agent, acupuncture medicine regards illness as a pattern of disharmony, a function of both internal and external phenomena adversely affecting the whole person (Prady et al, 2007). In other words, it describes the universe as a dynamic system, within which all phenomena are interrelated. It has been one of the most popular complementary and alternative therapies for the treatment of pain conditions in developed countries (Barns et al, 2004). The report from a Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture held at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1997 stated that acupuncture is being widely practiced by thousands of physicians, dentists, acupuncturists, and other practitioners for relief or prevention of pain and for various other health conditions. According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which included a comprehensive survey of NCCAM (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine), an estimated 3.1 million U.S. adults and 250,000 children......

Words: 3245 - Pages: 13