Free Essay

Mpsk Communication

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By bhsnuyash
Words 2828
Pages 12
M-PSK Communication System

Sunil Panthi, Graduate Student, UCI spanthi@uci.edu Bhanu Pratap Reddy, Graduate Student, UCI bpreddy@uci.edu Abstract—Modeling communication system and establishing bit error rate (BER) with signal to noise ratio (SNR) is a key element in designing communication system. Based on the communication applications, communication channels vary. In cellular communication signal attenuation and fading due to the both deterministic and non-deterministic factors is common. Free space loss is the deterministic type of attenuation. Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN), fast fading (short term), and slow fading (long term or shadow fading) are non-deterministic type of fading. This paper focuses the non-deterministic channel modeling techniques and demonstrates the result in BER as a function of SNR. The relationship between BER and SNR are established for M-PSK system for three channel properties; AWGN, fast, and slow fading. AWGN channel was modeled by normal distribution. Rayleigh distribution were used for fast fading and lognormal distribution for slow fading is used to model. Three primary relationships created after the modeling are * BER to SNR relationship for BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, and 16-PSK for AWGN only channel * BER to SNR relationship for BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, and 16-PSK for AWGN and fast faded channel * BER to SNR relationship for BPSK for AWG, fast faded, and slow faded channel.
The use case of BER to SNR is shown in a sample link budget. Link budget helps to make key system decision such as spectral efficiency, coverage radius, link margin, and availability. Further paper proposes other techniques to improve the BER and fading for given SNR; Forward Error Correction (FEC), interleaving, and diversity just to name few. Those techniques allows improving spectral efficiency and reducing outage.
Keywords—Communication system, M-PSK, Channel simulation, AWGN, Rayleigh fading, Shadow fading, BER curves
Introduction
In communication, message has to be successfully sent from sender to the receiver. In order to successfully send the message, it should be encoded, modulated, transmitted, demodulated, and decoded. During transmission, random noise will be introduced and signal will be faded when going through the channel. It is difficult to predict the actual link attenuation and fading for non-deterministic communication channel. Statistical models help to model and predict the communication link. A model called Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is used to model the noise in the communication system. Transmitted signal is faded due to the various factors in environment. Two common fading are fast fading and slow fading. The urban environment, troposphere and ionosphere create random attenuation in a transmission signal. Rayleigh fading model is used to model fast fading in signal propagation. This distribution can be used to approximate the short-scale and very rapid signal fluctuations [1]. The second source of fading is slow fading and modeled by Shadow Fading given by lognormal distribution. Shadow fading with lognormal distribution is also used to model with diversity such as Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) system [2].
This paper demonstrates information generation, transmission, and estimation using various fading models in communication system and generates the bit error rate (BER) as a function of the signal to noise ratio (SNR). Such modeling and result are valuable to efficiently design a communication link and make system level tradeoffs and design decision. Further they showed how such model can be used to select the margins for different fading situations. It is very important to successfully model the channel so that link design accounts for the necessary margin and mitigation technique to meet the link availability. In this model, we show methodology of the simulation, mathematical model behind simulation, results, and conclusion.

METHODOLOGY
Signal Generation

The first part of the modeling and simulating communication channel is the signal generation. The overview of the communication model is shown in Fig. 1. Information is generated with binary random variable with uniform distribution. Signal is gray coded based on constellation and bits per symbol. When M = 8, it is coded according to 8-PSK constellation, were bits per symbol is given by log2(8). The resulting signal is passed through pulse shaping filter and decomposed into in phase and quadrature which forms a 2-dimentional orthogonal basis. The resulting signal st for carrier frequency fc and phase ∅t is defined by:

st=cos2πfctcos∅t-sin2πfctsin⁡(∅t) (1)

Fig. 1: Communication system model for simulation
Signal Transmission

The generated signal needs to be transmitted. The signal st will have noise n introduced during transmission. The common source of the noise is the white noise. Such noise could be thermal noise, noise from communication electronics, or random process that occurs in nature. The AWGN model represents the noise described above and is given by normal distribution with zero mean and noise variance. The signal yt after AWGN introduced in signal is represented by:

yt= st+n (2) The pulse shaped signal with AWGN is shown in Fig. 2. The amplitude of the signal is distorted by the noise. The signal with AWGN yt is passed through other transmission channels.

Fig. 2: Pulse shaped signal before and AWGN introduced
During transmission, two primary channel fading is introduced; fast fading and slow fading.
The fast fading is the type of the fading that is caused due to the environment and urban areas where scattering of the signal occurs. The signal from source to the destination without line of sight passes through multiple objects. Two type of fast fading are frequency selective and frequency flat. Frequency selective fading is for the channel that has multiple paths from transmitter to receiver. The frequency response of the channel is not flat. The coherence bandwidth is same or smaller than signal bandwidth. Frequency flat fading is for the channel that has single path but not line of sight from transmitter to receiver. The frequency response of the channel is constant for all frequencies. The coherence bandwidth is significantly larger than signal bandwidth. A good example of the fast fading is signal reaching to receiver via tall buildings in urban areas. Fast fading for an amplitude response of α and phase response of β is given by:

h= αejβ (3)

Where α is given by Rayleigh distribution with standard deviation of σ as shown in equation below:

pr= rσ2 e-r22σ2 (4)

β is given by uniform distribution between 0 and 2π.

The signal that goes through AWGN and fast fading channel is given by y(t)' in equation 5.

y(t)'=sth+n (5)

The slow fading is type of the fading where receiver goes to longer fade duration. The common example is when mobile user falls behind the large building where communication is possible either due to dispersion or secondary base station. Slow fading is given by log normal distribution shown in equation below where m is mean and σ is standard deviation.

pr= 1rσ2πe-1(lnr-m)22σ2 (6)

The signal that is distorted by AWGN is send through the fast faded and slow faded channel and shown in Fig. 3. The model created selects either slow fading or fast fading channel but not both after being passed through AWGN.
Fig. 3 shows the signal using model provided byR Rayleigh and Shadow faded model. Fast faded signal faded more frequently with higher dips than slow faded.

Fig. 3: Signal after passing through fast faded (top) and slow faded (bottom) channel
Receive Signal

The constellation of the receive signal will be distorted due to AWGN and fading channels. The degree of the distortion varies based on the constellation type. Fig. 4, 5, and 6 show the constellation of the M-PSK signal received at the receiver after being passed thorough the fading channel. The constellation plot shows that phase distortion on fast faded channel is worst than slow faded channel. This is expected because of the impulse response from scattering the signal from various surface has higher phase and amplitude distortion in short period of time. The slow fading given my Lognormal distribution has higher amplitude distortion in long period of time.

Fig. 4: BPSK constellation at receiver distorted by fast (left) and slow (right) faded channel

Fig. 5:QPSK constellation at receiver distorted by fast (left) and slow (right) faded channel

Fig. 6: 8-PSK constellation at receiver distorted by fast (left) and fast (right) faded channel As the constellation of the M-PSK grows, the difference between two symbol position (phase separation) becomes smaller. Fig 6 shows the phase distortion on the 8-PSK signal for fast faded channel is visually indistinguishable for the normalized receiver power.

Equalizaiton

The receive signal is equalized with simple equalization technique to mitigate the inter symbol interference (ISI). Zero forcing equalizer is the simple equalization technique that is used in this model. It has drawbacks. It can amplify the AWGN noise. The receive signal y(t)' after the equalization is given by y(t)'' where h is the impulse channel response.

y(t)''=y(t)'h (7)
RESULT
The receive signal at the receiver is passed through the matched filter, demodulated, and estimated. The Estimation was to demonstrate the BER of M-PSK signal as a function of SNR.
Bit Error Rate for AWGN

The first estimated was demonstrated for the signal with only AWGN added. Fig. 7 shows the result of the model. BER is plotted against SNR for different M-PSK system. The result from AWGN model match with well understood relationship between BER and SNR as well as theoretical results.

Fig. 7: Bit error rate for BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, and 16-PSK as function of SNR for AWGN introduced channel
In this result BER of 10E-7 was achieved when SNR is about 17 dB. For same BER, QPSK, 8-PSK, and 16-PSK modulated signal require higher SNR as shown on the result above. Higher order modulation delivers higher efficiency in terms of bits per hertz. However, it requires higher SNR at the receiver. The higher SNR at the receiver can be achieved by higher transmit power, higher transmit and receive antenna gain. Transmission resources such as higher transmit power often are constrained by other factors such as regulation. This is a challenge for a communication engineer when planning the signal transmission and requires careful balance between efficiency and power resource.

Bit Error Rate for Rayleigh and Shadow Faded

The signal received from AWGN and Rayleigh faded is demodulated, equalized, and estimated for each modulation type. The BER for fast faded signal is higher than AWGN-only introduced channel for same modulation type. The bit error rate increased as the modulation order increase as shown in Fig 8. Achieving bit error rate of 10E-7 for BPSK will require significantly higher SNR than for the channel where only AWGN was introduced. In this result BER of 10E-7 require around 35 dB of SNR for BPSK modulation type.

Fig. 8: BER for BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, and 16-PSK as function of SNR for fast faded channel
Fig. 9 us created to highlighted the difference between AWGN, Shadow, and Rayleigh faded BPSK signal.

*
Fig. 9: BER of BPSK as function of SNR for AWGN, fast, and slow faded channel
As shown the result the bit error rate of 10E-7 is achieved around 17 dB of SNR, however achieving same error rate for Rayleigh and Shadow faded signal would require significantly higher SNR.
Link Budget

The BER to SNR relationship obtained in AWGN, fast and slow faded channel is valuable in link budgeting. It is highly desirable in communication system to have lower BER like 10E-7. From the curve, equivalent SNR can be mapped for each M-PSK constellation for desired BER. Various trade off such as carrier frequency, transmit power, outage, and coverage radius can be made. The example shown on the Table 1 shows the coverage radius for lower order modulation requiring lower SNR and higher order modulation requiring higher SNR. Coverage radius is 230 m and 73 m for BPSK and QPSK respectively using common transmission parameters in AWGN channel. For same BER, coverage radius for fast faded channel is 33 m when operating at BPSK. It is clear that impact of fast faded signal for same modulation type is large. Although, this example is focused on demonstrating coverage radius to meet the target BER, various other trade off can be made while creating a link budget. One example is that we lower the availability and offer service in larger radius for same BER. Second example is to plan for different transmit power to meet the SNR requirement of certain modulation type.

Table 1: Sample link budget based on BER, SNR, and M-PSK relation obtained from the model | AWGN, BPSK | Rayleigh BPSK | AWGN QPSK | Tx Power (dBW) | -6.00 | -6.00 | -6.00 | Freq. (Hz) | 5.20E+09 | 5.20E+09 | 5.20E+09 | Wavelength(m) | 0.0577 | 0.0577 | 0.0577 | SNR (dB) | 18.00 | 35.00 | 28.00 | BER | 1.00E-07 | 1.00E-07 | 1.00E-07 | alpha | 2.00 | 2.00 | 2.00 | Noise PSD (dBW/Hz) | -204.00 | -204.00 | -204.00 | Noise PSD 1 Mhz | 60.00 | 60.00 | 60.00 | Freq. Loss (dB) | 46.76 | 46.76 | 46.76 | Link Margin (dB) | 20.00 | 20.00 | 20.00 | Noise Figure (dB) | 6.00 | 6.00 | 6.00 | Path Loss Margin (dB) | 47.24 | 30.24 | 37.24 | Radius (m) | 230 | 33 | 73 |

discussion and conclusion

From the model, BER, SNR, and M-PSK relationship was created for three channel types; AWGN, fast faded, and slow faded. The result shows that lower order modulation, like BPSK requires lower SNR to achieve certain BER where as higher order modulation, like 16-PSK requires significantly higher SNR to achieve the same BER for same channel type. But higher order modulations have higher spectral efficiency (bits/Hz) and require higher SNR. Higher SNR can be achieved by increasing transmit power of transmitter, having directive antenna at transmitter or receiver, having diversity in the communication channel. Further, fast faded given by Rayleigh distribution and slow/shadow faded given by Lognormal distribution require significantly higher SNR to achieve same bit error rate than signal with AWGN. Comparing between slow fading and fast fading channel; depending on the duration either can preform better or worst. For the short duration slow fading has relatively worst performance. For the longer duration fast fading has relatively worst performance.
In order to improve the BER to SNR performance, channel can be diversified for the slow or fast faded case. MIMO is one of the solutions that can helps to reduce the effect of fading and decrease the outage. Further adaptive modulation in which modulation can dynamically change to adapt to the fading conditions allows change the modulation type based on the SNR and maintain the same BER. For example when receiver can receive in higher SNR it will operate at higher order modulation such as 16-PSK offering higher spectral efficiency. During fade conditions it will operate at lower order modulation such as BPSK and maintain the link reliability while offering lower spectral efficiency. Introducing Forward Error Correction (FEC) such as Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) and Turbo Product Code (TPC) further lower the bit error rate for same SNR and increases the spectral efficiency. FEC adds redundant bits before transmission and uses mathematical model to estimate the error bits without re-transmission. FEC not only improves the reliability of the communication channel but also lower the BER for same modulation type at the same SNR. Having FEC in the system coupled with adaptive modulation allows to operate at the adaptive modulation and coding technique to adapt to the changing SNR in the receive signal. The rate of the FEC vary along with the modulation coding. Interleaving is another technique to improve the error rate in the system. Interleaving is based on transforming burst packet losses into uniform packet losses, which can lower the packet loss, and effectively lowering BER. Before message are transmitted, it is read into the buffer in rows and transmitted in the column allowing receiver to recover [3]. The model met the primary objective of modeling M-PSK system for various channel conditions.

* references

[1] Jie Lai; Mandayam, Narayan B., "Fade margins for minimum duration outages in lognormal shadow fading and Rayleigh fading," Signals, Systems & Computers, 1997. Conference Record of the Thirty-First Asilomar Conference on , vol.1, no., pp.609,613 vol.1, 2-5 Nov. 1997

[2] Jie Lai; Mandayam, Narayan B., "Minimum duration outages in Rayleigh fading channels," Communications, IEEE Transactions on , vol.49, no.10, pp.1755,1761, Oct 2001

[3] Ming-Fong Tsai; Chih-Heng Ke; Hao-Ming Liang; Hsiung-Yu Huang, "Forward Error Correction with Interleaving mechanism combining Cognitive Technology for video streaming over wireless networks," Wireless and Pervasive Computing (ISWPC), 2011 6th International Symposium on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 23-25 Feb. 2011 * appendixes * * Source code for this model will be provided in a separate electronic copy.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Communication

...Professional Health Care Communication Professional Health Care Communication There are many different modules of communication in healthcare. Communications relays feelings, and thoughts through a series of verbal and non-verbal cues. In the healthcare setting effective communication among the healthcare team is crucial. It allows for minimal miscommunication, and safe quality care of the patient. The lack of communication results in healthcare providers missing important information which can lead to misunderstanding or wrong interpretations of the patient’s needs and/or expectations. Poor communication affects both healthcare professionals and patients. Patients may not understand their rights and the choices available to them if communication is not clear, concise and correct. (Arnold & Boggs. 2011). Additional exploration will show of how relevant effective professional healthcare communication is to health outcomes, and how the lack of effective personal and professional communication contributes to poor health outcomes. “Healthcare communication is concerned with the application of communication concepts and theories to transactions that occur among individuals on health-related issues” (Northhouse, 1998). The healthcare spectrum is a broad entity that encompasses roles of healthcare providers ranging from community outreach programs, to physician’s offices, hospitals, and individuals working in the community, to the insurance companies, and includes......

Words: 1360 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Communication

...HCS 320 Communication Opinion Paper Communication Communication refers to the simple process of sending and receiving messages. Great communicators are endowed with exceptional capacity to speak and build a climate of openness to make people listen attentively, leading to personal effectiveness” (Showry, M. M., & Manasa, K. 2012). However, in some instances, the messages sent and received may be unclear to either party. The communication process involves more to make certain there is mutual understanding. Mutual understanding supports the effectiveness of communication; this is a significant factor. Effective Communication Effective communication is a two-way process; it entails sending the right message while making certain that the information received is accurate and supporting understanding. An individual must have interpersonal skills to master effective communication. Effectively communicating involves the shared understanding of the feelings, thoughts, wants, needs, and intentions of the communicators, which may not be openly expressed in words (Cheesebro, T., O’Connor, L., & Rios, F. 2010; pg 5). To communicate effectively, one must understand and incorporate the basic elements of communication. The basic elements of communication are sender/receiver, encoding, decoding, message, channel, and feedback. Basic Elements The first element of communication is the sender and receiver. When speaking, an individual acts as a “transceiver” by not only sending......

Words: 1231 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Communication

...Communication Kathryn toliver-Jackson HCA/230 April 28, 2013 Jennifer Brumm Communication The two main types of communication are verbal and non-verbal. Verbal communication is the use of sound and language that is used to relay a message. It expresses ideas, desires, and concepts. According to “Non-verbal Communication” (n.d), “non-verbal communication is the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless cues between people”. Along with non-verbal communication, verbal communication acts as the primary tool for expression. In this paper I will be writing about the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication. The difference in verbal and non-verbal communication is that verbal communication includes thing like volume, rate, and pronunciation. Non-verbal communication includes things like posture, eye contact, and hand movements and hand gestures. Non-verbal communication is one of the biggest parts of communication. Non-verbal communication is a natural form of communication that speaks the truth. Verbal communication is spoken and written words. Verbal communication is a natural way of life. There are many different forms of verbal communication. For example, different people speak different languages and have accents. There are many principles of communication, but the three that I think make communication effective are to successfully give the message, make the other person interested in what you are saying, and give them a...

Words: 763 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Communication

...to 1,050-word paper describing demonstrative communication, which includes nonverbal and unwritten communication and involves such things as facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language. Include the following elements in your paper: Provide examples showing how demonstrative communication can be effective, ineffective, positive, and negative for the sender and receiver. * Explain how demonstrative communication involves listening and responding. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Demonstrative communication is when an expression made either by tone or body language. When it comes to nonverbal and unwritten communication facial expressions can demonstrate on exactly how the individual feels about the message. The response will be given efficiently because message was set up to allow receiver to give positive feedback. Demonstrative communication can be ineffective if the receiver misinterprets the message. An example would be when the receiver is from a different culture and the message is interpreted in a way sender did not want to convey. Thus the message deliverance is not accomplished because feedback from decoding message is negative. Demonstrative communication uses the influence of messages with tone of voice and body language with interpretation. Thus sender and receiver on a positive note can communicate efficiently because of the response implied before verbal or written communication. The negative side of things for sender and......

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Communication

...The Ways of having an Effective Organizational Communication Communication is fundamental to the foundation, success and effectiveness of an organization. Experts note that too much communication is not a bad thing. While some think of it as a just part of the bureaucracy, communication is essential in managing employees and pushing for organizational growth. Without proper communication between different components of the organization, it is impossible to properly facilitate processes and other procedures. Organizational communication involves formal and informal communications throughout an organization. This branch of communications considers an organization's communications to employees, with employees and from employees to upper management. When a business or agency does not establish clear communication policies, define roles or provide training for better communications, this can result in several barriers to effective communication. The writer is showed the element of communication process involve. There is an idea that need to communicate, and the message will sent to receiver in the form of verbally and non-verbally. The successful transmission is depends on content and context. Content is the way to deliver message through tone, expression, body language as well as gestures. However the content is the actual words which is a part of the message. In the article, there are 3 types of communication barriers. Those are ourselves , perception and mental stage.......

Words: 1326 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Communication

...effective communication can be achieved in an organization.  (Be sure to refer to both interpersonal and organizational communication.) Communication is a two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. The effectiveness of communication is therefore determined whether the receiver attributes the same meaning to the message after interpreting it. Whether on an individual or organizational level it is important to achieve effective communication in an organization because failing to do so will result in lowered efficiency and effectiveness. Interpersonal Communication This type of communication takes place every time we interact. A breakdown in this type of communication can be costly to an organization animosity and reduced co-operation in the workplace. The sender and the receiver shares responsibility for effective communication. Thus, senders must send a clear message and receivers must possess good listening skills for the communication to be effective. Sending a Clear Message Verbal communication accounts significant percentage of communication that takes place. In communicating one must be careful of word choice; concrete and abstract. Concrete words represent objects and makes ideas easily conveyed while abstract words are ambiguous and as a result an idea conveyed with this word usage is subjective. Effective communication......

Words: 375 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Communication

...Let’s Talk! A Communication Proposal COM425: Communication in Organizations Instructor: Terry Moser March 3, 2014 There are many concepts of communication that must happen within the workplace. In this paper, I will discuss a few concepts that I feel are the most important for successful communication within an organizational setting. I will discuss how to practice active listening, the importance of organizational culture, how to resolve conflict, and the process of formal and informal communication. I will address why they are necessary for successful communication and how best to implement them within your organization. I. Topic Sentence #1 Active listening is a communication skill that facilitates understanding, comprehension and compassion between people. Good listeners actively process information, make comments and ask questions. They engage in conversation and purposeful in listening, therefore creating opportunities that improve relationships, cooperation and solve problems. Supporting Evidence Active listening is important in all situations where people are communicating with each other. According to the National Communication Association, “Effective communication is critical to achieving high quality personal and work relationships” A. Explanation Some people may think that hearing what the other person is saying is enough, but just hearing a person does not guarantee that the person’s message is being interpreted as they intend it. The keyword......

Words: 1350 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Communication

...Communication Paper M, Y SOC/110 August 04, 2014 Robert Holland Communication Paper Communication is “the act of using words, sounds, signs, or behaviors to express or exchange information or express your ideas, thought, feelings, etc., to someone else (Merriam-Webster, 2014). Communication is the key to success in any group. Communication happens in different styles; one can communicate verbally, nonverbally, and through writing. One can communicate face-to-face, in groups and teams, in writing, and through technology. To be a good communicator everyone needs to learn to be good listeners. The better one listens, the better they are at communicating. Listening is more than paying attention; it is actually hearing the person who is talking. People communicate in different ways, and the knowledge of verbal and nonverbal skills will help a person to become a better communicator. “Verbal communication focuses on how you use your words and language. Interaction may be face-to-face, fax to fax, over the phone, or through electronic mail, but regardless of the channel used, groups do their work through language” (Engleberg & Wynn, pg. 125). Verbal interaction happens in everything we do in life. It is important to know how to speak, and what tone to use while in conversation with others. Our verbal words can be positive as well as negative, and this will affect the way the collaboration goes. The more positive the communication; the more constructive the......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Communication

...------------------------------------------------- Communication For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). "Communicate" redirects here. For other uses, see Communicate (disambiguation). Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share" [1]) is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of ideas, feelings, intentions, attitudes, expectations, perceptions or commands, as by speech, non-verbal gestures, writings, behavior and possibly by other means such as electromagnetic, chemical or physical phenomena and smell. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more participants (machines, organisms or their parts).[2][3] Communication requires a sender, a message, a medium and a recipient, although the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver understands the sender's message.[citation needed] Communicating with others involves three primary steps:[4] * Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feeling. * Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. * Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or...

Words: 2378 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Communication

...importance of communication in an organization can be summarized as follows: 1. Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark. 2. Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. 3. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moulding employee’s attitudes. 4. Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication. 5. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational member’s behaviour in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management. An effective and efficient......

Words: 2659 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Communication

...Communication Cesar A. Salomon Grantham University Abstract The purpose of this paper is to talk about the different types and styles of communications and why it is important to an organization. Communication So let’s begin this paper with the types of communications in an organization. There are basically only two of them: Verbal Communication and Non-Verbal Communication. Verbal Communication is simply put is communication between management and all other personnel within an organization whether it be by word of mouth, over the telephone or email or other types of correspondence such as memos or fliers. Weekly meetings is one of the main staple of passing along information to your employees. They are told when projects are coming up, given praise when a job has been done well and complemented. Given grief when the job was not completed on time or there were other problems that arose that could have been prevented. Writing an email to everyone, especially when personnel are in other locations. This ensures that everyone gets it, and you have a soft copy kept on your computer. Speaking with your employees over the telephone works just the same as a meeting or an email, because they hear it directly from you. Then you have Non-Verbal Communication which is another way of saying grapevine or what you hear around the office. Where information is being passed along but it hasn’t been confirmed by management. This can lead to misinformation, but it could be......

Words: 677 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Communication

...Anna Neriza E. Custodio Rheyneil H. Caballero Clark Jonar R. Aguilar Chapter 6 Communication Communication is a requirement for survival and growth not only of people but also organizations. In the past, nations rose and fell depending on their ability to communicate effectively. History is replete with stories of individuals who became successful because of their effective management of communication. When ancient Rome became the target of hostile forces, its communication system was effective enough to warn its leaders about the forthcoming danger. Modern armies consider communication as an important factor in waging a successful attempt to defeat the enemy. In the same manner, modern organizations consider communication as an important factor in motivating their employees to improve productivity and to meet competition. What is Communication? Communication may be defined as the transfer of information including feelings, and ideas, from one person to another, the goal of communication is to have the receiver understand the message as it was intended. The transfer process, however, is affected by a number of factors that either help or hinder the message. The Importance of Communication Without communication, organizations cannot exist. It is through communication that the individual members of the organization will know the important concerns such as: 1. What their organization is 2. What objectives their organization wants to achieve 3. What their roles......

Words: 3447 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Communication

...“It is believed that one of the failures of the previous government was that effective communication with the people; with reference to the present economic crisis did not take place. Comment on this and suggest ways that the former government could have communicated the situation more effectively.” “Communication is the process of transmitting information, ideas and opinions from one person to another. It involves sending messages to a target person and receiving feedback that the massage has been understood and acted on.” 1 Communication could be informing your sub-ordinates about their performance, telling them about the new objectives of the company and giving direction to employees about their work. These are all examples of communication. “Poor communication is the inability to convey your message to the other person or a group. In an organization, poor communication leads to de-motivation of employees.” 2 Poor communication was clearly evident from the previous Government. Fianna Fáil and The Green Party failed to communicate with the public and the opposition parties the crisis we as a nation were facing. We were aware of a down turn in the economy with house prices dropping and people signing on the live register everyday but the Government tries to “pull the wool over our eyes” when it came to knowing the actual facts, “Anglo Irish Bank”. “We’re taking unpopular decisions because they’re necessary in the national interest,” Mr O’Dea said.”But we don’t...

Words: 1841 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Communication

...head: Effective Communication Effective Communication Michael Sharpe Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Communication is a necessity in virtually every activity a person engages. Yet with the constant communication that takes place on a daily basis, poor communication is still a problem. Learning to communicate and to communicate well is the key to an overall safe flying activity and is most definitely the safe recovery of the aircraft during and incident. Communication is everyone’s responsibility, understanding the process of effective communication is only part of the overall experience. Learning to identify and combat the barriers is also part of the communication equation. There are three types of communication, verbal, written and non-verbal. Verbal communication is just that, the speech a person uses everyday. During the brief or when the pilot checks in, he is constantly using verbal communication. Written communication is present in nearly every action associated with an aircraft in daily operations. It exists in the form of checklists, memos, forms, and miscellaneous paper work. The non-verbal, simple put is body language. The actions and motions you make while communicating. These usually come naturally to most people and are unintentional. The use of these three types of communication can vary, but ultimately the effective use of these elements will determine the effectiveness of the communication. Communication can be......

Words: 1826 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Communication

...Communication factors and theories Communication is the imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium. (Oxford Dictionary 2014) Communication is fundamental to human life, and whether communication is voluntary or involuntary it exists within all human beings (McCabe and Timmins 2006) We as individuals develop communication skills from an early age to enable us to progress and respond. As we grow older we learn to respond to others in a way that the situation requires. We are not always going to feel the same and people will not be the same towards to us. It is vital that we learn to recognise how people are feeling and adjust our communication skills towards them accordingly. Effective communication involves much more than just giving or receiving information. Good communication and interpersonal skills are essential to the practice of effective health and social care. In communicating with others, the practitioner needs to be able to use a variety of strategies to ensure professional practice, meet health and social care needs and facilitate positive working relationships. Different localities, ethnic groups, and work cultures all have their own terminology, speech patterns and phrases. Some people may feel threatened or excluded by the kind of speech they encounter in these speech communities. Special terminology used by care professionals is often called jargon. Jargon can create barriers for people who are not a part of......

Words: 1245 - Pages: 5