Free Essay

Pros/Cons of Under Cover Police Work

In: Social Issues

Submitted By cupoj427
Words 1683
Pages 7
Police officers can be assigned to numerous lines of work within an police department. A wide range of law enforcement duties generally require the officer to wear a uniform, representing his or her status as enforcer of laws, preventer of crime, and preserver of domestic peace. However, there is one controversial line of law enforcement that restricts the use of police a uniform. Undercover police work entails the practice of remaining in disguise during investigations of criminal activity. A police officer may assume a different identity acting as an undercover agent, as a method for gaining valuable information or evidence. Undercover work is by far the most dangerous and controversial areas of law enforcement. Nonetheless, undercover work is also one of the best investigative techniques implemented by police departments. The first plainclothes police unit was organized in France during the early 1800’s. Eugène François Vidocq has been recognized as the originator of the “Brigade de la Sûreté”, or “security brigade”. In his self-titled memoir, Vidocq explains the goals of his early undercover police network: “to procure information, to undertake searches, and to obtain particulars of every description; to make nightly rounds…to assist the commissaries of police in their searches, or in the execution of search-warrants; to explore the various rendezvous in every part; to go to the theatres, the boulevards, the barriers, and all other public places, the haunts of thieves and pickpockets.”[1]

Great Britain later developed their own national security forces called the “Special Irish Branch”, an undercover unit of London’s Metropolitan Police in 1883.[2] By 1905, Italian Americans in United States introduced their own program called the “Italian Squad”, an elite body of undercover police officers who pledged to reduce organized crime in New York City.[3] By the middle of the 20th century, many state and federal agencies began to enact their own undercover programs and strategies to strengthen their intelligence and fact-finding techniques.

The rationale behind not wearing a uniform facilitates the gathering of information about current and future criminal activity. Undercover police work shares similarities with other intelligence gathering functions such as eavesdropping, surveillance, espionage, and the use of informants to obtain information. An officer assumes an undercover identity for a defined and considerable amount of time. This requires total secrecy because this dangerous line of work allows the police department to examine and report criminal activity in areas that foster drug trade, organized crime, prostitution rings, street gangs, and political extremist groups. The objective of an undercover officer is to make a case; they must gather sufficient information and evidence in order to have a successful prosecution in court. Undercover work is necessary because highly intelligent criminals do exist and are and difficult to arrest. The purpose is not only to obtain evidence of criminal intent and the individuals involved but to obtain physical evidence as well. The officer then seeks an arrest warrant; once the offender is arrested, the identity of the undercover cop is usually revealed. After an undercover operation, it is likely that many more arrests will occur due to the large number of contacts that the police officer made while undercover, maximizing the extent of their contacts and informants. Selecting police officers to go undercover is a complicated task and requires comprehensive analysis and consideration of the potential undercover agents. Very few are chosen because of the difficult, stressful, and risky characteristics of undercover work. There are very few individuals who are mentally stable enough to cope with this line of work, let alone very few who fit the physical characteristics necessary for undercover work to occur without risk. Young, ethnic or multi-lingual rookie cops are ideal candidates for undercover work because of their physical attributes and inexperience suggest they are ordinary civilians; this notion is the basis for undercover work since agents to do not want to provoke suspicion by suspects or potential offenders.

As mentioned, an undercover officer is new to the department and supervisors generally chose them for the job because of the way they appear. Potential officers in the police academy may be identified for undercover work but are generally required to serve one or two years of regular police duty. Training procedures of an undercover officer is conducted through physical training and hands-on instructions that include seminars to educate undercover agents how to identify drugs and contraband while understanding the language, culture, and terminology of the unlawful environment they will covertly work in. Systematic guidelines are set in place for the undercover agent to follow as they gather evidence and other vital information.

Although it may appear that there are benefits to undercover police work, further determinants conclude that undercover police work has negative effects on those involved. Undercover police work is associated with dangerous crimes such as prostitution, drug possession and distribution, street gangs, and motorcycle gangs that take part in life-threatening criminal activity. Undercover police work involves an officer getting involved in these criminal acts from short periods of time to involvement that could span years, adversely affecting an officer’s physical and psychological well being. An undercover cop must act as unlawfully as a suspected offender; he or she has to think and act like a habitual law breaker. An undercover officer must perform accordingly to the risky conditions of undercover work as one mistake could jeopardize the operation and potentially place the officer in severe physical danger.[4] There is a lot of pressure on undercover officers to avoid being “made”, meaning the suspect has figured out the undercover agent’s true identity, ultimately endangering the officer’s safety. Here lies another disadvantage to undercover police work; though the undercover agent has the best intentions for this line of work, they must put on a deceptive appearance and act completely in opposition of the techniques and methods they have been accustomed to under police discretion and seeking justice. Undercover officers are usually faced with the dilemma of committing crimes themselves. If an undercover agent chooses to not commit a crime for the sake of the operation, it will damage their credibility, preventing them from acquiring valuable information. Further consequences include violence and even murder of the undercover agent if his or her actions are questionable to the suspected criminals. Another costly issue with undercover policing is permanently affecting the officer’s personality. Psychologists have discovered a correlation between negative psychological symptoms and undercover police work.[5] Many have concluded that undercover work often leads to loneliness caused by the duty undercover officers often have to face as they are away from loved ones with no specified amount of time until they can meet again. The undercover agent must also remain vigilant from those not affiliated with law enforcement of the details and nature of information he or she may know; this can cause anxiety, paranoia, and suspiciousness. Further parallels may include undercover agents themselves turning to drugs and alcohol to cope with this vast degree of stress and uncertainty. Undercover work may be effective but it is usually at the cost of the agent’s psychological well-being. Another issue with undercover policing is that the officer may be reluctant to make a case against the criminals they are associating with because of the personal relationships and attachment that could have formed during the operation. The aforementioned psychological effects such as loneliness and anxiety may cause one to fill voids in their personal relationships by embracing the criminal as a friend. While undercover, an agent sees all the positive and negative aspects in the criminal, leading to the possibility that a mutual and concrete relationship could have formed, ultimately botching the undercover operation. Undercover supervisors should closely monitor any relationships an undercover agent has and reinforce the goal of why the agent is undercover; to bring about justice and peace to the community at risk. The last issue with undercover policing is reintegrating an officer back to regular police work when undercover operation has been completed. An undercover operation definitely changes an officer’s outlook of their work because they have become aware of the two sides of law enforcement. This notion can be conveyed as an advantage of undercover police work because it can help the officer grow and diversify their values, attitudes, and social customs that shape him or her. However, undercover officers may also still have criminal mentalities developed while undercover which may lead them to committing crimes. Overall, undercover policing has historically proven to be a very effective method in provisioning law enforcement, though it stems from a generally unorthodox manner of preventing crime and preserving peace. Yet with this type of police work, the negative retributions that surface can harm an undercover agent’s basic moral and psychological development. They must place themselves in scenarios they wouldn’t normally enter into unless they were indeed corrupt. In sum, I feel that the negative effects outweigh the positive effect according to undercover police work. Though risky associations exist within our communities, including drug use, gang violence, and prostitution, an individual officer should not be launched into this world simply because conventional law enforcement intelligence capabilities are insufficient and yield unsatisfactory results. It is true; nonetheless, that learning by doing can help an undercover agent learn more about increasingly important criminal details if they are out in the field themselves. But it is where chain of law enforcement command should lead by example and control their authority over the most dangerous components of civil society; once all police officers act in accordance with the duty set forth by basic code of police conduct, then undercover operations can cease and police officers will not have to disguise themselves in order to obtain results.
-----------------------
[1] Eugène François Vidocq, wikipedia.org/wiki/Eug%C3%A8ne_Fran%C3%A7ois_Vidocq

[2] Special Branch, United Kingdom, wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_Branch

[3] Italian American Crime Fighters: A Brief Survey, August 2005 www.osia.org/documents/IA_Crime_Fighters_Survey.pdf

[4] Undercover Police Work: Difficult and Dangerous www.adirondackdailyenterprise.com/page/content.detail/id/504677.html?nav=5041&showlayout=0

[5] Ibid.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Pros and Cons

...emphasis on harmony, not the discord of competition'. He regarded the interests of workers and manager as mutually dependent and that improving organizational efficiency led to wage increases. Taylor provided a justification for management by being the first to describe management as a profession and providing practical tools for managers to better control their organizations. He broke the power of craftsmanship and handed it to managers as guardians of organizations. Taylor's methodology was the first to use statistical control to analyze work and provided a basis for time motion studies, an essential tool in job design efforts. He paved the way for the development of Ford's T-Ford assembly line in the 1920s. Taylor laid the foundation for separating the "staff" and "line" functions required to run large organizations. His intent was to solve the issue of conflicting instructions by setting up specialized departments responsible for work study, personnel, maintenance and quality control. His ideas were very influential and adopted by firms in industrializing countries as far as Japan and France. Disadvantages In the 1950s, Herbert Simon criticized Taylor's belief that there was a "best way to do anything". Scientific Management was internally oriented where optimizing current resources was more important than effectively allocating resources over time. He neglected the issue of organizational restructuring required by changes in customer needs. Taylor argued that......

Words: 492 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Reality Tv Pros and Cons

...can be considered to have a positive affect on society. These programs report the positive stories of the average, everyday person, inspiring the viewer. These shows reward well-mannered people doing amazing things around their community rather than rewarding poor behavior that is unacceptable to the everyday norms of our society. This discussion will convey the negative effects of reality television programs as well as the positive effects these programs have on society as a whole. We will also examine the steps marketers can do to take advantage of the high ratings of these reality shows to reach a larger audience of consumers. It is safe to assume that there are both negative and positive aspects of reality television. Do the cons outweigh the pros or vice versa? In our opinion there is much more negativity in reality shows in modern day entertainment than there are positive reinforcements. Reality shows give viewers false sense of reality and unrealistic expectations. The stars of these shows give off the persona of a real person where the audience develops a connection seeming they can relate to them. People seem to think, feel, and act like these characters they see on these programs. The viewers see this poor behavior as acceptable after watching it on television so often. The viewer may develop perceptions that may lead to poor choices including, but not limited to, fighting, cussing, illicit drug use, unprotected intercourse, and binge drinking. Reality programs......

Words: 4013 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Pros and Con of Public School

...Pros in public schools are, the children learn in a group setting, there are extracurricular activities available, more curriculum opportunities, diverse social education, and the cons would be, Less independence, school chooses curriculum, high teacher student ratio. And the pros for homeschool are, teaches students to be more independent in their learning choices. And the cons are, usually more expensive than public school; teachers are not always qualified to teach certain subjects, harder to provide social interaction, colleges sometimes have stricter admission polices involving homeschooled children, You as the parent can control what they learn and when, You can show you child that learning is not boring but a fun thing, you have a smaller teaching area that u can tailor your teaching style to your child’s needs, you can give you child personal in depth attention in any subject he struggles in or excels, Create a schedule that best fits you and your child’s needs, instill you values and beliefs’ in your child and address question when they have them, protect your child from negative influences they may encounter, nurture you child’s (artistic, musical and mathematic) abilities Address big issues with your child when you feel they are ready. And the cons are, usually more expensive than public school; teachers are not always qualified to teach certain subjects, harder to provide social interaction, colleges sometimes have stricter admission polices......

Words: 630 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Pros and Cons: Owning a Business

...Many people dream of owning a business. A restaurant is a marvelous business to own. Although it looks simple, owning a restaurant has a sufficient amount of stressful difficulties. In order to successfully run a business, including a restaurant, one must love what you do. There are many characteristics one must to possess to own a restaurant. Being an owner of such a grand business comes with ample responsibilities. Responsibilities and characteristics include the ability to communicate and solve problems with other people, money management, as well as perform and excel under stressful conditions, and multitask. Owning your own restaurant has marvelous benefits and major drawbacks. Being the owner of a restaurant isn't as glamorous as everyone thinks it is. There are many factors to consider before opening up an establishment. Will you know how to manage your money? The pros and cons must be equally considered. Will you know how to draw the right crowd? The location of your restaurant is key. The business you own needs to be accessible on all levels. You need to be a risk taker. Doing something new is inspiring. Don’t keep the same boring old menu up all the time; spice things up a bit and add new exciting things. Having the ability to organize systems and allow things to get creative is very important. Your restaurant needs to be able to build on guest demand. The customers are always first and you need to make them happy before you can make yourself......

Words: 1371 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Pros and Cons of Democratic Management

...Pros and Cons of Democratic Management There are many different styles of management and arguments for each. Having worked under multiple managers in a variety of different positions I have experienced most management styles. From my experience Democratic Management is the most accepted side of management but with any type of management style, you experience different reactions from employees and there are ups and downs to each kind. It is proven that a democratic management style will give proven results. You can typically expect a positive outcome when you engage issues as a team. Democrats appreciate the opinion of others and by basing solutions with a collective understanding you promote an open and honest work environment. This type of management is great when used in creative environments such as marketing and advertising. Democratic management is also a great method to use when working as part of a team. Teams managed with this style are typically strong and supportive of each other’s opinions because everyone’s opinion is taken into account. Democratic management is not always the best style for every type of situation. For example, if you are working on project that has a strict deadline, it might be a better idea to take control of the situation and delegate tasks. Taking a census of ideas takes time and when you are in a time crunch this will possibly set you up for failure. You don’t want to appear as an indecisive leader in these types of situations, it......

Words: 341 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pros and Cons of My Profession

...THE PROS AND CONS OF MY PROFESSION In any profession, there must be some advantages and disadvantages; my profession is not an exception. For my writeup to be meaningful, the subject matter needs to be identified. 'My profession.' Social work according to dictionary meaning Collins (2001) 'is a person trained to help people with social problems'. Social work is further explained to be a profession, that promote social changes in solving the human problems with regards to their lives, relationship and their environments. By empowering and liberating them into a better life ( IFSW, 2014). The social worker must be passionate, full of empathy and be knowledgeable in diverse kind of problems ranging from psychological, mental and behavioural issues to be able to help people and make a significant impact. Having known what the job entailed, we can then enumerate the pros and cons. The advantages of social work are job satisfaction, when a positive result in the client is seen or observed, the social worker will be happy. It has many skills that make it versatile. It is a rewarding job in respect to a good salary that is if one get a good job. It helps to build self-esteem. It is a multi-disciplinary, working with other professional. It gives greater knowledge of diverse kid of medical issues and other problems of people. There is nothing that has advantages that does not have disadvantages. The job is a stressful job......

Words: 383 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Pro / Con

...interview method of gathering information requires that a HR specialist visit the site in which the customer service representative works and chat with the employees performing each job. A standardized interview system is used most often to record the information. Regularly, both the customer serviced representative and the supervisor must be interviewed to obtain a complete understanding of the customer service job. In some circumstances, such as team engaged jobs, group interviews also can be used, usually involving experienced job incumbents and or supervisors. The interview method can be rather time consuming, particularly if the HR manager talks with three or four customer service representative. Professional and managerial jobs often are more difficult to examine and usually need longer interviews. Because of this reason combining the interview with one of the other methods may be beneficial. Some of the advantages of this method: * Allows the obligatory to define responsibilities and duties that are not observable. * The customer service representative knows the exact duties of the job and supervisors are mindful of the job’s correlation to the rest of the organization. * Can produce data about intellectual and psychomotor methods which are typically hard to observe. * Qualitative statistics can be observed. * The whole thing works well for occupations with long job rotations. Some of the disadvantages of this method: * Entails......

Words: 2229 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

The Pros and Cons of Using Teams

...THE PROS AND CONS OF USING TEAMS Teams are an integral part of the way businesses operate in today’s society. Before the Industrial Revolution people worked together but teamwork did not become advanced until innovations in our economy were first established. Old fashioned teams consisted of people working together to achieve one common goal but as time moved forward the basic team structure became modernized and alterations were made. From the 19th Century assembly lines that became a major advancement to productivity in warehouses, factories and other businesses, the text states that the use of teams within an organization did not occur until the 1970’s. These teams even then were one dimensional and consisted of a group of people coming together to work on specific tasks and then disbanding after the completion of the task and going back to individual stations to work independently. Teams come in all dimensions and sizes and have proven over years of research to be more effective and sufficient in overall productivity. The positive aspects of a team are insurmountable and do not only just benefit the business but also the individual person as well. Teams help us to build up the interpersonal skills that we need in order to be able to relate and work with one another. Teams allow us to be more tolerant of people and their differences whether it is cultural, religious, or ethnic. Like any situation where several people are forced to deal with one another there......

Words: 701 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Pro Con

...22 10. Fund Code (FC) 22 11. End Item Code (EIC) 23 12. Project Code (PC) 23 13. Priority Designator Codes and (UMMIPS) 23 14. Advice Codes (AC) 23 15. Line Item Number (LIN) 24 16. Accounting Requirement Code (ARC) 24 17. Acquisition Advice Code (AAC) 24 18. Automatic Return Item Code (ARI) 26 19. Condition Code (CC) 26 20. Control Inventory Item Code (CIIC) 28 21. Equipment Readiness Code (ERC) 30 22. Equipment Category Code (ECC) 30 23. Essentiality Code (EC) 30 24. Level of Work Code (LWC) 31 25. Maintenance Repair Code (MRC) 31 26. Part Source Code (SRC) 32 27. Recoverability Codes (RC) 32 28. Reportable Item Control Code (RICC) 33 29. SAMS Work Request Status Codes (RSC) 34 30. Status/Rejection Codes 35 31. Stockage List Code (SLC) 39 32. Army Material Category (MATCAT) Structure Code 39 33. Appropriation and Budget Activity Code (ABA) 40 34. Federal Supply Groups (FSG) 41 35. Federal Supply Classifications (FSC) 43 36. Non-leap year Julian Date Calendar 51 37. Leap year Julian Date Calendar 52 III. Important Supply Forms 1. DA Form 444 Inventory Adjustment Report 2. DA Form 581 Request for Issue and Turn-in of Ammunition 3. DA Form 1687 Notice of Delegation of......

Words: 17337 - Pages: 70

Free Essay

Pros and Cons

...Pros More coverage. Coverage will expand to cover nearly 95 percent of legal U.S. residents. With a recent study showing that patients without health insurance have a shorter life span, coupled with the number of uninsured approaching 50 million in 2010, that is perhaps the biggest reason to cheer. A more competitive insurance industry. Increased regulation will stop insurance companies from rigging prices–that recent 40% insurance premium increase in California comes to mind. Competition with newly formed public entities will ideally make the entire industry more competitive. Also, insurance companies are now required to post their balance sheets, executive compensation, and administrative costs online. Insurance companies will have to accept everyone. No more pre-existing condition exclusions. They can’t place limits on coverage anymore, either. Cheaper prescriptions for seniors. It’s reform. We need reform. We’re in a situation where healthcare is even becoming unaffordable to employers, leaving employees with higher out-of-pocket expenses even if they’re ensured. Healthcare costs have jettisoned innumerable people from the middle class. People get sick and die because insurers won’t take them. This isn’t functional. Any kind of reform helps. Cons Cuts in Medicare. The elderly on Medicare will see their benefits changed dramatically. The biggest item being used to pay for the new program is more than $500 billion in cuts to the program at a time when......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Pros and Cons of Marijuana

...already a thing, and kills hundreds of thousands of people a year, what makes people assume that there are not idiots out there driving high? Driving a vehicle under any substances should be considered a crime, and with the legalization of pot, it would become a more prominent issue of people driving while high, thus causing more accidents and even deaths. * Though I half-heartedly support the claims that medical marijuana may work wonders for people suffering from chronic and terminal illnesses, there are people out there who find drugs, even for medical purposes to be completely morally wrong. For some religious believers, any type of substance abuse, even medical, can and will be seen as a sin. Legalizing marijuana would send many religious fanatics into frenzy because of this aspect. * A very serious reason why, in my personal opinion, I feel as though it should not be legalized, is that if the drug is so widely used, and easier to get your hands on, it could just as easily get into the hands of minors. It is already an epidemic with younger generations becoming addicted to cigarettes and alcohol, who is to say that the same will not come of the legalization of marijuana? Reasons Why Possession and Use of Marijuana Should Be Legal: * As I mentioned in the above list of cons, there are also medical pros to such use of marijuana. Studies have shown and verified the positive effects of medical marijuana use by cancer patients and those faced with terminal and......

Words: 709 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Pros and Cons of Freedom of Speech

... Name Instructor: Course Date: Pros and Cons of Freedom of Speech The freedom of speech is a political right of every human being to communicate their own ideas or opinions, using their body, or property to any other person who is ready and willing to receive them. This right is also synonymously used with the freedom of expression. Under the freedom of rights, the right to seek or receive information or impart any information regardless of medium of transformation is limited. This right as with any other has come certain limitations that and limitations to actions such obscenity, slander, libel, incitement to rebellion, violating copyrights and revealing any information that may be classified otherwise. The freedom of rights is recognized as a basic human right (Powers, 2). There are several advantages of freedom of speech. Top of the list is that we can say anything that we like regardless of the consciousness of the issue without fear of punishment or reprisal. This means that we can be able to speak up against any act of oppression that we may observe. This allows Amy people to speak up if they feel that any of their basic rights is being infringed. This right has led to their rise of philosophy and also political theory. Thanks to the freedom of speech people have been able to promote ideas such and capitalism, socialism, democracy and animal rights (Barendt, 89). The freedom speech has been beneficial in the area of constitutional and governance. People in......

Words: 1286 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Pros and Cons of the Death Penalty

...Pros and Cons of Death Penalty Does the execution of a murderer serve justice for all? One of the most controversial topics in the world today not only deals with the death penalty, also known as capital punishment, but whether it should be abolished or not . While some believe that the death penalty is “cruel and unusual punishment” violating the 8th amendment of the United States Constitution, others argue that “an eye for an eye” does justice. Thirty-four different states support this type of punishment including Oklahoma, leaving fifteen states that do not. According to Newport and the Gallup Polls, as of May 2007, “sixty-six percent of Americans -- almost the same percentage that supports the death penalty” consider the death penalty “morally acceptable.” Only twenty-seven percent of people believe the death penalty is morally wrong. Some say that the “legality in the United States is critically undermining American moral stature around the world (Ballaro & Cushman)." The death penalty is a very emotional, complex, and rather complicated matter that includes, but not limited to, the argument of the pros and cons as well as the fact that some convicted people whether executed or not are then later freed from guilt and blame (exonerated). There are many different pros of the death penalty, but I have chosen to only discuss a few of the most controversial topics. Supporters of death penalty believe that “[j]ustice is only achieved when a crime is met with the proper......

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Pros & Cons of Police Unions

...Analysis Paper 3: Pros and Cons of Labor Unions The right to self-organization is the right of every worker, free of any intrusion from the employer to form, join or assist in the formation of any legitimate worker's organization or union of his or her own choice. The reason for granting this right is grounded on the essential unfairness in the bargaining situation between an employer and his employees. As the issue of employment bargaining is concerned, there is no doubt that the employer stands on higher ground than the employee. That being said brings me to ask the question: Are labor unions good or bad? To start with, there is greater supply of labor than the demand for labor. Consequently, the employer has the choice to levy demands upon his employees. Next, the need for employment by labor often times arises out of desperation and necessity. As a result, the labor must protect labor to the extent of raising him to equal stability in bargaining relations with his employers and to protect him against abuses. This is in recognition of the principle that those who have less in life should have more in law. The right to form unions is a palpable indicator of the protection accorded by law to labor. By giving employees the opportunity to unite themselves against the employers, they can negotiate with their employers for better wages, benefits and terms and conditions of employment. Certainly, there is no better vehicle for securing change in the workplace than the......

Words: 834 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Pros/Cons on Under Cover Police

...On July 19, an undercover police officer took the stand in a New York courtroom to testify against an alleged drug dealer named Fabian Joseph. Consistent with longstanding practice in New York City, the officer refused to identify himself by anything but his badge number. Inconsistent with longstanding practice in New York City, trial judge Dorothy Cropper barred the officer's testimony. Judge Cropper ruled that because the undercover officer had failed to show he was in particular danger of retaliation from the defendant for his testimony, he had to give his name. When he refused, she showed him the door. The basis for Judge Cropper's ruling was the Sixth Amendment, which guarantees the defendant the right to a "public trial" at which he will be "confronted with the witnesses against him." A "public trial" means one conducted in a courtroom that anyone can enter. And confrontation means, among other things, that the defendant has a right to cross-examine the government's witnesses - which is difficult to do if you don't know their names. These rights are not absolute, but Judge Cropper ruled that the government hadn't justified either closing the courtroom or limiting cross. The response to Judge Cropper's ruling was outrage. New York Police Commissioner Raymond Kelly excoriated the judge, and encouraged his officers to continue to refuse to give their names. The Manhattan D.A.'s office has decided to appeal Judge Cropper's ruling. Meanwhile, the usual suspects, lead by......

Words: 1529 - Pages: 7