Premium Essay

Plato's Republic

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By nishikigoi
Words 3760
Pages 16
Book I
What is justice? Why should we be just?

Cephalus - Justice means living up to your legal obligations and being honest. - Socrates - Its like returning weapon to a madman.. he'll kill people.

Polemarchus - Justice means that you owe friends help, and you owe enemies harm. - Socrates - we are not always friends with the most virtuous, nor are our enemies always teh scum of society

Thrasymachus , sophist - Justice is nothing more than the advantage of the stronger-- it does not pay to be just.Justice is a conventon imposed on us, and it does not benefit us to adhere to it. The rational thing is to ignore it. - Socrates 1. This promotes injustice as a virtue. In his view, life is like a continual competition to get more. And whoever is most successful has the most virtue? Thats bullshit! mathematicians dont compete with others, etc 2. In order to reach any of Thrasymachus' goals, you must atleast be moderately just to even follow them. 3. Since justice is a virtue of the soul, and virtue of teh soul means health of the soul, justice is desirable because it means health of the soul.

Book II

Glaucon - All good can be divided into 3 classes: 1. Things we desire for consequences (physical training, medical treatment) 2. Things we desire for their own sake (joy) 3. Things we desire for own sake and for what we get from them (knowledge, sight, health) - highest class

- Most people class justice in the first group, as a necessary evil, allowing suffer in order to avoid greater evil that would befall us. Justice is not something practiced for its own sake (not like health and etc), but for something one engages in out of fear and weakness.
- Glaucon.. invokes the legend of the ring of Gyges, imagines giving a ring to a man to make him invisible -- This tale proves that people are only just because they are afraid of punishment for…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Plato's Philosophy

...Gradiene S. Tandoc Mariah Janey Vicente PLATO’S WORKS and WRITINGS Plato wrote extensively and most of his writings survived. His works are in the form of dialogues, where several characters argue a topic by asking questions of each other. Why do you think Plato choose this form of writing (dialogue)? These may be the possible reasons: 1. This form allows Plato to raise various points of view and let the reader decide which is valid. 2. The use of character and conversation allowed Plato to awaken the interest of his readers and therefore to reach a wider audience. 3. The dialogue form allows Plato's evident interest in pedagogical questions (how is it possible to learn? what is the best way to learn? from what sort of person can we learn? what sort of person is in a position to learn?) to be pursued not only in the content of his compositions but also in their form. 4. Plato evidently enjoys creating a sense of puzzlement among his readers, and the dialogue form is uniquely suited to this goal. CHRONOLOGY The exact order in which Plato's dialogues were written is not known, nor is the extent to which some might have been later revised and rewritten. However, there is enough information internal to the dialogues to form a rough chronology. The dialogues are normally grouped into three fairly distinct periods, with a few of them considered transitional works. The generally agreed upon modern ordering is as follows: early, middle, and late......

Words: 880 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Plato Republic

...Written by Plato, The Republic strives to answer the question ‘What is Justice?’ Unlike other dialogues starring Socrates, The Republic provides an answer for the question being posed, instead of leaving readers puzzled. Using Socrates as a mouth piece, Plato creates a formula to define justice using an ideal society, the soul of an individual in an ideal society, and the greek social virtues. By using a mathematical argument to link the tasks in society, with the parts of the soul, and matching them to social virtues, Plato is able to provide an acceptable definition of justice that embodies both the ideals of a society and of an individual. In order to locate justice, Plato performs a though experiment where he creates an ideal society. In the ideal society everyone has a merit-based assignment. Plato states that in the perfect society there are three categories of people. There are the rulers, the auxiliaries, and the craftsmen. The rulers are in charge of ruling the ideal society, the auxiliaries are in charge of policing the ideal society, and the craftsmen are in charge of creating the basic tools to fulfill society’s needs. In Greece many accept that in an ideal society there are four standard virtues: wisdom, courage, moderation, and justice. Plato argues that since his society is ideal the standard virtues must be within the society. He also argues that if we are able to locate the standard values in society we will be able to locate justice. Plato uses an......

Words: 1441 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Plato's Cave and the Matrix

...1. Reflect upon Plato’s account of the experience of the prisoner who is freed from his chains in The Republic. Do you agree with Morpheus in the Matrix that most people prefer to remain in the prisons of their minds? Please show evidence that you have carefully read the primary text(s) and viewed the film clip(s). The intent of this paper is to display the scope of the question “what is reality?” in relation to Plato’s arguments in ‘The Republic’ and the theories and inferences put forth in the film ‘The Matrix’. I will discuss the extent to which reality may be more than what appears ‘real’ to us, and I will also address the logic behind the human desire for security through examination my own thought processes. In the Plato’s Cave scenario in The Republic, the prisoner who is freed from his shackles is taken from his own world, the world as he has always known it and lead to enlightenment through the discovery of a new, better world. He is coming from a place where he is happy in his knowledge of his surroundings. When he is shown the world as it really is, he is leaving what he once believed was the only version of reality. He is shown that what he has experienced in the Cave was governed by other forces. As people, we are both enlightened and unenlightened on this matter. What is to say that we are not the prisoner? We are perfectly happy to live in the state in which we find ourselves right now, so thoughts of leaving our secure reality can be daunting. Could we not......

Words: 875 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Guardians in Plato’s Republic

...that have a philosophical thinking, which means that they have the necessary knowledge to ask the right questions about human life and assess what is best for the society as a whole. They are compared to dogs for their intelligence, loyalty, courage and strength; and they are supposed to educate in Plato’s Society in order to establish justice. They need to establish a good educational system that fulfills the needs of every social class according to its function and abilities, through telling myths and making censorship. They also can not have private families or property, and can be from both genders. In fact, they are considered to be able to see the truth beyond what the senses can reach. However, even if I agree with Plato’s statement of justice concerning the duty of each person to do his/her job, I disagree with its claim of natural division, restrictions regarding the guardians’ way of life, censorship and telling lies or myths as they have been called. Guardians are considered to be the most rational or the rational party in Plato’s state. They are described as wise individuals that can ensure the welfare of their society. Actually, they are compared, in the Republic, to dogs for their strength, loyalty, intelligence and courage. They are believed to need strength in order to defend their territory and fight for it when it is needed. They also need loyalty to make fair judgments; intelligence to make wise decisions and courage to pursue goals. These......

Words: 3041 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

The Guardians in Plato's Republic

...Just individuals : In his book ‘The Republic’, Plato searches for justice within the individual and what makes a person ‘just’. By comparing his sense of what is just at a political level and what is just at a psychological level he suggests three virtues of the individual which will make that particular person just. The virtues of wisdom, courage and moderation are common to both a just and the fictional just city of Kallipolis. This artificial city has the pre-determined virtue of being just – he does this in order to understand what justice is for the individual because Plato thinks that ‘a just man won’t differ at all from a just city in respect to the form of justice; rather he’ll be like the city.’ (Republic 435b) In the just city Plato creates three classes: the producers, the guardians and the rulers. Each of these three classes has a certain virtue it has to display to fulfill the ‘just city’ pre-requisite that Plato has placed upon Kallipolis. The rulers are required to exhibit wisdom so that ‘a whole city established according to nature would be wise because of the smallest class and part in it, namely the governing or ruling one. And to this class, belongs a share of the knowledge that alone among all the other kinds of knowledge is to be called wisdom.’ (428e-429a) The wisdom enjoyed by the rulers would be used to ensure that the city has ‘good judgement and [be] really wise.’ (428d) The guardians (soldiers) of Kallipolis would be educated in order to absorb...

Words: 6303 - Pages: 26

Premium Essay

Plato's Cave

...ts 4. What is your understanding of Plato’s ‘Allegory of the Cave’? Plato’s Allegory of the Cave illustrates the long and arduous journey that is undertaken on the road to true enlightenment. The influence of Socrates is prevalent throughout the text. Socrates, who was Plato’s mentor, was ‘committed to a life that cultivated wisdom’. (Lecture Notes) The pursuit of Truth (The Allegory of the Cave) is one way in which we become wise. I agree with the Allegory to a certain extent. I do believe that people can have a fear of the unknown and can therefore remain static or ignorant as it were. However, I also believe that many people, and in particular children, are naturally inclined to explore and question and therefore further their knowledge, which is at odds with the prisoner as presented to us in the Cave. The first thing that must be done when discussing Plato’s Allegory of the Cave is to ask ourselves what it represents. Firstly, it’s important to point out that it is told by Plato in the context of education. The Allegory is a metaphor for the journey people must take on the road to true enlightenment or in order to gain true knowledge. He utilises the Allegory as a way to explain his theory of forms and his differing views of illusion and reality. The prisoners are living in a world in which they ‘can only look straight ahead of them and can’t turn their heads’. (Plato, 1955, p.256) In this sense, we see what we are told to see and we believe/accept it without ever......

Words: 833 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Plato’s Cave

...Simon Blackbum on Plato’s cave Plato was one of the followers of Socrates. The most famous dialogue called “The republic” describes his perfect world that is utopia. He believes that the physical world is illusion and knowledge is directed towards the good thing around the world. “Allegory of the cave ” found in the republic and appearances the theory of forms, that is explains life as composed of two worlds. The physical world is known thorough our experience or sense, and mental world is know though your imagination or mind. According to Plato’s cave theory, the story was written about 2400 years ago. There are groups of prisoner living in a black cave, who cannot move or leave the cave, because they were locked in that cave. Therefore, these people do not have any opportunity to feel the real world and all they see was just the image of the shadow. Accidentally, one of them escaped the chains and had a chance to get out of the cave. He realize that the real world contain lots of unknown things such as sun, moon etc. Finally, he went back to cave and tell the prisoner what was the real world look like, but everyone was unexpected and totally think that people was stupid than before. They are trying to kill that people who leave the cave. By reading this story, I would like to talk about some point of views about this article. I think all human beings should not always believe what they see, because seeing is not always true. For example, prisoners were living in the......

Words: 516 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Reflection Paper on Plato’s Republic

...Reflection Paper on Plato’s Republic According to Plato, a perfect society is a society that is organized in a superlatively efficient way, a society, which some scholars consider as an aristocratic government (Phylosophypages, 2001). Plato had it that such a society is made up of the rulers, the soldiers, and the people. In this perfect society, Plato claimed that the guardians of the state are supposed to be people with skills to lead. He was however, incredulous by the fact that this may not be achieved in the future of the perfect society. To this fact he gives an ingenious riposte, such societies will be under the guardianship of the offspring of the current guardians. That means what the future society will be under the guardianship of a not skill but the benefits of inheritance. In such a society, dissatisfaction is possibly the way of the day. Plato maintained that for dissatisfaction an understanding of the nature of the human being is the answer. That is, people are naturally different and they have where they fit in the society (Philosophyprofessor). In such a situation, they will be able to rule the society. A perfect society, I believe, is one that is distinctive by leaders who have the interests of the society at hand. That is, a society under the reign of guardians who are in favor of the members of the society and their needs. A society that is simply having rulers who have inherited power is liable to doom. This is because, in most cases, such kinds of......

Words: 767 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Plato's Republic: Metals Metaphor

...Plato’s Republic: Metals Metaphor Interpretation In Plato’s The Republic, there are many arguments to what may build a perfect city. Plato offers the reader an in-depth presentation of Socrates’ personal thoughts and philosophical ideas. One concept I thoroughly examined was the Metals Metaphor. This metaphor states, citizens are born with innate metals within them whether it be gold, silver, or iron/bronze. This would be utilized to ensure people would understand which of the classes they are placed within the city. The Metals Metaphor has been interpreted in many different ways. Some believe this would be told to the city to ensure the auxiliaries, or working class, would be pleased with their place in society, while other have interpreted it was a means to maintain the rulers’ happiness considering they lived a life without wealth and possessions. I do not believe this tale would be told to preserve the rulers’ contentment. I disagree with this specific interpretation for a few different reasons. First and foremost, Socrates speaks on how highly valued education is. Socrates presents “The Allegory of the Cave”, and how a leader would need to metaphorically “be dragged out of a cave as far as possible” to rule efficiently. I believe a ruler, with all of the education provided, would understand the importance of their leadership and would place that above possessions and/or wealth. They are born into thinking a “philosopher-king” position is the outmost highest......

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The Republic

...the Form of the Good that they have grasped. Though each of them will spend most of his time on philosophy, when his turn comes they must engage in politics and rule for the city’s sake. The other important task they are charged with is to educate the next generation of auxiliaries and guardians. When they die they are given the highest honors and worshipped as demi-gods in the city. Now Socrates has finally completed describing the just city in every one of its aspects. He ends Book VII by explaining how we might actually go about instituting such a city. His shocking solution is go into an already existing city, banish everyone over ten years old and raise the children in the manner he has just outlined. Analysis: Book VII, 521e–end Plato’s outline for the education of the philosopher-king may provide some insight into the education students received in the early days of the Academy. We know that mathematics was heavily emphasized at the Academy, and that, in fact, many of the subfields which Plato discusses here under the heading of “mathematics” could only have been learned at the Academy at that time. The mathematician Theaetetus and the mathematician and astronomer Eudoxus, both teachers at the Academy, were the only thinkers in the ancient world who understood these higher mathematical subjects well enough to transmit them to others. They were actually the only ones even working in some of these embryonic fields. In addition, there is some indication that Plato did......

Words: 3699 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Republic

...PAD 700 Prof A. Blazina Chapter 2 Homework Sept 15, 2009 Republic is a form of government where a boss or someone high up resides in the people who elect agents to represent the people in decision making; Ex: The United States is republic because of how the gov’t is chosen starting from the congress, president, and then broken up into judicial and legislative branches. In this case the people would be the boss because their ones that elect the agents (gov’t) to represent us for social, economic, and political decisions. Representative Democracy is a group of citizens that establish a relationship between them and the gov’t. In today’s society the U.S. structure is broken up into a Hierocracy that allows congress to oversee all the parties, administrators, and president, etc... If you think about history and going back to the slavery policy was that blacks didn’t have any freedom. The regulators were the slave owners who had to make sure that was implemented and put into play. Policy sets orders and direction for someone or something to gain power. Policy must have administrative structure because of the different decision making and implantation set for various depts. in various complex organizations. Without order or policy settings for any organization there wouldn’t be any progress. Now and days if you look from the bottom street bureaucrats like police officers cannot fire their guns just because there are certain guidelines and steps that they have to follow......

Words: 681 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Republic

...History of Central African Republic: The Central African Republic (CAR) is located in the heart of equatorial Africa. The country, with an estimated population of 4.4 million and a landmass of 622,984 sq km , is landlocked, sharing borders with Chad, Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Republic of the Congo, and Cameroon. The country, a former colony of France (formerly known as Ubangi-Shari), gained independence on August 13, 1960. Like most former colonies, CAR was subject to interference in domestic affairs by its former colonizer. The French were linked to the death of Barthélémy Boganda, the country’s pre-independence leader . The French were also directly involved in several coups within the CAR. Following the death of Boganda, David Dacko a former Boganda aide, would go on to become the country’s first President (with assistance from France). During his first term as president, Dacko significantly increased the country’s diamond production, and even had a diamond cutting facility built in the country’s capital city of Bangui. As a result, diamonds became the co... ... middle of paper ... ... documents, administrative fees for customs clearance and technical control, terminal handling charges and inland transport. The cost measure does not include tariffs or duties. Based on the Bank’s data the cost for importing one 20-foot container into the CAR is $ 5,554, and the cost for exporting, $5,491. Compared to the Sub-Saharan average of $2,365 and......

Words: 274 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Plato's Cave

...Explain the analogy of the cave in Plato’s republic (25 marks) Plato, 428-347 B.C., was an Athenian philosopher who lived in Ancient Greece. In 407 B.C. he became a pupil and friend of Socrates. After living for a time at the Syracuse court, Plato founded (c.387 B.C.) near Athens the most influential school of the ancient world, the Academy, where he taught until his death. The “Republic” is one of Plato’s greatest books that he has written. Plato’s presents one of the most famous analogies in philosophy: the cave. This analogy illustrates the effects of true knowledge. True knowledge moves the philosopher through life without any distractions, which in due course brings him to the Form of the Good. He tells the Allegory of the Cave as a conversation between his teacher Socrates who inspired many of Plato's philosophical theories and Glaucon. In the dialogue between Socrates and Glaucon, Socrates asks Glaucon to imagine a cave, in which prisoners have been kept since their childhood, and each of them is held where they are all chained so that their legs and necks are unable to turn or allow them to move. This leaves them in a predicament where they’re forced to look at a wall in front of them. Behind the prisoners is a fire and between the fire and the prisoners is a raised walkway (bridge), on which people can walk. These people are shadow play, and they are carrying objects, in the shape of human and animal figures, as well as everyday items. The prisoners could only......

Words: 1315 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Plato's Middle Period Epistemology

...Plato's Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology 1.0. The Background to Plato’s Metaphysics The author Silverman, Allan (2014) of this article titled Plato’s Middle Period Metaphysics and Epistemology wrote about how Plato first began to annotate his own points on metaphysics and epistemology. As we all knew, Plato’s definition of things are heavily influenced by his teachers Heraclitus (c.540 B.C.-480-70) Parmenides (c.515 B.C.-449-40) and especially Socrates (470 B.C-399). However only remnants of the writings of Heraclitus and Parmenides and also nothing left of Socrates. The only evidence that we ever had is Plato’s depiction of his teacher that is the dialog he wrote in his writings about Socrates’s views. Sometimes, it is as if it was Socrates’s writing not Plato because of the many things about Socrates he wrote. Some had said that it was his own views but instead he used Socrates as the speaker. This article also wrote about Plato’s predecessors’ views of the concept that influences his definition of Metaphysics and Epistemology which are Being and Forms. Firstly, Parmenides which he said there is one and only in this world and that is being. The truth is it never change and will never be. Sadly, there is not much we could conclude from Parmenides’s point of view. His concept of being has become Plato’s based of doctrine of Forms. As contrast to Parmenides’s definition of physical world, Heraclitus is the advocate of change. He said that the ordinary......

Words: 4378 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Plato's Republic

...Analyzing Locke’s Empirical View Student’s Name Institutional Affiliation Analyzing Locke’s Empirical View Introduction In his theory, Locke tries to explain the source and the limits of human knowledge. According to Locke, knowledge is gained from sensation and reflection, it is very different from opinion and belief, and its certainty can only be achieved through intuition, sensation and reason. His essay on human understanding is divided into four books. Book I explain that there are no innate ideas in the mind of a person. Book two explains the origin of all ideas and states that they originate from sensation and reflection (Locke 1948). Book III explains how words signify idea and that they are essential for communication. Finally, Book IV describes how the ideas are the source of human knowledge, determines the nature, extent, and certainty of human knowledge. Locke argues that it is not possible to claim we have knowledge that we are unaware (Locke 1948). My View On Locke’s Argument I do not agree with Locke’s position that we do not possess knowledge that we are unaware. Foremost, in his argument, Locke failed to differentiate between psychological and justificatory thesis. When he claims that when we are born the mind is a blank tablet which is filled with ideas through experience, Locke failed to distinguish the doctrine of psychology and the epistemological thesis that explains experience is the test for truth (Cummins 1975). His conclusion of a plain...

Words: 735 - Pages: 3