Subliminal Perception

In: Science

Submitted By neklav12
Words 667
Pages 3
Subliminal and Supraliminal Perception/Extra- Sensory Perception

Margin, Valkenburgh Mergillano
February 29, 2016
Dr. Evangeline M. De Jesus / General Psychology


Perception is a process that combines both sensing and interpreting. Information from the outside world comes through our senses. The information is then interpreted, and this interpretation gives meaning to what is sensed. The process of interpreting or giving meaning to the stimulus received by the senses. The stimulus energy transmitted to the brain by the nerve impulses. Then the mind interprets the stimulus. Thus, sensation is a prerequisite to perception. Sensation is to the sense organ while perception is to the brain. Sensation is simple and perception a complex process in which understanding intervenes. Perception is preceded by sensation. The number of our sensory systems will give rise to the same number of perceptual systems. We live in a visually-oriented world where almost everything that can give meaning to us stimulated our sense of sight. Scientists believe the human brain is the most complex structure in the universe. In addition to ruling perception, your brain controls your moods, memory, moments, body function and imagination. If the primary function of sensation is to take in information, the primary function of perception is to help us make sense of that information. Research on hypnosis has confirmed that unconscious influences are possible. Subliminal perception occurs whenever stimuli presented below the threshold or limen for awareness are found to influence thoughts, feelings, or actions. The term subliminal perception was originally used to describe situations in which weak stimuli were perceived without awareness. In recent years, the term has been applied more generally to describe any situation in which unnoticed stimuli…...

Similar Documents


...Perception and Decision Making Sharon P The controller introduced the office to the new employee; I had a feeling that she would not last a month in her new position. She was confident about her skills but she seemed overwhelmed by how we function in the office. When meeting new people within an organization you begin to watch, listen and learn how they are going to function. Working in a big company just by word of mouth you get a feel of the people that are going to be around you on a daily basis. Making quick judgments or selective perception of people could possibly bring down the morale of an organization. You not only hinder the ability of all people to work together, but because you already have bad feelings toward a person (s), you fail to work together and instead hinder yourself from being a better employee or co-worker. If we use the halo effect of perception one bad characteristic of a person could also cloud the way we work together. At the time of the first meeting, that person could have had outside factors that have either made them seem distant or even uptight. Now if the person seems to be the happiest person in the world on the first meeting and you think that they will be the best person to work with could also side swipe you when you find out that they actually have a really bad attitude when they do not get there way. The contrast effect would probably be one of the worst perception shortcuts that we could ever use in an organization. When we......

Words: 940 - Pages: 4


...GERARDO PEREZ-GARCIA 20120415 Y33-41-8925 DEP2000 REACTION PAPER WHAT IS PERCEPTION? Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and actions in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. Perception not only creates our experience of the world around us; it allows us to act within our environment. Perception includes the five senses; touch, sight, taste smell and taste. It also includes what is known as proprioception, a set of senses involving the ability to detect changes in body positions and movements. It also involves the cognitive processes required to process information, such as recognizing the face of a friend or detecting a familiar scent. When it comes down to our understanding of the world it is ultimately the result of our sensual means of perception. In other terms, can we really trust the truth, or anything that we know of scientifically? What does it mean to know something is true and also why it is important to distinguish between what you know and do not or cannot know? It is very difficult to be able to believe everything you hear, unless you experience it for yourself. Let’s say that perception is like viewing through goggles. If the tint of the goggles is green, the world appears green; if it’s black the world too becomes black. You want to see poverty,......

Words: 976 - Pages: 4


...Social Learning Theory and Perception NAME Strayer University Online Business 520 Dr. Irene Zoppi 4 November 2012 Social Learning Theory and Perception Case Study Discuss how Joe could address the importance of understanding how people form perceptions and make attributions about others with his employees. Joe Salantino, as the President of the Great Northern American, has the charge of creating a successful sales force. A successful element in creating this successful sales force is the understanding of the perception of the sales team. According to Hellriegel & Slocum, perception “is the declaration of the way individuals sift, arrange, and interpret sensory information”. (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2011). It is Joe’s responsibility constantly assess the team develop a model and atmosphere that reflects his idea of type of people he envisions for his sales team. Also, this would include the development of a model for his sales team to use to screen customers and create a repeat customer base, which according to the case study, he believes is critical to become a top performer. Joe’s model should consider various internal and external factors that coincide with the vision that he believes makes up a successful sales force. The internal factors include learning, personality and motivation while the external ones consist of size, contrast, repetition, and intensity. These factors must be conveyed to the......

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

Does Subliminal Advertising Really Work?

...Does subliminal advertising really work? What is subliminal perception? Subliminal perception occurs whenever stimuli is presented below the threshold, or limen, for awareness. These stimuli are thought to influence thoughts, feelings or actions. Advertising is one of the most important things in our economy. The main objective of advertising is to sell. The main objective of a company is to sell their goods and services. Companies use advertising to promote their services. Advertising is a big business. Companies spend millions of dollars promoting their products. It is an extremely competitive market. Companies are always striving to find new and innovative ways to reach the consumer and retain their loyalty. Subliminal messaging in advertising has always been a controversial topic. This began in the 1950’s when James Vicary, a marketing expert, claimed to influence consumer choices by subliminally flashing a brand name during a movie showing. He claimed that he had increased the sales of Coca-Cola by 57.7% and popcorn by 18.1% by subliminally interjecting the phrases “Drink Coca-Cola” and “Eat Popcorn” into a showing at a movie theatre(Bermeitinger,Golez, Johr, Neuman, Ecker, Doerr, 2009). In the decades following Vicary’s experiment, marketers, filmmakers and politicians tried to follow and achieve the same success of Vicary’s claim of subliminal messaging success(Stroebe &Wolfgang, 2012). Few, if any,...

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Subliminal Marketing

...Subliminal Marketing ..What you see, what you smell, what you feel and think is all a part of a market strategy Ever wondered why you always end up walking out of the supermarkets with huge shopping bags? If you analyze, half of the things you buy are on impulse. Why do we usually have fresh sweet smelling flowers or the perfume section at the entrance of shopping malls? The answer is easily understood by marketing student/executive – the fragrance enhances a 40% increase in good mood. It relaxes our senses and gives us a happy feeling. We tend to buy more in a happy mood. The placement of consumer-goods to enhance impulsive buying behavior is an old tactic now. Today, what you see, what you smell is all a part of a market strategy –like inducing a “symbolic pleasant mood”, packing food in ice, fresh water droplets on the fruits and veggies is an example of “hedonics to excite your senses”. For that matter the series of images you see before you finally reach a showroom is also a part of the marketing strategy. Subliminal marketing is a technique of exposing the consumers to pictures, to products, to brand names, to colors and scenes or other such marketing stimuli without the consumers being consciously aware. The human brain reacts to these stimuli without the consumer even being aware. The brain decodes and develops a power to acknowledge the stimuli. A study of Functional magnetic Resonance Imaging shows that subliminal stimuli activate specific region of the brain.......

Words: 967 - Pages: 4


...Perception affects communication because people perceive things that are being said how they want to perceive it. One person can take things being said in a different way than how someone else takes it. If things are taken the wrong way, communication can get angry or hurtful. According to Robbins, perception can be defined as ‘a process by which individuals organise and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment’ (2004, p. 132). Perception is not necessarily based on reality, but is merely a perspective from a particular individual’s view of a situation. In dealing with the concept of organisational behaviour, perception becomes important because ‘people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself; the world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important’ (Robbins et al 2004, p.132). Perception affects our working relationships in many ways relating to the factors of organisational behaviour, such as: individual, group or structure. For example, based on the situation, perceiver and target we may have the perception that the people we are working with are no good at their job, and therefore we may tend to avoid working with them, in fear of being held responsible for their mistakes, and in doing so, affecting our working relationship with our team members, and ultimately, the effectiveness and efficiency of the organisation. Alternatively, it may affect the group within the......

Words: 705 - Pages: 3


...How a Publicity Biitz Created The iVIyth of Subliminal Advertising By Stuart Rogers I n September 1957, I began what to me was a serious study of contemporary applied psychology at Hofstra C'ollege in Hempstead, Long Island. At exactly the same time, in nearby New York City, an unemployed market researcher named James M. Vicary made a startling announcement based on research in high-speed photography later popularized by Eastman Kodak Company. The Tachistoscope Some time before, a device had been developed that could emit a flash of white light at a speed of I/60,000th ol a second. It was called the tachistoscope. The light pulse of the tachistoscope was so fast that it was imperceptible to human consciousness—what I was learning as a psychology student to call "subliminal." because it was below ("sub") the threshold ("limen") of human perception. The work done for Kodak involved a tachistoscope providing illumination in a pitch-dark studio for a large-lens camera with an open aperture. In one series of experiments, the flash of the tachistoscope was triggered electronically by the sound of a rifle shot, and the image of a bullet in flight was frozen on color film. Perhaps you have seen samples of these remarkable photographs hanging on the walls of your local camera store. Retainers and Consulting Fees Armed with the scientific sound of "tachistoscope,** Vicary invented a sparkling new pseudoscience, and proceeded to contact the CEOs, marketing directors, and......

Words: 4186 - Pages: 17


...PERCEPTION 1. We all see the world in our own way, and interpret it differently. Several people can see the same incident and give very different accounts. 2. Senses differ from perception 3. For marketers, consumers perceptions are much more important than their knowledge of objective reality. "Reality" is an individuals perception of what has taken place. 4. What people think or believe is in many ways more important than what really is 5. Perception is defined as "how we see the world around us" our perception is based on our needs, values, expectations 6. Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organises and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world (stimulus = input to the senses). 7. Sensation = immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to simple stimuli eg. an advertisement, a brand name, a package. 8. ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD = point at which a person can detect a difference between something and nothing. It is different for each individual - adaptation = getting used to a sensation senses becoming dulled to it, because of adaptation, advertisers try to change their campaign regularly, use attention gaining techniques eg. samples, stunts etc. Packaging also is designed to stand out from the rest, to gain attention. i.e. if you sense the same thing over and over again you will become bored with it and turn off from it. 9. DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD = minimal difference between two......

Words: 1105 - Pages: 5


...Perception is a very powerful thing many people rely heavily on other people’s perceptions of them. I myself rely on the fact that people find me to be knowledgeable as well as someone that is easy to talk to in order to do my job well. This paper will help me to understand how perception works through doing an analysis of what three observers declared were their perceptions of a photograph. In this paper, I will explain the steps of the perception process; as well as provide descriptions of my observers as well as explanations as to how their backgrounds may have affected their perceptions. Finally I will look into my observer’s perceptions by analyzing their thoughts. There are three steps in the perception process in this section I will discuss those steps. Step one is selection: which is defined as focusing more on one group of things than another. We do this because our brain is so overloaded with information everyday that it is forced to only focus on certain things. The second step is organization: which can be defined as putting our thoughts about things that seem to fit together, together in order to remember them better. This happens in a moment as soon as we see something our brain automatically assigns it to an area of our brain that holds similar knowledge. The third and final step is interpretation: which can be defined as determining the meaning of certain events or interactions. This step is where we give meaning to what we......

Words: 814 - Pages: 4


...(12 marks). b) Assess the way in which such studies help to explain the development of perception (12 marks). In the following essay I intend to describe two studies of perceptual development. I then intend to assess such studies and how they help to explain the development of perception. By perceptual development, I mean how animals and humans alike develop their seeing capabilities. This development of perception could be learnt or innate. By innate, I mean to be born with the ability. a) Gibson and Walk conducted a study in 1960. The study was investigating Depth Perception. The study involved a 6-month-old child, 24-hour-old chicks, kids and lambs. Gibson and Walk used a 'Visual Cliff' to conduct the study. The 'Visual Cliff' was comprised of 2 floors. On one side there was a check-board pattern, on the other side there is glass floor. Below the glass floor there was another floor with check-board pattern. This was placed so that an illusion of a cliff and depth was created. At first the child was placed and was found to be reluctant to go onto the glass. The child's reluctance could be seen as even with encouragement from the child's mother, the child refused to go onto the glass. The study was continued on chicks, kids and lambs. All subjects studied refused to go onto the glass. Held and Hein conducted a study in 1965. The study was investigating Depth Perception. The study involved two kittens. The kittens were kept in the dark for a period......

Words: 370 - Pages: 2


...Perception To think critically is to gather thoroughness. One must understand and be able to explain all terminology. The places from which information came from must be able to be identified and questions should be developed to modify the current conclusion. These principles do not necessarily apply to ethical reasoning. Ethical reasoning usually consist on ideas that are somewhat measured by compassion along with what is thought of as justice or sufficient. Critical thinking paints a clear and cut picture of a situation while ethical reasoning is measuring right or wrong. Critical thinking involves using logic to arrive at a conclusion without regards to morals or virtues. Ethical reasoning is used to arrive at morally sound decisions. The Blood Money scenario presents the ethical dilemma of the black market human organ transplant operation in China. Logically speaking, it is a medically sound practice to transplant donated organs to qualified patients in order to improve their quality of life. However, the proliferation of the Chinese government to procure the organs of condemned prisoners for the sake of profiting from an illegal and unregulated practice is morally reprehensible. Making ethical choices involves critical thinking abilities when addressing large populations or even small groups. The solutions to a big problem may resolve the issue for a majority of the people, but what is good for the majority may not be the solution for the minority. Ethical......

Words: 281 - Pages: 2

Subliminal Messages

...Subliminal Messages: Messages Occurring Daily Brianna Ortiz Tarleton State University According to Aronson, Wilson, and Akert, a subliminal message is defined as words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people’s judgments attitudes, and behaviors. This can be included in multiple examples of media that surrounds our everyday lives. Subliminal perception is characterized by perception without awareness (Weinberger 2008). Subliminal messages are strategically placed in advertisements, movies, television shows, commercials, magazines, and just so many other places that we just dont even realize. Subliminal messages aren’t just limited to visual images; they can be hidden in audio messaging or music. With so much exposure that is normally unknown or unnoticed to us, what is the real reason we are being subjected to these messages? Better yet, who is sending out these subliminal messages to the masses? And why are they doing so? Subliminal messages are everywhere. One place that they can be discovered is in music. Music is a very powerful tool that so many people rely on for a source of comfort and escape. Numerous people use music to express themselves in various ways which is absolutely fantastic outlet. As a form of expression, subliminal messages can contaminate that precious escape from the real world. Egermann claims that there are five different way that subliminal messages are embedded into music. The first way is to......

Words: 1515 - Pages: 7

Subliminal Perception & Extra Sensory Perception

...Subliminal Perception & Extra Sensory Perception Subliminal Perception is the ability to notice stimuli that affect only the unconscious mind. This concept used subliminal messages, which are brief auditory or visual messages presented below the absolute threshold so that there is less than 50 percent chance that they will be perceived. In a state-of-the-art technology, subliminal perception is done by continually flashing a message through computerized digital words on a screen at a very fast speed. The repeated flashing stimulates the potential or prospective buyers to unconsciously absorb the message. If the message in a TV advertisement during commercial break, is to eat pizza pie at Pizza Hut, generally consumers whenever feel hungry they tend to go to Pizza Hut and order pizza pie. On the other hand, supraliminal perception is the perception of stimuli that are above level of consciousness or awareness. Experiences that can be evoked by sensory receptors are strong enough to perceive and remember. Extrasensory Perception is the perception of objects or events through means other than sensory organs. Eyes, ears, mouth, nose and skin are sense organs used for personal experience to the external world. Bem and Honorton presented “psi”, as unusual processes of information or energy transfer that are currently unexplained in terms of known physical or biological mechanisms. ESP experiences are described below: 1. Telepathy – It is a direct......

Words: 2505 - Pages: 11


...Why are the perceptions you have of your skills usually different from the perceptions that others have of your skills Why Do Differences in Perception Occur? The way you sense the world—the way you see, hear, smell, touch, and taste—is subjective, uniquely your own. Nobody else sees the world the way you do, and nobody experiences events exactly as you do. The uniqueness of human experience is based largely on differences in perception—“the process of becoming aware of objects and events from the senses” (DeVito, 1986) Perception is subjective, active, and creative. Active perception means that your mind selects, organizes, and interprets that which you sense. So each person is a different video camera, and each person aims the camera at different things; each person’s lens is different; each person sees different colours; and each person’s audio picks up different sounds. Perception is subjective in that you interpret what you sense; you make it your own, and you add to and subtract from what you see, hear, smell, and touch. Subjective perception is your uniquely constructed meaning attributed to sensed stimuli. So, why do differences in perception occur? Differences in perception may be the result of physiological factors, people’s past experiences and roles, their cultures and co-cultures, and their present feelings and circumstances. Physiological Factors You are not physiologically identical to anyone else. People differ from each other in sex, height...

Words: 1026 - Pages: 5

Subliminal Advertising

...SUBLIMINAL SUBLIMINAL ADVERTISING ADVERTISING S UBLIMINAL ADVERTISING Intergrated Term Project Rakhi Jerly Semster 5 Fashion Communication Design What is Advertising? “Paid non-personal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade or influence an audience. “ (Wells, Burnett, & Moriaty 1998) Criticism for advertising: While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without social costs. Unsolicited commercial e-mail and other forms of spam have become so prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on internet service providers. Advertising is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation. In addition, advertising frequently uses psychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) on the intended consumer, which may be harmful. Human psycology and Advertising: The human being is a complex creature. The same complexity that gives us the ability to manipulate objects also makes us vulnerable to manipulation. It is very Important for advertisers to study the human psycology and consumer behaviour inorder to exert maximun influence on target consumers. They aim at the vulnerabilities of human mind. A successfull ad agency is one which “manipulates human motivations and desires and develops a need for goods with......

Words: 4416 - Pages: 18