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毛泽东:实践论

实践论
(论认识和实践的关系——知和行的关系)
(一九三七年七月) 毛泽东

马克思以前的唯物论, 离开人的社会性, 离开人的历史发展, 去观察认识问题,因此不能了解认识对社会实践的依赖关系,即 认识对生产和阶级斗争的依赖关系。 首先, 马克思主义者认为人类的生产活动是最基本的实践活 动,是决定其他一切活动的东西。人的认识,主要地依赖于物质 的生产活动,逐渐地了解自然的现象、自然的性质、自然的规律 性、人和自然的关系;而且经过生产活动,也在各种不同程度上 逐渐地认识了人和人的一定的相互关系。一切这些知识,离开生 产活动是不能得到的。在没有阶级的社会中,每个人以社会一员 的资格,同其他社会成员协力,结成一定的生产关系,从事生产 活动,以解决人类物质生活问题。在各种阶级的社会中,各阶级 的社会成员,则又以各种不同的方式,结成一定的生产关系,从 事生产活动,以解决人类物质生活问题。这是人的认识发展的基 本来源。 人的社会实践,不限于生产活动一种形式,还有多种其他的 形式,阶级斗争,政治生活,科学和艺术的活动,总之社会实际 生活的一切领域都是社会的人所参加的。因此,人的认识,在物 质生活以外, 还从政治生活文化生活中 (与物质生活密切联系) , 在各种不同程度上,知道人和人的各种关系。其中,尤以各种形 式的阶级斗争, 给予人的认识发展以深刻的影响。 在阶级社会中, 每一个人都在一定的阶级地位中生活, 各种思想无不打上阶级的 烙印。

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毛泽东:实践论

马克思主义者认为人类社会的生产活动, 是一步又一步地由 低级向高级发展,因此,人们的认识,不论对于自然界方面,对 于社会方面,也都是一步又一步地由低级向高级发展,即由浅入 深,由片面到更多的方面。在很长的历史时期内,大家对于社会 的历史只能限于片面的了解, 这一方面是由于剥削阶级的偏见经 常歪曲社会的历史,另方面,则由于生产规模的狭小,限制了人 们的眼界。人们能够对于社会历史的发展作全面的历史的了解, 把对于社会的认识变成了科学, 这只是到了伴随巨大生产力—— 大工业而出现近代无产阶级的时候,这就是马克思主义的科学。 马克思主义者认为,只有人们的社会实践,才是人们对于外 界认识的真理性的标准。实际的情形是这样的,只有在社会实践 过程中 (物质生产过程中, 阶级斗争过程中, 科学实验过程中) , 人们达到了思想中所预想的结果时,人们的认识才被证实了。人 们要想得到工作的胜利即得到预想的结果, 一定要使自己的思想 合于客观外界的规律性,如果不合,就会在实践中失败。人们经 过失败之后,也就从失败取得教训,改正自己的思想使之适合于 外界的规律性, 人们就能变失败为胜利, “失败者成功之母” 所谓 , “吃一堑长一智” ,就是这个道理。辩证唯物论的认识论把实践 提到第一的地位,认为人的认识一点也不能离开实践,排斥一切 否认实践重要性、使认识离开实践的错误理论。列宁这样说过: “实践高于(理论的)认识,因为它不但有普遍性的品格,而且 还有直接现实性的品格。 [1]马克思主义的哲学辩证唯物论有两 ” 个最显著的特点:一个是它的阶级性,公然申明辩证唯物论是为 无产阶级服务的;再一个是它的实践性,强调理论对于实践的依 赖关系,理论的基础是实践,又转过来为实践服务。判定认识或 理论之是否真理,不是依主观上觉得如何而定,而是依客观上社 会实践的结果如何而定。真理的标准只能是社会的实践。实践的 观点是辩证唯物论的认识论之第一的和基本的观点[2]。 然而人的认识究竟怎样从实践发生, 而又服务于实践呢?这 只要看一看认识的发展过程就会明了的。 原来人在实践过程中, 开始只是看到过程中各个事物的现象 方面,看到各个事物的片面,看到各个事物之间的外部联系。例
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毛泽东:实践论

如有些外面的人们到延安来考察,头一二天,他们看到了延安的 地形、街道、屋宇,接触了许多的人,参加了宴会、晚会和群众 大会, 听到了各种说话, 看到了各种文件, 这些就是事物的现象, 事物的各个片面以及这些事物的外部联系。 这叫做认识的感性阶 段,就是感觉和印象的阶段。也就是延安这些各别的事物作用于 考察团先生们的感官,引起了他们的感觉,在他们的脑子中生起 了许多的印象,以及这些印象间的大概的外部的联系,这是认识 的第一个阶段。在这个阶段中,人们还不能造成深刻的概念,作 出合乎论理(即合乎逻辑)的结论。 社会实践的继续,使人们 在实践中引起感觉和印象的东西反复了多次,…...

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