Social Pedagogy

In: Social Issues

Submitted By susieuna
Words 1140
Pages 5
ONTOLÓGIA – náuka o bytí
- pochádza z gréckeho slova – ontos – bytie, súcno, to, čo je, čo existuje
- už v období pred Sokratom, hľadala prírodná filozofia základný princíp celku sveta, základnú pralátku – ARCHÉ (voda, vzduch, apeiron, oheň..) za zakladateľa sa považuje Aristoteles, otcom pojmu bytia je však Parmenides potom ustupuje do pozadia, Ch.Wolf ju uzákonil ako samostatnú filozofickú disciplínu (1730) v diele Ontológia
- meontológia - uvažovanie o nebytí nech myslíme na akýkoľvek predmet, vec, nech je akokoľvek vzdialený aj naším zmyslom, vždy bude mať jednu vlastnosť a to, že bude existovať
Základné ontologické pojmy :
1. SÚCNO :
- podstata, to, čo je existuje sama o sebe (krieda)
- niečo, čo je trvalé, je jediné a stále, nemôže mať hranice, nemôže mať počiatok ani koniec
- je istou stálosťou, aktuálny stav substancie sa nazýva MODUS AKCIDENCIA
- určuje substanciu, jav, prejav toho, čo je , neexistuje sama o seba, bez substancie
- je to, čo ďalej určuje substanciu
- akcidencia môže byť náhodná alebo veci vlastná (človek má ruky, nohy..)
Aristoteles určil 4 príčiny (princípy) súcna : látková (tehly), formálna (štvorec) činná (staviteľ),účelová (na bývanie)
Učenia podľa rozličného chápania súcna : * REALIZMUS – súcno existuje vo svojej konkrétnej podobe nezávislé od myslenia * FENOMENALIZMUS - súcno je nám len čiastočne prístupné * IDEALIZMUS – súcno existuje hlavne ako duchovný princíp * MATERIALIZMUS – súcno má materiálnu povahu, nie duchovnú * MONIZMUS – existuje len jediný základný princíp a všetko sa od neho odvíja * PLURALIZMUS – existuje niekoľko princípov skutočnosti
* je každé súcno (celkovo) * predmet na ktorý myslíme, o ktorom hovoríme * konkrétna časovo…...

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