Mubarak Denbyso

In: People

Submitted By mubarako
Words 20884
Pages 84
November 1997. Original: English. Also available in French and Spanish.
Other language versions are foreseen.
I. WHAT IS ‘SUSTAINABILITY’? * BEHIND THE HEADLINES * Population * Poverty * Environmental degradation * Democracy, human rights and peace * Development * Interdependence * NORTH-SOUTH DIFFERENCES * TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABILITY * A dynamic balance * An emerging vision * EDUCATION: THE FORCE OF THE FUTURE

Similar Documents

Research Problem and Method Paper to keep in touch with loved ones. There are even stories of long lost family members finding one another after so many years, and missing children being found after a mass amber alert post hit the site. But it has even had a more global effect in its time as well. In April of 2008, a Facebook page was created to support workers who were planning a strike on an organization that played a central role in Egypt’s revolution. For 18 days, Egypt’s young activists shared one vision and focused all of their efforts — tweets, Facebook posts, videos and blogs, as well as fists and stones — toward that goal: taking down Hosni Mubarak, the autocrat who had ruled Egypt for 30 years. Which was the reason for Mubarak shutting down all internet servers in the entire country. Cutting off Egyptians from the outside world, and preventing more online uproars. In the end, Mubarak stepped down, and Facebook is being told it is the reason for getting this revolution started in the country. The page now claims more than 20,000 members and roughly 200,000 followers on Facebook. Its effect on socialism in the world has not always been a positive one though. Its ability to give everyone in the world a voice and type whatever is on one’s mind at the time, or an issue that one feels they need to blog about. But if you're not careful, it's probably also the site most likely to get you into trouble. Virtually every week, there's another news report about employers using Facebook to evaluate or......

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Egypt's Revo.

...which featured a series of demonstrations, marches, acts of civil disobedience, and labor strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. Despite being predominantly peaceful in nature, the revolution was not without violent clashes between security forces and protesters. The campaign took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the long time Tunisian president. On 11 February, following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure, Mubarak resigned from office. Grievances of Egyptian protesters focused on legal and political issues including police brutality, state of emergency laws, lack of free elections and freedom of speech, uncontrollable corruption, as well as economic issues including high unemployment, food price inflation, and low minimum wages. The primary demands from protest organizers are the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime, the end of emergency law, freedom, justice, a responsive non-military government, and a say in the management of Egypt's resources. Strikes by labor unions added to the pressure on government officials. There have been......

Words: 1147 - Pages: 5

Social Media's Role in 2011 Egyptian Revolution

...series of demonstrations, protests and revolutions. All of those revolts have one thing in common and it is the important role of social media. This essay is going to investigate the social media’s effect on Arab Spring, particularly on the revolution in Egypt. Social media have a great power, because thanks to them, people can share their thoughts in every single minute of their life. Even though there are other ways of communication, social media, such as blogs, Twitter or Facebook, had a great impact on Egyptian revolution in 2011 because people could organize their dissidence fast and could easily share their ideas of the free Egypt. When Hosni Mubarak became a president in 1981, he became suppressing all his opponents. People were not happy, but they were not united in order to oppose Mubarak. Everyone trying to oppose Mubarak without the support of the people put his life and lives of his family into the risk. There was no simple nor easy way to connect with people who shared the same opinion about the government, because having such a discussion at any public place was dangerous at that time. Although it was possible to find people with the same political views, the idea of making any non-violent protest was unrealistic. To make such a protest many people need to join the demonstration, but without internet, people couldn’t share the information about the demonstration well. They could only talk about it, but in secret and only in small groups. In small group, the......

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5

Social Movements in Egypt

...Amr Amr 12/10/2013 Egypt Burning: How one Egyptian revolutionary movement overthrew a dictator while one another overthrew a democracy. On the 17th of December, 2011 a vegetable vendor lit himself on fire in response to the corrupt and inefficient bureaucratic system in Tunisia. This small event by an unknown vendor led to the biggest and fastest spread of social movements in the history of the Arab world known as the Arab spring. Yet while the Tunisian example has been seen as relatively successful, in Egypt things seems to be more complicated and difficult especially with two different social movements, the first mobilized on the 25th of January and overthrew the long time autocratic ruler Hosni Mubarak, while the second had its beginnings in December of 2012 led to the overthrow of the first democratically elected president on June 30th of the following year was able to rally the biggest protest in modern history. This research paper’s goal will be to analyze the two social movements, their origins, make-up, organizational structure, their image abroad and finally their conclusion. For example why did the January 25th movement, which had clear goals from the onset and an extremely diverse make up ranging from secular liberals to conservative Islamists get sidelined and collapsed after achieving their first goal? And why did the Tamarod movement (rebel in Arabic) which had its origin in a petition form and was able to garner more active support,......

Words: 2536 - Pages: 11

Egypt and Revolution

...Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. There were also important Islamic, liberal, anti-capitalist, nationalist, and feminist currents of the revolution. Violent clashes between security forces and protesters resulted in at least 846 people killed and 100,000 injured.[22][23] Protesters also burned upwards of 90 police stations, though international media and politicians attempted to minimize that aspect of the revolt.[24] Protests took place in Cairo, Alexandria, and in other cities in Egypt, following the Tunisian revolution that resulted in the overthrow of the long-time Tunisian president. Grievances of Egyptian protesters were focused on legal and political issues[25] including police brutality, state of emergency laws,[1] lack of free elections and freedom of speech, corruption,[2] and economic issues including high unemployment, food price inflation[3] and low wages.[1][3] The primary demands from protesters were the end of the Hosni Mubarak regime, the end of emergency law, freedom, justice, a responsive non-military government and a say in the management of Egypt's resources.[26] Strikes by labour unions added to the pressure on government officials.[27] During the uprising the capital city of Cairo was described as "a war zone"[28] and the port city of Suez saw frequent violent clashes. The protesters defied the government imposed curfew and the police and military did not enforce it. The presence of Egypt's Central Security Forces police, loyal to Mubarak, was......

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

Eygypt’s Political Transitions. Summarize Political Developments in Post Mubarak Egypt and Identify That Country’s Most Likely Political Trajectory over the Next Five Years. What Do You See as the Major Forces Shaping

...Eygypt’s political transitions. Summarize political developments in post Mubarak Egypt and identify that country’s most likely political trajectory over the next five years. What do you see as the major forces shaping contemporary political development in Egypt? Introduction Dr Jamal al-Din Hamdan, a renowned Egyptian historian, wrote in Volume 1 of his four-volume book Shakhsiyat Misr (Egypt’s Distinctive Character), In Egypt the ruler is regarded as a God until he falls. He is above criticism, until he departs. He is the history and geography [of Egypt] until he is replaced by someone else. He always fancies Egypt as his private property, his hamlet or his larger village. He is the state and the fatherland. Loyalty to the fatherland is synonymous with loyalty to his regime, and to him personally ... He regards any criticism of Egypt as criticism of him personally and, hence, an unforgivable treason. (Najjar, Fauzi 2008) This has been the character of the state of Egypt from its earliest rulers, the pharaohs. In January 25 the foundations of this slumber Tahrir Square and elections For eighteen days, from January 25 to February 11, 2011, Tahrir was occupied in order to take down Mubarak’s regime, and over these weeks, the square witnessed many bloody episodes. On Tuesday, January 25, thousands of Cairenes responded to a Facebook call to follow the model of the Tunisian revolution that had just deposed that country’s president and forced him to flee. Of the......

Words: 2148 - Pages: 9

Egypt's Uncertain Transition Towards Democracy

...transition into it over the years. For a considerable length of time Egypt has been in a crisis. Not only has their economy taken a turn for the worst but there is also a strong sense of aloofness between the government and Egyptian subjects. Executive power has been passed from the hands of President Honsi Mubarak, to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, then won by present president Mohamed Morsi, up until he was removed from office, and now is the second transitional period that is pro the rise of Abd El Fattah El Sisi as Egypt’s new to-be elected president. The questions raised here are, was democracy ever achieved at any point in these different time periods and what is in store for the future? The 2011 pro-democracy demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa are akin to a wildfire. Their speed and effectiveness in removing ironclad autocrats has been bracing. But they have also been indiscriminate and largely unpredictable. The changes sweeping through the region haven’t led to uniform outcomes. Some of these dictators’ houses will be completely destroyed, burnt to ashes, while just across the street some will be untouched. Some dictators will fall – like Mubarak, their autocratic rule and dreams of despotic dynasties will be thrown to the wind – while some will stubbornly hold onto power, turning viciously on their own people in the process, as Libya’s Colonel Gaddafi has done by using his loyal military and security forces. Not all countries that have......

Words: 4232 - Pages: 17


...treatment of the population (Issues and Controversies, 2013, Unrest in the Arab World, Tunisia Section). After this incident Bouazizi became a martyr to the cause of regime change within Arab/Muslim nations. Citizens of these nations began to denounce and demand the removal of the dictatorial regimes which they had lived under for so long. In nations such as Egypt the population had been living under very oppressive governments. Most of the leaders of Arab nations had been in power for decades. Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak had been in power for more than thirty years. It has been common knowledge for some time that Mubarak ruled with an iron fist. His police force operated like Adolf Hitler’s infamous Reichssicherheitshauptamt. Dissenters who opposed Mubarak were tortured, raped and murdered at will. The growing anger over the authoritarian style of ruling, coupled with the events in Tunisia, set off a chain of events which soon would be uncontrollable for Mubarak. A December, 2010 article from the World News Digest details this: Several thousand Egyptians June 25 staged a rare large-scale demonstration in the port city of Alexandria to protest the death earlier that month of a man alleged to have been a victim of police brutality. Witnesses said two plainclothes police officers June 6 had dragged the man, 28-year-old Khaled Said, out of an Internet cafe and beaten him to death; photographs of his beaten and bruised face had subsequently circulated on the Internet,......

Words: 1371 - Pages: 6

Jungle at Stake

...poster of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, with the words "Mubarak, get out" written above, during a demonstration in Cairo in January. When President Honsi Mubarak stepped down, it was thought that Egypt had completed its revolution. But as Egypt starts its first round of "free and fair elections," Fattah tells weekends on All Things Considered host Guy Raz that she isn't so sure the work is over. Fattah says Egypt is already having major setbacks during this period of transition. And despite Mubarak stepping down, she says, the country is still in the "Mubarak regime" and life is not better than it was a year ago. Egypt's Next Step: Fattah is among those who say the real transition in Egypt will happen when a civilian leader is elected. The recent elections, however, put the Muslim Brotherhood ahead, which perhaps is not exactly what secular activists had in mind. Shadi Hamid, director of research for the Brookings Institute in Doha, says he doesn't see ascendants of Islamist groups as a pitfall for the Middle East."None of this should be surprising," he tells Raz. "Islamists are popular, they're well organized. It was inevitable that they were going to win and dominate in these elections." The Arab Spring Tunisia: Government overthrown on Jan. 14, 2011. President Zine el Abidine Ben Ali flees into exhile. Elections for a Consituent Assembly held on Oct. 23, 2011. Egypt: Government overthrown on Feb. 11, 2011. President Hosni Mubarak steps down, faces charges......

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Arab Spring

...former Tunisian dictator Zine El Abidine was removed from power.[4] During this time there were others in the Arab world watching this on satellite channels like Aljazeera, so there was an increase in cases of self-immolation in other parts of the Arab world, including Egypt.[5] Many in Egypt were watching this going on and thought that if a small country like Tunisia can overthrow a dictator through popular uprising then perhaps they could do the same thing.[6] In Egypt there was a situation in which several forces came together to call for people to go to the streets to protest against the former Mubarak regime. The people who took to the streets and led the protest were mainly socially conscious, educated youth who were also largely underemployed.[7] These men and women helped to lead the way, and went to Tahrir Square for eighteen days of protest that resulted in the Mubarak regime’s removal from power and subsequent democratic elections.[8] Uprisings then began in Yemen, Syria, Jordan, and other parts of the Arab World which ultimately led to several leaders stepping down from power peacefully.[9] In some parts of the Arab world, however, change was not achieved as peacefully. In Libya for example, Muammar Gaddafi was after killed after a long struggle with the Libyan people through a coordinated international effort and was replaced by a new leader.[10] This shows that this Arab Spring is an ongoing, fluid situation that has its roots steeped in the......

Words: 1639 - Pages: 7

Just Adding

...Assay The Arab world's most populous nation is unlikely to scrap its 1979 peace treaty with Israel, cornerstone of a brittle power balance in the region, despite popular pressure following the overthrow of U.S.-friendly leader Hosni Mubarak in February. Yet the top army officers now in charge in Cairo have broken with Mubarak's softly-softly approach. Mubarak saw himself as a pioneer in the pursuit of Middle East peace, yet lost credibility among many Egyptians for what they saw as his failure to stand up to Israel and its powerful backer the United States. "The Egyptian citizen, and the Arab citizen as a whole, is not ready to accept the kind of behavior that former president Mubarak and his group used to accept," said Nabil Abdel Fattah of the Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies. The wind began to change soon after Mubarak's removal. Egypt made goodwill gestures to Israel's arch-foe Iran, eased the isolation of Islamist group Hamas in Gaza by opening the border with the territory and brokered a reconciliation deal between Hamas and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas's Fatah movement. It also moved to redraw contracts for gas export to Israel to squeeze a better deal. When five Egyptian security personnel were killed during an Israeli clash with gunmen who had killed eight Israelis close to the Sinai border on Thursday, Egypt accused Israel of breaching their peace treaty and said it would recall its ambassador. BLOOD "Egyptian......

Words: 792 - Pages: 4

Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted

...points, by reading one article one may take consideration of points that they would have been ignorant to in the past (before reading the first article).   Starting by critically reading the article “Reforming Egypt in 140 Characters?” by Dennis Baron after reading the title and the first sentence one can instantly identify that the revolution was not tweeted, a coincidence I think not.  The first sentence states, “Western observers have been celebrating the role of Twitter, Facebook, smartphones, and the internet in general in facilitating the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak in Egypt last week.”  Western observers stand for Americans who in no way participated in the revolution.  Another point that the author states about how the revolution is not do to Twitter, Facebook and other social media is when he states, “In Cairo’s Tahrir Square continued to grow during the five days that the Mubarak government shut down the internet; that only nineteen percent of Tunisians have online access; that while the Iran protests may have been tweeted round the world, there were few Twitter users actually in-country”  The quote shows that even with no internet the protest still continued to grow in size despite the social media being down. In the essay ‘Small Change: Why the Revolution Will Not Be Tweeted’ Malcolm Gladwell argues that social media doesn’t play a role in big scale revolutionary movements, because it forms weak bonds between people and doesn’t have a hierarchical......

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Humor and Dissent or about themselves. 2 .When citizens in Egypt joked about Mubarak through his regime, they did so to relieve tension.Some Egyptian citizens may have used jokes to show that they were not afraid of Mubarak, and by telling these jokes, they were showing that they (Egyptian citizens), were not afraid to make it known that they did not approve of Mubarak’s regime. 3. Disadvantages of using these types of jokes about Mubarak include the possibility of losing friends. If one Egyptian citizen was against Mubarak's regime, and joked about it to another friend who thought Mubarak was a wonderful person, there could be a problem. Also a second disadvantage could be the fact that they could be killed for what they believe in. 4.Jokes that were told about Mubarak portrayed him to be a violent individual (which he was). Also the jokes told presented Mubarak to be a person who acts like he is open to hearing the questions from Egyptian citizens, but refusing to give any answers to the crowd. 5. Before the revolution in Egypt, citizens may have joked about other people in the regime before Mubarak. 6. During the Arab Spring in Egypt, Egyptian citizens turned to social media as a way to voice their opinions on Mubarak's regime. When they translated older jokes about Mubarak in English, they opened the eyes of Americans and other democracies to the horrors of Mubaraks ways. Using a language that was not the traditional language of Egypt......

Words: 493 - Pages: 2

American History

...reasons. This includes but is not limited to the lack of free elections and freedom of speech, and the food price inflations. In terms of freedom of speech, Egypt is no different than what happened during the events leading up to the revolution. In the past we can see that a person could be beheaded for criticizing the authority of the government, whereas a person could be jailed for criticizing Egypt’s president today. To better understand why the revolts happened, we can connect the similarities from the past to the present. When we look at the elections in Egypt today, we can say that their government does not have regulations when it comes to elections. There are no term limits and we can see that with the President of Egypt, Hosni Mubarak, ruling for his fifth term and over 30 years now. This could not be done without rigging the system. Looking at the food price inflations, we can see that inflation has gone up even though Egypt is in poverty. Because of the scarcity of food, the prices on wheat have risen by 20 percent in 2010 alone. Coupled with the fact that Egyptians live on $2 a day and getting paid minimum wages, it’s hard to believe why they wouldn’t have revolted. As Patrick Henry warns the British of an attack if they did not maintain its liberties, he says these infamous lines “give me liberty, or give me death!” This is relevant in the revolts because people have died from the uprisings fighting for what they should have had all these years. So as we have......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Final B3

...they can plow the fields together, Bittoo refuses and lies to his dad that he and Shruti are going into business together. He goes to Shruti with this idea and she refuses but after seeing his persistence, agrees. They name the company "Shaadi Mubarak". Together, their enterprise is a success with the work equally split between the two. Their first project is low budget but is very successful. Following its success, they go on to plan many more small weddings. Later they migrate to posh colonies of Delhi and get their first big client. After working night and day, they make a huge success out of that event and are ecstatic. At the night of the event, they dance to celebrate their success and Shruti gets drunk. She falls for Bitto and they make love on that night. After waking up Bittoo realizes the mistake he has made as he is not in love with Shruti but does not want to hurt her feelings and acts strangely. Shruti also is extremely nice to him who is unlike her real personality and in an argument Bittoo throws back her own words at her that business and pleasure don't mix and he does not love her. This creates a very tense atmosphere between the two and Bittoo leaves Shaadi Mubarak to create his own wedding planning enterprise called Happy Wedding. Both of them attempt to prove themselves in the industry and provoke other people to go against the other. However, both the enterprises suffer huge losses. They finally......

Words: 2975 - Pages: 12