Free Essay

The Misattributions of Josquin

In: Film and Music

Submitted By Asulli21
Words 2728
Pages 11
The Misattributions of Josquin

10/16/2015
Ashley Sullivan

There are many reasons to account for Josquin’s reputation as the finest composer of his time. He was one of the first composers to benefit from print culture. Printing gave Josquin the ability to achieve recognition that was previously denied from composers whose work was distributed only in manuscript, which was really expensive. In addition, Josquin’s unique style, which would have been considered arrogant in the era before his time, was instead praised due to the evolving movements of the Renaissance. These movements, including humanism and Protestantism both valued individualism which allowed Josquin to flourish with his distinctive and innovative style. Although he is so greatly admired, many of his works have been proven not to be authentic and misattributed. In the New Grove catalogue of Josquin’s works, out of 315 compositions 136 are thought to be misattributed to him. This has been a central problem in the authenticity and chronology of Josquin’s output and career.
In this paper, I will try to bring light to certain errors in the documentation of Josquin’s career that have been assumed to be a part of his life which have caused confusion not only in his biography but also in his career. In order to accomplish this I will 1) Discuss Josquin’s background of his life and career; 2) Examine why Josquin is so popular and widely revered and how that affected the documentation of his life; 3) Explore one of the compositions attributed to Josquin that is now thought to not be his to explain why it couldn’t have been written by Josquin but also consider how confusion could occur due to similar composing styles of his contemporaries. Josquin’s history continues to be revisited due to the inconsistency of his biography and career. My purpose is to give insight to not only the reader but myself as well on whom Josquin des Prez really was and why there is so little information on someone who was arguably one of the greatest composers during the Renaissance. I hope to achieve through research more knowledge on a composer who had a great amount of influence on early music who is still revered today.
Josquin is looked upon as the greatest composer of his time. His motets, masses, and secular songs were commonly sung, praised, and imitated not only in his lifetime but also for decades after his death. He held consecutively high-status positions at courts and churches in France and Italy and his compositions appeared in many manuscripts and printed collections than any other composer before 1550 but who was Josquin? For someone with such prolific fame there seems to not be much information to actually give an account on who Josquin was as a person or composer making it confusing
To start with Josquin was born around 1450. This is estimated through the chronology of his works. There is no documentation of Josquin’s early years so there is no clear information about his birth date or where he was born. However it is believed that he was from Picardy. Many of the details in earlier studies came from documents that concern some other Josquin. There was an adult singer named Josquin in Milan Cathedral, Josquin de Kessalia. The whereabouts of Josquin during the time he was said to be in Milan are now unknown but Josquin de Kessalia has been a big part of Josquin Des Prez’ career. According to David Fallows, it is possible that Josquin could be fifteen years younger than what is thought now. Also, documents from Milan suggest that Josquin was from Picardy but now it is known that this information is from records in Milan. Another statement that has been on the fence is that he studied with Ockeghem but there is no evidence that there was ever a relationship between them. However, Josquin did compose a motet in honor of him.
The earliest documentation that is true of Josquin is his time serving in the chapel of the duke of Anjou from 1477 to 1489. In 1489, Josquin made his way into the papal chapel, disappears and then comes back up again in 1501 working for King Louis XII in France. In 1503, Josquin ended up in Ferrara where he was appointed maestro di cappella to Duke Ercole I d’Este and earned the highest salary in that court’s history. The story of this chapter in Josquin’s career is that one of the duke’s agents wrote the duke to recruit Henry Isaac over Josquin. This is the only account of him that gives a taste of his personality. This is known to be the most famous account of him:
To me he [Isaac] seems well suited to serve Your Lordship, more so than Josquin, because he is more good-natured and companionable, and he will compose new works more often. It is true that Josquin composes better, but he composes when he wants to, and not when one wants him to, and he is asking 200 ducats in salary while Isaac will come for 120—but Your Lordship will decide
Duke Ercole decided to take Josquin over Isaac which one of Josquin’s most famous works became a result of, Psalm 50, Miserere mei. In 1504, Josquin left Ferrara no one has a clear reason on why but many scholars think it was to escape the plague. He chose to retire to the church of Notre Dame at Condé-sur-Escaut and this is where he remained until his death. It can be concluded that he traveled greatly which contributed to his undying fame. It can also be inferred that Josquin was temperamental and moody which can be said about a number of composers. But the chronology of Josquin’s life and career is still being researched. Because there is not enough certainty in the documentation on Josquin already, new information found can change the perception of him and also can bring about questions whether less and less wo
The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were a period of great change for the European culture, literature, art, and music. The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries combined a rediscovery of ancient learning with new discoveries and innovations to produce a flowering of culture and the arts that became known as the Renaissance. The Renaissance is French for rebirth. To some, it appeared that the arts had been reborn after a period of lack of progress. Soon historians were using it to designate the historical period after the Middle Ages.
Responding to a growing interest in pleasing the senses, musicians developed a new kind of counterpoint, featuring strict control of dissonances and pervasive use of sweet sounding sonorities. They devised new methods for writing polyphonic music that included greater equality between voices, more varied textures featuring imitation or homophony, and new ways of reworking borrowed material. Composers of vocal music endeavored to reflect in their melodies the accents, inflections, rhythms, and meanings of the words. Reading Ancient Greek texts that inscribed music as a part of education, that expected every citizen to sing and play music, and that described the power of music of their times. The invention of music printing in the early sixteenth century made written music more widely accessible and created a market for music that amateurs could sing or play for their own entertainment, alone, or social activity. The demand stimulated new kinds of secular song and a great increase in instrumental music. Not least important, growing interest in the individual artist brought a new prominence to composers.
In 1538, Martin Luther proclaimed that “Josquin is the master of notes. They must do as he wills; as for the other composers, they have to do as the notes will.” A generation after his death, writers praised his music for expressing emotions. Scholars even compared him to Virgil and Michelangelo as an artist without peer in his art. Such praise reflects not only on Josquin but on his time. It shows the significantly increased interest during the renaissance in the individual artist and in the power of music to express feelings and ideas.
On May 25, 1498, Ottaviano dei Petrucci was granted a license from the Republic of Venice of an exclusive twenty year monopoly of the printing and selling of polyphonic music as well as organ and lute tablatures; this is how Petrucci became the first printer of polyphonic music. It can be implied that Petrucci was a fan of Josquin because he published three books of Josquin’s masses and reprinted each to satisfy the demand for them; no other composer received more than a single volume from Petrucci. Music printing had a major effect on the spread of music. Printed copies of music were able to reach a vastly wider audience than any manuscript could. Printed made it possible for repertories to travel more widely and quickly than ever before leading to an exchange of styles and genres. Thanks to Petrucci, he made Josquin and his contemporaries’ popular commodities.
Josquin’s motet compositional style includes, use of text-painting; use of homophony and imitation; contrapuntal and clear text declamation. Josquin’s motets exemplify the diversity of his style. Like chansons and masses, motets could be based on borrowed material or newly composed, and many of the same techniques appear in all three genres, from imitation and homophony to cantus firmus and paraphrase.
Much of Josquin’s post-mortem fame can be attributed to the appearance of a large number of his motets in German anthropologies produced between the late 1530s and the early 1560s. It is through these collections that his motets spread to Protestant audiences in northern and central Germany, as well as to Eastern Europe. Unlike the Italian prints containing Josquin’s motets, the German collections contain drawn-out memorial and introductory letters, providing insights into the thoughts, attitudes, and goals of the editors and publishers. These introductory materials, along with other knowledge about the interests of the people who contributed to the collections, help us to better understand why Josquin’s motets occupy such an important place in the volumes.
The motets prove to be an ideal route for exploring the sixteenth-century interest in this Josquin for a number of reasons. One is that these works account for more than fifty percent of his authentic output, reflecting a new interest in the genre that would remain in place throughout the sixteenth century. Josquin’s blend of expressive and constructivist devices in a number of motets kept them fashionable despite their age. The second thing is that there is a large amount of sources for Josquin’s motets, of works influenced by Josquin’s motets, and of post-mortem subjective commentary concerning his motets. The third this is that compared to the chansons and masses, the motets received more continuous attention over the course of the century. This is most readily observed in the publication history of the works in each of the genres.
Information concerning Josquin’s reception is not limited to post-mortem sources. A certain number of manuscripts and printed editions prepared during his lifetime document the early distribution of his music. Some printed editions prepared towards the very end of Josquin’s life lend insights into the growing awareness of the importance of him and his music to the history and development of the discipline.
Still, the highest concentration of sources, printed and manuscript, musical and verbal, originated in Germany in the second three decades of the sixteenth century. A number of manuscripts prepared at the end of the sixteenth century in regions far from Josquin’s places of employment, such as Spain and Bohemia, clearly indicated that interest in Josquin’s motets continued for some 80 years after his death. After placing the sources of Josquin’s reception in their historical context, a number of themes emerged that lend insights into why this composerss above all other predecessors and contemporaries, garnered such extensive post-mortem attention.
The German prints produced betweened 1537 and 1545 served as the principal means by which Josquin’s motets remained alive and spread throughout German speaking regions and other regions of Europe. Many attributed works in those volumes do not appear in sources during the life of Josquin or in sources from any of the regions where he was employed. Some of these works only survive in German sources. Many scholars today have approached these works skeptically because they survive in sources that are chronologically and geographically distant from Josquin and the popularity of Josquin during this era was so great that editors may have been too anxious to print out anything with Josquin’s name on it.
Post-mortem Fame
Josquin’s reputation and music endured for nearly a century after his death because his followers took note of, and admired, aspects of his individual compositional style, particularly his blend of constructiveness and text-expressive devices. The beginning of printing fueled interest in his music by making it available to a widespread audience; the reprinting of his music also helped to withstand this responsiveness long after his death. The increase of sources, made possible by the development of printing, provides a record of the post-mortem interest in the music of Josquin. If Dufay’s or Machaut’s music achieved a similar level of post-mortem attention as did Josquin’s, we would not know because evidence of it does not survive. We can discuss the post-mortem reception of Josquin because of the very fact that there is evidence of it. This post-mortem interest came about, in part, because his followers appreciated his music, particularly his motets, as autonomous works. Some scholars of Renaissance music have explored questions of reception in this era, particularly as it concerns Josquin.
Composers from Josquin’s time through the late sixteenth century emulated and reworked his music. Some works were recopied, published, and performed for almost a century after his death, a rare honor at a time where most music more than a few decades old was unavailable or deemed unworthy of performance. His music was so valued and popular that publishers and copyists often attributed works of other composers to him, which encouraged one man to comment that “now Josquin is dead, he is putting out more works than when he was alive.”
As the first major composer whose repertory continued to be copied, printed, studied, and emulated long after his death, Josquin des Prez occupies a unique place in music history. Josquin is a composer whose music has a component of compositional display that beats the functional purpose of the repertory. Similar qualities can also be found in sacred works of other composers who were revered before the era of common practice, including Josquin’s predecessors such as Machaut and Dufay. Yet these composers do not appear to have gathered the same level of post-mortem attention that Josquin appears to have. Josquin transpires as a special case in the history of western music.
One piece of music that is misattributed to Josquin is Une mousse de Biscaye. Missa Une mousse de Biscaye is said to have a “lack of clarity and consistency”, “crudities of part-writing and dissonance treatment”, “unsystematic, rather loose motivic interplay between the voices”, and “lack of structure”. This mass was copied under Josquin’s name in Germany in1496. The mass was distributed throughout Europe in many of copies printed by Petrucci in 1505.

Works Cited
Atlas, Allan W. Renaissance Music: Music in Western Europe, 1400-1600. New York, New York: Norton, 1998. 729.

Burkholder, J. Peter. A History of Western Music. Ninth ed. New York, New York: Norton, 2014. 1009.

Fallows, David. Josquin. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009. 522.

Harman, Alec, and Anthony Milner. Man and His Music; the Story of Musical Experience in the West. 1969 ed. Vol. I. New York, New York: Schocken Books, 1962. 245.

Sherr, Richard, ed. The Josquin Companion. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 691.

Sparks, Edgar H. Cantus Firmus in Mass and Motet, 1420-1520. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1963. 504.

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Atlas, Allan W. Renaissance Music: Music in Western Europe, 1400-1600. New York, New York: Norton, 1998. 729. PG. 257
[ 2 ]. Fallows, David. Josquin. Turnhout: Brepols, 2009. 522. PG 10
[ 3 ]. Atlas, Allan W. Renaissance Music: Music in Western Europe, 1400-1600. New York, New York: Norton, 1998. 729.
PG 255
[ 4 ]. Sherr, Richard, ed. The Josquin Companion. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. 691.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Misattribution and Suggestability

...Misattribution and Suggestibility False or inaccurate memories exist in all of us, whether it’s a small detail like what a person said or something larger like a date, time, or a completely false memory. These memories can be created several ways including misattribution and suggestibility. Changes in a memory can occur long after they occur or are purported to have occurred because memories are not fixed and can be altered or reinterpreted each time we recall them. Misattribution is a common thing in memories, a result of our brain trying to fill in the missing information, or using general characteristics that do not always paint an accurate picture. Common examples of this are remembering a person or piece of information, but incorrectly remembering where you met them or learned that fact. Source memory is the part of memory where we can recall the surroundings of that memory origin. Misattribution can occur in traumatic memories with inaccurate results and cause serious consequences for innocent people. Or on the other hand allow someone who is guilty to escape justice because a whiteness is “sure” of a false memories accuracy. On a more day-to-day basis it can lead to thinking you’ve already communicated information to someone, or thinking you left the garage door open. Susceptibility refers to the minds ability in some cases to create false memories based on outside input, usually false information or suggestive questions that lead the respondent toward a false...

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

The Renaissance and Classical Style

...places it in one of the voices, usually called Tenor. Cantus firmus Misa is typical of the fifteenth century, examples of it are based on countless song L'homme arme, such as Dufay, Busnois, Ockeghem, Guerrero, Morales, Palestrina. Misa parody or imitation: the composer takes a motet or polyphonic song that was from the same or another author, this type already polyphonic, and uses melodic and harmonic material: imitation motives, typical tempos or sometimes even complete fragments, but reworking the material, adding new voices and sometimes reasons, and always, of course, changing the text. This is standard procedure in the sixteenth century, for example Misa Malheur me bat of Josquin Desprez, a song based on Ockeghem, or Mass Mille regretz of Cristóbal de Morales, itself based on a song by Josquin. Secular vocal music forms a large number of manuscripts and songbooks have sent us the broad secular Renaissance polyphonic repertoire. Here it is possible to recognize ways peculiar to each country: In Italy, the villanella, the frottola and madrigal. In Spain, romance, salad and Carol. Towards the end of the first period are dramatic antecedents of the opera such as monody, the madrigal comedy and intermediate. Instrumental music instruments with voices participating in the execution of polyphonic music, for example, is well documented the presence of regular minstrels of flutes , cornettos, sacabuches, oboes and bassoons, in the sixteenth century Iberian cathedrals. In......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Composers

..."Hildegard of Bingen." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 12 Nov. 2012 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. Josquin Deprez Josquin Deprez was a Flemish composer during the Renaissance period when was from 1450-1600. Just as many other composers of history, he influenced the life of many others with his musical work. Josquin Depriez work was somewhat different than his predecessors. With Josquin Deprez biography no one really knows. Historians except that he was born between 1440 and 1455. He was thought to be born in a town called Hainaut. Josquin Deprez didn’t stay in one place that long. He would travel around Germany and Europe a whole lot. Josquin Deprez has so great he influenced many famous people of the twentieth century. He composed many musical works of art. He even wrote books of masses. Josquin Deprez wrote if not all then most of his works in French. He also leaned toward motets and secular pieces. He was also a singer in all around Europe. His passion was the choir and he died in 1521 with his work still preserved. McComb, Todd M. Josquin Desprez (c.1440/55-1521)- A discography. July 1999. 10 November 2012 <http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/composers/josquin.html>. "Josquin Desprez." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2012. Encyclopedia.com. 12 Nov. 2012 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. "Josquin Desprez." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 12 Nov. 2012 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>. J.S......

Words: 2573 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Music

...Sistine Chapel. The ideal music according to the Catholic liturgical tradition is plainchant also known as Gregorian chant. Plainchant is believed to originate from the 3rd century A.D. Gregorian chant is a variety of plainsong named after Pope Gregory 1 , although Gregory himself did not invent the chant. The tradition linking Gregory the first to the development of the chant seems to rest on a possibly mistaken identification of “Gregorius.” Examples of plainchant are as follows Prayer, Reading or Section, Psalm, Canticle, Hymn, Prose, Antiphon, Responsory, Introit, Gradual, Tract, Alleluia, Sequence, Offertory, and Communion. The two great composers that were associated with the Sistine Chapel Choir were Josquin Desprez and Giovanni Palestrina. Josquin Desprez is widely regarded as one of the finest and most influential composers in the historey of western music. The stylistic traits of his music, both in contrapuntal technique and in text-setting, gave the defining direction to the High Renaissance and with it the course of music history as a whole. Giovanni Palestrina left hundreds of compositions, including 105 masses, 68 offertories, at least 140 madrigals and more than 300 motets. The flow of his music is dynamic, not rigid or static. The Melodies contain few leaps between notes. The reaction that I get from this music is a very sweet serenity sound and comforting feeling when listening to the masses. The music makes me feel like I am......

Words: 595 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Unit 9 Cognitive Psych

...nerve pathways the brain formed when encoding the memory and the strength of those pathways determines how quickly the memory can be recalled. “Recall effectively returns a memory from long-term storage to short-term memory, where it can be accessed, in a kind of mirror image of the encoding process. It is then re-stored back in long-term memory, thus re-consolidating and strengthening it” (Mastin, 2010). Since Linda’s cognitive abilities are impaired due to her substance use, she is experiencing Absent-mindedness, Misattribution and Transience. Absent-mindedness is misplacing your keys and forgetting where you park your car. Absent-mindedness occurs because of missing memory material. Transience is the decay of memory over time, as we age. I believe her past substance abuse helped speed up the process, thus fading over time due to non-use of the memory and the overflow of memories created each day does not help. Lastly, she suffers from Misattribution which is stored memories that are having trouble surfacing, they are missing key components. The memory system recalls having experienced an event without actually having the experience (Cognitive Psychology, 2010). Some strategies I would suggest for Linda first and foremost is proper sleep, exercise, proper diet and maintain healthy relationships. Sleep has been known to aid in retaining long term memory. Exercise is important as well, not only for one’s psychical being but mental as well. If Linda is feeling......

Words: 1298 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Josquin Des Prez

...Josquin Des Prez  Josquin was born in the area controlled by the Dukes of Burgundy, and was possibly born either in Hainaut(modernday Belgium), or immediately across the border in modern-day France In his early youth Josquin seems to have been a member of the choir of the collegiate church at St. Quentin; when his voice changed he went (about 1455) to Ockenheim to take lessons in counterpoint; afterwards he again lived at his birthplace for some years, until Pope Sixtus IV invited him to Rome to teach his art to the musicians of Italy, where musical knowledge at that time was at a low ebb. The first definite record of his employment is dated 19 April 1477, and it shows that he was a singer at the chapel of René, Duke of Anjou, in Aix-en-Provence. He remained there at least until 1478. One of Josquin's early motets, Misericordias Domini in aeternum cantabo, suggests a direct connection with Louis XI, who was king during this time. In 1483 Josquin returned to Condé to claim his inheritance from his aunt and uncle In either 1483 or 1484 Josquin is known to have been in the service of the Sforza family in Milan. While in their employ, he made one or more trips to Rome, and possibly also to Paris; From 1489 to 1495 Josquin was a member of the papal choir, first under Pope Innocent VIII, and later under the Borgia pope Alexander VI. Josquin's mature style evolved during this period; as in Milan he had absorbed the influence of light Italian secular music, in Rome he refined his......

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Wrongful Conviction Markscheme

...Taylor (from photo) being the perpetrator of the crime this casts doubt on it being him. Differential experience hypothesis related to – suggests that best able to recall people of similar age and ethnicity, so the cashier might be expected to have best recall as she is of similar age to James Taylor. James Taylor photo could also have acted as misleading information if he was not the perpetrator. Loftus (1978) found that the effect of misleading information on recall grew with time (41% accuracy declined to 20% accuracy after one week), related to long time lag in this case. However Yuille and Cutshall also found that misleading information had little or no effect on accuracy of recall of victims of violent crime. Idea of source misattribution elaborated upon as a possible explanation in the context of misleading information....

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Science

...Misattribution of arousal (two factor theory of emotion) People search the immediate environment for emotional relevant clues to label and interpret unexplained physiological arousal, leading to misattribution. Cognitive dissonance: mental discomfort that arises when we are confronted with actions, situations, or feelings that go against our morals values. we seek reduce this dissonance Conformity : a change in ones behavior due to the real or imagined influence of other people Two factor theory of emotion -misattribution. Katniss is “falling in love” with Peeta because of the heightened tension, physical activity. Katniss pretending rue is her sister Deindividuation - it ties with arousal because it causes her to do things she normally wouldn't do, such as kiss Peeta while the world is watching, play pu[[et to the capital, and almost trying to kill herself at the end cognitive dissonance -killing other competitors in order to stay alive, even though participants have always bben taught that killing is wrong. -obeying the orders of the capitol and following along with their hunger games, even though they are being treated unfairly and they do not support the capitol. conformity -citizens of the district have to conform and give up their children in order to save the lives of everyone else -Katniss conforms to what the people of the capitol want so that she can get sponsors for the Hunger Games. -The people of the districts conform to the system in the capitol......

Words: 293 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Memory

...you can’t think of the memory you want. Scientists think that memory blocks become more common with age and that they account for the trouble older people have remembering other people’s names. Research shows that people are able to retrieve about half of the blocked memories within just a minute. 4. Misattribution Misattribution occurs when you remember something accurately in part, but misattribute some detail, like the time, place, or person involved. Another kind of misattribution occurs when you believe a thought you had was totally original when, in fact, it came from something you had previously read or heard but had forgotten about. This sort of misattribution explains cases of unintentional plagiarism, in which a writer passes off some information as original when he or she actually read it somewhere before. As with several other kinds of memory lapses, misattribution becomes more common with age. As you age, you absorb fewer details when acquiring information because you have somewhat more trouble concentrating and processing information rapidly. And as you grow older, your memories grow older as well. And old memories are especially prone to misattribution. 5. Suggestibility Suggestibility is the vulnerability of your memory to the power of suggestion — information that you learn about an occurrence after the fact becomes incorporated into your memory of the incident, even though you did not experience these details. Although little is known about......

Words: 688 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Emotion

...experiments determine whether high-anxiety situations caused an increase in sexual attraction. It means that sexual attractions increase vigorously due to strong emotion. People will have higher attraction when they cross on a fear-inducing bridge. In this experiment, young man crossed a bridge, which more than 200 feet above a river. After that, woman asked ask male to fill out a survey. When they had finished, the woman wrote cell phone number and her name on a piece of paper. Moreover, she invited them to call her if they felt interested. More than 50% of people called back her after they crossed the bridge. On the other way, significantly less people called back her if they crossed on a low solid bridge. The result showed that misattribution of arousal occurs. It is a term in psychology which describes the process of people makes a mistake when they feel aroused. People felt arousal due to the height of the bridge. They misattributed it as romantic or sexual attraction to the woman. As a result, those are more likely to call her. Arousal caused by the height of this bridge was misattributed as attraction by the male who were interviewed by an attractive female when they crossed it. In my view, emotion is combination of cognition and arousal. Initially, I think that I process emotional experiences in straightforward way. I find the target and then emotion created. For example, I had something made me unhappy and then I will feel unhappy. However, our bodies are not......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Time Capsule

...inspecting I see that it is The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt by Peter Paul Rubens. Rubens painted The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt in 1616. He was a true Baroque era artist. Rubens use of dramatics and visual diagonal to broaden the sense of immediacy and movement and redirected attention downward into the center of action truly represent the Baroque era style of art. As we search deeper into the chamber we continue to find more and more fascinating items from such a unique and interesting time in human history. In a dark corner of the chamber we have discovered a rare find, the manuscript of Missa de Beata Virgine by Josquin de Perez. Missa de Beata Virgine is a musical set of the “Ordinary of the Mass”. It is believed to have been composed around 1510. Missa de Beata Virgine was the one of Perez’s most popular works in the 16th century. Josquin des Prez was a Renaissance composer from the Netherlands. Perez was a leading composer of the Renaissance bravura of polyphonic vocal music. The second musical item that I discovered was a Violin once used by Arcangelo Corelli. Corelli was an Italian violinist and composer in the Baroque era. Corelli played second violin to the legendary Carlo Mannelli at the San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome. Corelli continued to play and compose music until his death in 1713. Over his lifetime he 12 violin and continuo sonatas and 48 trio sonatas. Corelli’s contributions to the violinist community are still felt today. With each......

Words: 1219 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Music Paper

...Gregory I. He was the pope from 590 until his death in 604. Although composers from the renaissance frowned upon the medieval times they still followed their arts in some ways. The name the Renaissance means Rebirth h, from rinascere, to be reborn. It lasted from 1400 ca until 1650 ca. Many different things were happing around this time. A flood of interest in classical learning and values emerged amongst the community. Writings of ancient Greece and Rome were rescued. The Catholic Church lost its influence over society. They were more taken by painting and sculpture of Michelangelo, the plays of Shakespeare, and in both the sacred and secular dance and vocal music of the greatest composers of the era. Some composers from this era are Josquin des Prez and Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. The renaissance was a time of great change and spiritual influences. One of the greatest times in our history. A time that will never be forgotten and still aspiring to the world today. The Medieval times and the Renaissance were very different but in some ways they were the same. Similar to each other they are both still being taught in classrooms across the world. Their practices and compositions will forever be a part of us. Work Cited http://www.ipl.org/div/mushist/ren/ Sherrane, Robert http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06779a.htm  Bewerunge, Henry. "Gregorian Chant." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 13 Mar. 2015 ...

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Life

...performed throughout Europe by the troubadours and trouvères of France. And it was during these "Middle Ages" that Western culture saw the appearance of the first great name in music, Guillaume de Machaut. The Last Supper by Tintoretto The Renaissance Generally considered to be from ca.1420 to 1600, the Renaissance (which literally means "rebirth") was a time of great cultural awakening and a flowering of the arts, letters, and sciences throughout Europe. With the rise of humanism, sacred music began for the first time to break free of the confines of the Church, and a school of composers trained in the Netherlands mastered the art of polyphony in their settings of sacred music. One of the early masters of the Flemish style was Josquin des Prez. These polyphonic traditions reached their culmination in the unsurpassed works of Giovanni da Palestrina. Of course, secular music thrived during this period, and instrumental and dance music was performed in abundance, if not always written down. It was left for others to collect and notate the wide variety of irrepressible instrumental music of the period. The late Renaissance also saw in England the flourishing of the English madrigal, the best known of which were composed by such masters as John Dowland, William Byrd, Thomas Morley and others. Henry IV Receives the Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens The Baroque Age Named after the popular ornate architectural style of the time, the Baroque period (ca.1600 to......

Words: 1263 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Reaissance Muic

...first wife and the pope would not recognize this break of the marriage vow.     Another composer that led the way for new music was Josquin Desprez who was born in Beaurevoir in 1440 and died in Conde in 1521. (Source: www.thinkquest.org) In his early days he was a singer in the Milan Cathedral around the year 1459 and the Papal Chapel, Rome. He wrote three volumes of Masses, over 100 motets, and an English Dance. He often used point of imitation, which is a musical passage that has a tiny musical phrase imitated among many voices. Josquin also used overlapping cadences the next group of voices begin just as the last come to a cadence, allowing the motion to continue. (Source: Jeremy Yudkin “Understanding Music”)     The Renaissance had many artists that provided visual motivation for many composers to write great texts. One of the most influential artists was Leonardo da Vinci who is still famous 500 years later. He helped to create three-dimensional representation and started to work with oils that showed off the lighting and shades of great art. The talent was so large that he could create a self-portrait with such detail, that many thought that he couldn’t have painted it himself.     Renaissance means “rebirth,” and that is exactly what artists, architects, and composers did to create a lasting fame for people like Leonardo da Vinci, Josquin, and Palestrina. Music is an ever-evolving genre and the Renaissance showed that in a matter of 200 years one could create new......

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

My Term Paper

...Justin Williams Research Review 17 June 2012 “The role of affect in attitude formation: A Classical conditioning approach” After review “The role of affect in attitude formation: A Classical conditioning approach” I came to the conclusion that Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to the formation or change of an attitude towards an object following that object’s pairing with positively or negatively valenced stimuli. We provide evidence that EC can occur through an implicit misattribution mechanism in which an evaluative response evoked by a valenced stimulus is incorrectly and implicitly attributed to another stimulus, forming or changing an attitude towards this other stimulus. Five studies measured or manipulated variables related to the potential for the misattribution of an evaluation, or “source confusability.” Greater EC was observed when participants’ eye gaze shifted frequently between a valenced and neutral stimulus (Studies 1 & 2), when the two stimuli appeared in close spatial proximity (Study 3), and when the neutral stimulus was made more perceptually salient than the valenced stimulus due to its larger size (Study 4). In other words, conditions conducive to source confusability increased EC. Study 5 provided evidence for multiple mechanisms of EC by comparing the effects of mildly evocative valenced stimuli (those evoking responses that might more easily be misattributed to another object) to more strongly evocative stimuli. Social psychological theory...

Words: 938 - Pages: 4