The Contingency Approach

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แนวคิดทฤษฎีการบริหารเชิงสถานการณ์ (The contingency approach)

ทฤษฎีการบริหารเชิงสถานการณ์นั้นเป็นแนวคิดการบริหารจัดการที่ผ

ู้บริหารจะปฏิบัติซึ่ง
ขึ้นอยู่กับสถานการณ์ หรือเป็นแนวคิดซึ่งเป็นทางเลือกของผู้บริหารในการกำหนดโครงสร้า

งและระบบควบคุมองค์การ โดยขึ้นอยู่กับสถานการณ์และลักษณะต่าง ๆ ของสภาพแวดล้อมภายนอกที่มีผลกระทบต่อการดำเนินงานขององค์การ หรือเป็นวิธีการที่กล่าวถึงองค์การที่มีลักษณะแตกต่างกันซึ่งต้

องเผชิญกับสถานการณ์ที่แตกต่างกัน และต้องใช้วิธีการบริหารจัดการที่แตกต่างกันด้วย ทฤษฎีการบริหารเชิงสถานการณ์เป็นการประสมประสานแนวคิดในการบริห

ารจัดการที่สำคัญ 4 ประการคือ (1) แนวคิดแบบดั้งเดิม (2) แนวคิดเชิงพฤติกรรม (3) แนวคิดเชิงปริมาณ (4) แนวคิดเชิงระบบ [1]ทฤษฎีองค์การตามสถานการณ์และกรณี (Contingency Theory) เริ่มมีบทบาทประมาณปลายปี ค.ศ.1960 เป็นทฤษฎีที่พัฒนามาจากความคิดอิสระ ที่ว่าองค์การที่เหมาะสมที่สุดควรจะเป็นองค์การที่มีโครงสร้างแ

ละระบบที่สอดคล้องกับสภาพแวดล้อม และสภาพความเป็นจริงขององค์การ ตั้งอยู่บนพื้นฐานการศึกษาสภาพแวดล้อมที่แตกต่างกันของมนุษย์ (Humanistic Environment) ทฤษฎีองค์การตามสถานการณ์และกรณีนี้มีอิสระมาก โดยมีธรรมชาติ (Natural) เป็นตัวแปรและเป็นปัจจัยสำคัญในการกำหนดรูปแบบ กฎเกณฑ์ และระเบียบแบบแผน มีลักษณะเป็นเหตุเป็นผลและสอดคล้องกับสภาพความเป็นจริง สภาพแวดล้อม เป้าหมายขององค์การโดยส่วนรวมและเป้าหมายของสมาชิกทุกคนในองค์ก

าร โดยมีข้อสมมติฐานว่า องค์การที่เหมาะสมที่สุดคือ องค์การที่มีโครงสร้างและรูปแบบที่สอดคล้องกับสภาพแวดล้อมของสั

งคมนั้น ๆ ซึ่งรวมถึงสภาพภูมิศาสตร์ วัฒนธรรม ค่านิยม ความเชื่อ การสนับสนุน และความต้องการของสมาชิกในองค์การนั้นด้วย บุคคลที่กำหนดชื่อทฤษฎีองค์การตามสถานการณ์ และกรณีคือ Fiedler นอกจากนั้นก็มี Woodward, Lawrence และ Lorsch ได้ทำการวิจัยศึกษาเรื่องนี้ [2]การบริหารตามสถานการณ์ เป็นแนวคิดที่ว่าไม่มีทฤษฎีหรือวิธีการทางการบริหารวิธีใดที่จะ

นำไปใช้ได้ทุกสถานการณ์หรือไม่มีรูปแบบการบริหารแบบใดดีที่สุด การบริหารแต่ละแบบและแต่ละวิธีจะก่อให้เกิดผลแตกต่างกันตามสภาว…...

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