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“Quality Associates, Incorporated (QAI) was established in 1986 to provide quality assurance and regulatory services to the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. A corollary service offering was the archiving of scientific records, so it was not long before QAI developed strong capabilities in electronic document management.

Today QAI maintains a broad client base that includes federal and state agencies, chemical and manufacturing companies, financial and accounting firms, law firms, and medical and research facilities.

Currently, QAI provides services in these areas: Information Services, Quality Assurance & Scientific Support, and Archiving.” (Quality Associates Incorporated)

They advise their clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control their manufacturing processes. The data required for the study giving to QA from the client, a sample of 800 observations taken during a time in which that client’s process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation was 0.21 and population standard deviation was assumed to be 0.21. QA suggested taking random samples of size 30 occasionally to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. The client could quickly learn whether the process was operation reasonably and if not, corrective action could be taken to remove the problem. The design specification indicated the mean for the process should be 12. The hypothesis test suggested by Quality Associates follows.

H0: u = 12

H1: u ≠ 12

Corrective action will be taken any time H0 is rejected. Conducting the hypothesis test for each sample

The population of interest is 800 and each of four samples, each of size 30, collected at hourly intervals during the first day of operation of the new statistical control procedure.

The two tables below shows the output of one-sample statistics test that shows the…...

...Chapter 9 Hypothesis Testing Case Problem 1: Quality Associates, Inc. 1. The hypothesis testing results are shown below: Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample Size 30 30 30 30 Mean 11.959 12.029 11.889 12.081 Standard Deviation 0.220 0.220 0.207 0.206 Level of Significance (alpha) 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 Critical Value (lower tail) -2.576 -2.576 -2.576 -2.576 Critical Value (upper tail) 2.576 2.576 2.576 2.576 Hypothesized value 12 12 12 12 Standard Error 0.040 0.040 0.038 0.038 Test Statistic -1.027 0.713 -2.935 2.161 p-value 0.304 0.476 0.003 0.031 Only sample 3 leads to the rejection of the hypothesis H0: µ = 12. Thus, corrective action is warranted for sample 3. The other samples indicate H0 cannot be rejected and thus from all we can tell, the process is operating satisfactorily. Sample 3 with = 11.89 shows the process is operating below the desired mean. Sample 4 with = 12.08 is on the high side, but the p-value of .03 is not sufficient to reject H0. 2. The sample standard deviations for all four samples are in the .20 to .22 range. It appears that the process population standard deviation assumption of .21 is good. 3. With α = .01, z.005 = 2.576. Using the standard error of the mean =0.0383, the upper and lower control limits are computed as follows: Upper Control Limit = 12 + 2.576 (0.0383) = 12.0987 Lower Control Limit = 12 - 2.576 (0.0383) = 11.9013 As long as a sample mean is between......

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...compliance with the terms of this Agreement. Except as provided in this Agreement, DNA shall have no right to sublicense, transfer or assign the use of the Trademarks or to use the Trademarks for any other purpose. DNA further agrees not to use the Trademarks on or in connection with any products or services that are or would generally be regarded as obscene or pornographic by the standards applicable in the United States; or disparaging of Dwango or its products or services; or that are unlawful or whose purpose is to encourage unlawful activities by others. 4.2. Quality Standards. If DNA uses the Trademarks in connection with the DNA Developed Technology and/or DWANGO Related Technology, DNA agrees to maintain a consistent level of quality of the DNA Developed Technology made available thereunder, substantially equal to that found in DNAs products and Web site services. DNA further agrees to maintain a level of quality of the DNA Developed Technology in connection with its use of the Trademarks that is consistent with general industry standards. 6 R oy al ty 3.2 Ownership of Domain Name. DNA hereby agrees to transfer all right, title and interest in the domain name "www.dwango.com" to DWANGO upon termination of this Agreement. St at all good will from the use of the Trademarks by DNA shall inure to the benefit of DWANGO. DNA agrees that nothing in this Agreement shall give DNA any right, title or interest in the Trademarks other than the right to use the......

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...Harvard Business School 9-293-024 Rev. December 16, 1994 BEA Associates: Enhanced Equity Index Funds On the afternoon of July 13, 1992, Messrs. Jeffrey Geller and David DeRosa, derivatives portfolio managers at BEA Associates, were considering alternative ways of investing the assets of a new $100 million enhanced index account. They wanted to find the most attractive combination of derivative and cash market positions to achieve the client's objective which was to outperform the S&P 500 stock index by 50 basis points in a low risk manner. The alternatives included the use of over-the-counter equity swaps, a relatively new financial instrument that had proliferated in recent years. BEA Associates BEA Associates was an investment advisory firm founded as Basic Economic Appraisals in 1934. As of March 31, 1992, the firm managed $15.4 billion representing over 164 institutional clients. Its separate accounts clients were principally corporate, public, and multiemployer pension funds, and foundations and endowments. BEA also managed several mutual and commingled funds, and a number of closed-end country funds. The firm employed 33 investment professionals—most of whom had 10 years or more of experience—and 76 support staff. BEA offered a variety of specialized investment management services grouped under equities ($3.4 billion), fixed income ($5.6 billion), derivative-based strategies ($5 billion), and international equities ($1.6 billion). (See Exhibit 1). The firm......

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...Quality Associates, Inc., a consulting firm, advises its clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control their manufacturing processes. In one particular application, a client gave Quality Associates a sample of 800 observations taken during a time in which that client’s process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation for these data was .21; hence, with so much data, the population standard deviation was assumed to be .21. Quality Associates then suggested that random samples of size 30 be taken periodically to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. By analyzing the new samples, the client could quickly learn whether the process was operating satisfactorily. When the process was not operating satisfactorily, corrective action could be taken to eliminate the problem. The design specification indicated the mean for the process should be 12. The hypothesis test suggested by Quality Associates follows. H0: μ = 12 Ha: μ ≠ 12 Corrective action will be taken any time H0 is rejected. The following samples were collected at hourly intervals during the first day of operation of the new statistical process control procedure. These data are available in the data set Quality. Managerial Report 1. Conduct a hypothesis test for each sample at the .01 level of significance and determine what action, if any, should be taken. Provide the test statistic and p-value for each test. 2. Compute the standard deviation for each of the......

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...22035603 Sample 3 Standard Deviation = 0.207170594 Sample 4 Standard Deviation = 0.206108999 Yes it appears reasonable since our 4 samples have standard deviations just above .21 in 2 cases and just below .21 in 2 cases. The average standard deviation for the four samples is .2094. Based on our 4 samples, the standard deviation for the population appears to be slightly lower than .21, but not much. 3) Compute limits for the sample mean x-bar around mu=12 such that, as long as new sample mean is within those limits, the process will be deemed to be operating satisfactorily. If x-bar exceeds the upper limit or is below the lower limit, corrective action will be taken. These limits are referred to as upper and lower control limits for quality control purposes. Upper Limit: μ + 3 σx-- = 12 + 3(.21/√30) = 12.115 Lower Limit: μ - 3 σx-- = 12 – 3(.21/√30) = 11.885 This shows that sample 3 is very close to falling below the lower limit and would need corrective action, but at the current time all 4 samples are within this range for performing satisfactorily. 4) Discuss the implications of changing the level of significance to a larger value. What mistake or error could increase if the level of significance is increased? The larger the level of significance, the smaller our interval will be. This will result in more Type 1 Errors as more null hypotheses are rejected since we have a narrower critical region and a wider rejection region with an increased alpha....

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...Chapter 20 Statistical Quality Control GOALS When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to: • Discuss the role of quality control in production and service operations • Define and understand the terms chance cause, assignable cause, in control, out of control, attribute, and variable • Construct and interpret a Pareto chart • Construct and interpret a fishbone diagram • Construct and interpret a mean and range chart • Construct and interpret a percent defective and a c-bar chart • • Discuss acceptance sampling Construct an operating characteristic curve for various sampling plans. W ter A. Shewhart (1891–1967) al W 1498 1548 1598 1648 1698 1748 1898 1948 2000 ith the advent of industrial revolution in the 19th century, mass production replaced manufacturing in small shops by skilled craftsman and artisans. While in the small shops the individual worker was completely responsible for the quality of the work, this was no longer true in mass production where each individual’s contribution to the finished product constituted only an insignificant part in the total process. The quality control by the large companies was achieved with the help of quality inspectors responsible for checking a 100 percent inspection of all the important characteristics. Dr. Walter A. Shewhart, called the father of quality control analysis, developed the concepts of statistical quality control. For the purpose of controlling quality, Shewhart developed charting techniques......

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...Case Problem 1: Quality Associates, Inc. 0 pts ended Anonymous Quality Associates, Inc., a consulting firm, advises its clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control their manufacturing processes. IN one particular application, a client game quality associates a sample of 800 observations taken during a time in which that client's process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation for there data was .21 ; hence, with so much data, the population standard deviation was assumed to be .21. Quality associates then suggested that random samples of size 30 be taken periodically to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. BY analyzing the new samples, the client could quickly learn whether the process was operating satisfactorily. when the process was not operating satisfactorily, corrective action could be take to eliminate the problem. the design specification indicated the mean for the process should be 12. the hypothesis test suggested Quality Associates follows. : μ=12 : μ12 Corrective action will be take any time H0 is rejected. The following samples were collected at hourly intervals during the first day of operation of the new statistical process control procedure. These data are available in the data set Quality . Sample 1 | Sample 2 | Sample 3 | Sample 4 | 11.55 | 11.62 | 11.91 | 12.02 | 11.62 | 11.69 | 11.36 | 12.02 | 11.52 | 11.59 | 11.75 | 12.05 | 11.75 | 11.82 | 11.95 | 12.18 | 11.90 | 11.97 |......

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...1. State the null and the alternative hypotheses in this scenario (4 pts): A new sales force bonus plan is developed in an attempt to increase sales. Null hypothesis: New bonus plan does not increase sales. Alternative hypothesis:--New bonus plan increases sales. 2. For this question refer to Case Problem 1 (Quality Associates Inc.) on page 410 of your text (30 pts) Sample 1 1) H0: μ = 12 Ha: μ ≠ 12 2) α = .01, but for two-tail test will = .005 3) Z = (x-bar – μ) / (σ/√n) 4) Z Critical value at .005 = 2.575 5) Z = (11.9587 – 12) / (.21/√30) = -1.077187 The observed value lies outside the rejection region, so we fail to reject H0. 6) P –value is between .2814 for a two-tailed test Sample 2 1) H0: μ = 12 Ha: μ ≠ 12 2) α = .01, but for two-tail test will = .005 3) Z = (x-bar – μ) / (σ/√n) 4) Z Critical value at .005 = 2.575 5) Z = (12.0287 – 12) / (.21/√30) = .74855 The observed value lies outside the rejection region, so we fail to reject H0. 6) P-value is 0.4541 for a two-tailed test Sample 3 1) H0: μ = 12 Ha: μ ≠ 12 2) α = .01, but for two-tail test will = .005 3) Z = (x-bar – μ) / (σ/√n) 4) Z Critical value at .005 = 2.575 5) Z = (11.889 – 12) / (.21/√30) = - 2.895 The observed value lies inside the rejection region, so we reject H0. 6) P-Value is .0038 for a two-tailed test Sample 4 1) H0: μ = 12 Ha: μ ≠ 12 2) α = .01, but for two-tail test will = .005 3) Z = (x-bar – μ) / (σ/√n) ......

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...Question Case Analysis 2 Quality Associates, Inc., a consulting firm, advises its clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control their manufacturing process. In one particular application, a client gave Quality Associates a sample of 800 observations taken during a time in which that client�s process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation for these data was 0.218; hence. With so much data, the population standard deviation was assumed to be 0.218. Quality Associates then suggested that random samples of size 30 be taken periodically to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. By analyzing the new samples, the client could quickly learn whether the process was operating satisfactorily. When the process was not operating satisfactorily, corrective action could be taken to eliminate the problem. The design specification indicated the mean for the process should be 12. The hypothesis test suggested by Quality Associates follows. ??0: ?? = 12 ????: ?? ? 12 Corrective action will be taken anytime ??0 is rejected. The following samples were collected at hourly intervals during the first day of operation of the new statistical process control procedure. These data are available in the data set �Quality�. Questions) 1. Conduct a hypothesis test for each sample at the 0.05 level of significance and determine what action, if any, should be taken. Provide the test statistic and p-value for each test. Answer this using at least 150......

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...and Morris 2014). The inﬂuential McKinsey studies that use PISA data to identify high-performing systems have similar shortcomings, by assuming causality between features and outcomes and ignoring evidence that may question and qualify achievements of systems such as Hong Kong (Braun 2008; Morris 2012; Auld and Morris 2014). The Oates (2010) study of other curricula, used by the government to inform the review of the National Curriculum, also lacks substantive contextual evidence from the systems it looks to, despite acknowledging the pitfalls of borrowing that ignores context (Auld and Morris 2014). Some policymakers, the media and the OECD itself appear to assume that success in international tests predominantly reﬂects the quality of formal schooling and policies behind it, which may not be the case – cultural and historical factors and wider social inequalities also play an important part (Sellar and Lingard 2013). The role played by factors outside schools, including parental support and private supplementary tutoring that drills students to perform well in examinations, is ignored in the current policy discourse in England. Indeed, Kwo and Bray (2011) argue that private tutoring in Hong Kong has extended and intensiﬁed over the last decade, contrary to policy intentions to reduce the prevalence of drilling for examinations (CDI et al. 2013). If international league tables are to be used as a reference for educational policy transfer, we would argue......

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...Hypothesis Quality Associates, Inc. is a consulting firm that advises its clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control manufacturing processes. In one case, a client provided Quality Associates with a sample of 800 observations that were taken during a time when the client's process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation for these data was .21, hence, the population standard deviation was assumed to be .21. Quality Associates then suggested that random samples of size 30 be taken periodically to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. By analyzing the new samples, the client could quickly learn whether the process was operating satisfactorily. When the process was not operating satisfactorily, corrective action could be taken to eliminate the problem. The design specification indicated that the mean for the process should be 12. The hypothesis test suggested by Quality Associates follows: H0: μ=12 Ha: μ≠ 12 Corrective action will be taken when H0 is rejected. Samples collected during the first day of operation of the new statistical process-control procedure are in the file Quality.xls. The URL to this dataset is A. Conduct a hypothesis test for each sample at the .01 level of significance and determine what action, if any should be taken, Answer H0: μ=12 Ha: μ≠ 12 Test Statistic used is Z test Decision rule: Reject null hypothesis, if the value of test statistic is greater the critical value...

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...Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 11.55 11.62 11.91 12.02 11.62 11.69 11.36 12.02 11.52 11.59 11.75 12.05 11.75 11.82 11.95 12.18 11.90 11.97 12.14 12.11 11.64 11.71 11.72 12.07 11.80 11.87 11.61 12.05 12.03 12.10 11.85 11.64 11.94 12.01 12.16 12.39 11.92 11.99 11.91 11.65 12.13 12.20 12.12 12.11 12.09 12.16 11.61 11.90 11.93 12.00 12.21 12.22 12.21 12.28 11.56 11.88 12.32 12.39 11.95 12.03 11.93 12.00 12.01 12.35 11.85 11.92 12.06 12.09 11.76 11.83 11.76 11.77 12.16 12.23 11.82 12.20 11.77 11.84 12.12 11.79 12.00 12.07 11.60 12.30 12.04 12.11 11.95 12.27 11.98 12.05 11.96 12.29 12.30 12.37 12.22 12.47 12.18 12.25 11.75 12.03 11.97 12.04 11.96 12.17 12.17 12.24 11.95 11.94 11.85 11.92 11.89 11.97 12.30 12.37 11.88 12.23 12.15 12.22 11.93 12.25 11.96 12.03 11.89 12.08 0.216652315 0.216652307 0.203688488 0.202644736...

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...Quality Associates, Inc., a consulting firm, advises its clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control their manufacturing processes. IN one particular application, a client game quality associates a sample of 800 observations taken during a time in which that client's process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation for there data was .21 ; hence, with so much data, the population standard deviation was assumed to be .21. Quality associates then suggested that random samples of size 30 be taken periodically to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. BY analyzing the new samples, the client could quickly learn whether the process was operating satisfactorily. when the process was not operating satisfactorily, corrective action could be take to eliminate the problem. the design specification indicated the mean for the process should be 12. the hypothesis test suggested Quality Associates follows. : μ=12 : μ12 Corrective action will be take any time H0 is rejected. The following samples were collected at hourly intervals during the first day of operation of the new statistical process control procedure. These data are available in the data set Quality . Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample......

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...Case Problem 1: Quality Associates, Inc. Question Details Quality Associates, Inc., a consulting firm, advises its clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control their manufacturing processes. IN one particular application, a client game quality associates a sample of 800 observations taken during a time in which that client's process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation for there data was .21 ; hence, with so much data, the population standard deviation was assumed to be .21. Quality associates then suggested that random samples of size 30 be taken periodically to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. BY analyzing the new samples, the client could quickly learn whether the process was operating satisfactorily. when the process was not operating satisfactorily, corrective action could be take to eliminate the problem. the design specification indicated the mean for the process should be 12. the hypothesis test suggested Quality Associates follows. : µ=12 : µ12 Corrective action will be take any time H0 is rejected. The following samples were collected at hourly intervals during the first day of operation of the new statistical process control procedure. These data are available in the data set Quality . Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4 11.55 11.62 11.91 12.02 11.62 11.69 11.36 12.02 11.52 11.59 11.75 12.05 11.75 11.82 11.95 12.18 11.90 11.97 12.14 12.11 11.64 11.71 ...

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...Quality Associates, Ins. Quality Associates, Ins., a consulting firm, advises its clients about sampling and statistical procedures that can be used to control their manufacturing processes. In one particular application, a client gave Quality Associates a sample of 800 observations taken during a time in which that client’s process was operating satisfactorily. The sample standard deviation for these data was .21; hence, with so much data, the population standard deviation was assumed to be .21. Quality Associates then suggested that random samples of size 30 be taken periodically to monitor the process on an ongoing basis. By analyzing the new samples, the client could quickly learn whether the process was operating satisfactorily. When the process was not operating satisfactorily, corrective action could be taken to eliminate the problem. The design specification indicated the mean for the process should be 12. The hypothesis test suggested by Quality Associates follows. Ho: = 12 Ha: 12 Corrective action will be taken any time Ho rejected. The following samples were collected at hourly intervals during the first day of operation of the new statistical process control procedure. These data are available in the data set Quality. Sample 1 | Sample 2 | Sample 3 | Sample 4 | Sample 1 | Sample 2 | Sample 3 | Sample 4 | 11.55 | 11.62 | 11.91 | 12.02 | 11.93 | 12.00 | 12.01 | 12.35 | 11.62 | 11.69 | 11.36 | 12.02 | 11.85 | 11.92 | 12.06 | 12.09 | 11.52 |......

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