Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing Practice

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PATHOPHARMACOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR ADVANCED NURSING PRACTICE
OBESITY
WESTERN GOVERNORS UNIVERSITY
SANDRA ROGERS

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Obesity is an epidemic disease which is increasing in frequency in frequency. It is one of the most common disorders in medical practice and among the most frustrating and difficult to manage. Little progress has been made in prevention or treatment, yet major changes have occurred in our understanding of its causes and implications for health. It is associated with changes in many body systems. The definition of obesity is: a condition of excess body fat. Obesity is measured using Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI is calculated by dividing body mass in kilograms by the square of height in meters, (ie. Kg/M2). In adults a person with a BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 is considered obese. (www.anzca.edu)
A1.
Over time obesity can cause a number of pathophysiological changes to body systems. Obesity affects the cardiovascular system and can cause hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, varicose veins, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and even sudden death. It can affect the respiratory system by causing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), obesity hyperventilation syndrome (OHS), restrictive lung disease; the Endocrine system causing diabetes, Cushing’s disease, hypothyroidism; the gastrointestinal system causing gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), hiatus hernia, inguinal hernia, and gallstones; malignancies of the breast, prostate, colorectal, cervical and endometria; musculoskeletaletal system causing osteoarthritis of weight bearing joints and back pain. Obesity affects the immune system by causing wound
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infections and delayed healing. (www.anzca.edu) Patients with obesity have increased rates of major depression and binge…...

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