Motivation Theory

In: Business and Management

Submitted By KayThi
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literature review As pointed by Vroom [1964], motivation is derived from the Latin word “movere”, which means “to move”. It is an internal force, dependent on an individual’s needs which derive him/her to achieve. Shulze and Steyn [2003] affirmed that in order to understand people’s behavior at work, managers or supervisors must be aware of the concept of needs or motives, which will help ‘move’ their staffs to act. According to Robbins [2001], motivation is a need-satisfying process which means that when an individual’s needs are satisfied or motivated by certain factors, the individual will exert superior effort toward attaining organizational goals. People primarily do what they do to meet their needs or wants. Understanding that people are motivated by self-interest is the key to understanding motivation.
Theories of motivation can be divided to explain the behavior and attitude of employees. These include content theories, based on the assumption that people have individual needs which motivate their actions, and theorists such as Maslow [1954], McClelland [1961], Herzberg [1966] and Alderfer [1969] are renowned for their works in this field. In contrast to content theories, process theories identified relations among variables which make up motivation and involve works from Heider [1958], Vroom [1964], Adams [1965], Locke [1976], and Lawler [1973].
In addition, reinforcement theory [B.F.Skinner, 1938] that proposes the consequences of the behaviors that motivate the employees to behave in predetermined ways.

2.1 Process motivation theories Process theory provides a description and analysis of how behavior is energized, directed, sustained and stopped. Its three process theories are as follow;
○ Equity theory – the structure of equity in workplace is based on ratio of inputs [contributions made by employees for the organization] to outcomes. This…...

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