Level of Learning

In: Business and Management

Submitted By xxmattzxx
Words 769
Pages 4
Levels of Learning

Single-Loop Learning

Single-loop learning assumes that problems and their solutions are close to each other in time and space (thought they often aren't). In this form of learning, we are primarily considering our actions. Small changes are made to specific practices or behaviors, based on what has or has not worked in the past. This involves doing things better without necessarily examining or challenging our underlying beliefs and assumptions. The goal is improvements and fixes that often take the form of procedures or rules. Single-loop learning leads to making minor fixes or adjustments, like using a thermostat to regulate temperature.
Are we doing things right? Here's what to do—procedures or rules.

Double-Loop Learning

Double-loop learning leads to insights about why a solution works. In this form of learning, we are considering our actions in the framework of our operating assumptions. This is the level of process analysis where people become observers of themselves, asking, “What is going on here? What are the patterns?” We need this insight to understand the pattern. We change the way we make decisions and deepen understanding of our assumptions. Double-loop learning works with major fixes or changes, like redesigning an organizational function or structure.
Are we doing the right things? Here's why this works—insights and patterns.

Triple-Loop Learning

Triple-loop learning involves principles. The learning goes beyond insight and patterns to context. The result creates a shift in understanding our context or point of view. We produce new commitments and ways of learning. This form of learning challenges us to understand how problems and solutions are related, even when separated widely by time and space. It also challenges us to understand how our previous actions created the conditions that led to our current…...

Similar Documents


...or aids that include both print and nonprint media that are intended to supplement, rather than replace, actual teaching * Used to assist the teacher to deliver messages clearly and creatively and to help the learner retain more effectively what they learn Choosing instructional materials * Characteristics of the learner – It is important to “know your audience” so media can be chosen that best suit the learners’ perceptual abilities, physical abilities, reading abilities, motivational levels, developmental stages, and learning styles. * Characteristics of the media – A wide variety of media, print and nonprint, are available to enhance your teaching. The tools selected are the form through which the information will be communicated. No single medium is most effective. Therefore, using a multimedia approach is suggested. * Characteristic of the task – The task to be accomplished depends on identifying the complexity of the behaviour and the domains for learning – what the learner needs to know, value, or be able to do. Three major components of instructional materials 1. Delivery system – the physical form of the material and the hardware used to present the material; depends on the size of the audience, how quickly or slowly the information needs to be presented, and the sensory abilities of the audience 2. Content – the actual information that is shared with the learners; the material should give accurate information, should be......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4


...Quote The educational system is broken: without identifying and reducing the factors that prevent students from learning, education best efforts become futile. There are approximately 3.2 million students graduating this year from urban American high schools. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, over 40 percent of these students will not be able to perform college-level work and most of them will require some type of remediation to be successful. Although Paulo Friere and James Loewen have clearly noted the faulty educational process based on learning patterns and inadequate materials; they may have overlooked other underlying factors that may indeed cause a deficit in the educational process and produce a lower standard of education. These factors include but are not limited to ethnic background and socioeconomic status and environment. After thoroughly researching supporting arguments to my theory that Friere and Loewen both overlooked socioeconomics and teacher / pupil relationship importance. I stumbled upon, “A Comparative Study of Pupils Perception of Pedagogic Process” (McNess) and “Effects of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics and Class Composition on Highly Competent Children”. (Stefania Maggi) These studies illustrate how students view motivation, engagement and the conditions necessary for effective teaching and learning. Education and National Culture: A comparative study of attitudes to secondary schooling (ENCOMPASS) and Early......

Words: 1278 - Pages: 6


...The Open University (OU) is a prime example of a Higher Education institution which has had the savvy to realise the opportunity afforded through eLearning to target a specific type of learner who does not fit the traditional model of a university student (9). As the leading model of distance learning institution, the OU is well accustomed to educating remote learners and has, through its commercial subsidiary Corous, begun offering “computer based interactive learning and training systems”(25) to organisations looking to train and equip their employees with a number of new skills(25) Despite Professor Lilliard’s assessment, eLearning now plays an integral part in the Open University’s strategy (4) and it is pivotal in their attempts to lure the corporate clients. As far as an individual is concerned, eLearning presents the learner with the opportunity to engage in study without the need to be physically present at his/her institution and as such, is liberated from the need to attend preordained sessions or lectures (23). This emancipation of the learning process means that education is immediately made accessible to those who would otherwise find a fixed time table prohibitive or would otherwise be unable to attend the institution of their choice (26). 6. Limitations and shortcomings of eLearning According to Macpherson, the overwhelming majority of information concerning eLearning gravitates towards its advantages (27), however the author’s experience would suggest......

Words: 703 - Pages: 3

Sociology a-Level

... Date of Exam: June 2010 Duration: 2 hr The Unit 2 exam is worth 60% of your final AS level grade. There will be 90 marks available on the paper. You will answer one question on the chosen topic, one question on sociological research methods in context and one question on research methods. Assessment Objectives AO1 Knowledge and understanding of the theories, methods, concepts a) The nature of sociological thought AS and A Level candidates are required to study the following concepts and theoretical issues: • social order, social control • social change • conflict and consensus • social structure and social action • the role of values • the relationship between sociology and contemporary social policy. b) Methods of sociological enquiry Sociological research involves the use of a range of methods and sources of data. All AS and A Level candidates are required to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of these methods and sources, and to understand the relationship between theory and methods, particularly in the way sociologists deal with: * the collection of primary and secondary data * the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data using appropriate concepts * factors influencing the design and conduct of sociological research * practical, ethical and theoretical issues arising in sociological research. c) Themes AS and A Level candidates are required to study two themes: • socialisation, culture and identity.......

Words: 1881 - Pages: 8

Three Levels

...Comparison of the Three Levels of Health Promotion Queeny M. Carmouche Grand Canyon University: NRS-429V-0102 January 19, 2014 Comparison of the Three Levels in Health Promotion in Nursing Practice Health promotion and disease prevention are appropriate for everyone. High-quality health promotion and disease deterrence can slow disease process, improve one’s ability to live independently and lead an active life, even with people with major health issues. During the 1970’s the concern about the physician shortage lead to the expansion of education in the health profession. Health care professionals are at the core of health promotion by engaging in the educational process with the patient. Health promotion and prevention are what will lead the individual to an improved quality of life. Making healthy choices towards health care will impact lives dramatically. The goals for Healthy People 2020 are “1) eliminate preventative disease, disability, injury and premature death; 2) achieve health equity and eliminate health disparities; 3) create social and physical environments that promote good health for all; and 4) promote healthy development and healthy behavior at every stage of life.” (Healthy People, 2010). Goals set in Healthy People 2020 are an attempt to create a paradigm shift from traditional care of treating illness to preventative care. Definition of Health Promotion Health promotion can be defined as “a process of enabling people to increase control over......

Words: 1344 - Pages: 6

Business-Level and Corporate-Level Strategies

...them, setting the standard to be the best in the industry promotes the necessary competitive edge needed to ensure the company continues to delivery its winning edge products that keeps customers loyal to the name. McDonald’s is also known for their child meal concepts selling hamburgers French fries soft drinks breakfast items chicken sandwiches and deserts. McDonald’s business level strategy also responds to the competitive dynamics of the industry by innovating new products, such as the Snack Wrap, market penetration, such as into the breakfast industry, product proliferation, such as burgers, and market development such as the McCafe with specialty coffees (Hill and Jones, 209-211). McDonald’s also carefully select who they market their product to as well as the locations and how they market the products depending on what country they are providing services to. McDonalds corporate level strategies are used to elevate them to a successful corporation that thrive on the approach of meeting the needs of the customers they serve, ensuring satisfaction. I feel that McDonald’s corporate level strategies allow the company to concentrate on their establishment being able to enhance it’s competitiveness within the business. McDonalds’s has been around several years and has withstood the competition for many years. McDonals’s competition comes from Burger King, as well as Five Guys. These companies gives McDonald’s competition, they offer similar items on their menu,......

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5


...cost, the choice made, time and legislation. Any organization looks for minimizing the human resources recruitment, selection and employment costs. This article presents the importance of cost in choosing the best practices of recruitment, selection, employment and integration of new employees in the organization, though, the cost is an important variable for analysis. In this article is presented the research made in large organizations from Dambovita County, Romania, and are also presented the costs and their consequences on medium and longterm over the organization activities These activities are discrimination, sexual harassment, ethics, low performance and results, by choosing the “wrong” people, and implicitly diminishing the level of qualifications, knowledge and abilities, by growing the absenteeism, the direct and indirect costs of these processes and the direct consequences over the time management. Key words: Cost/benefit analysis, Human resources recruitment, Selection, Employment, Efficiency, large organizations. 1. Introduction Human factor is recognized as been one of the key factors by which is obtained the organizational success (Porter M.E., 1990). Only anticipating and retaining those right people, an organization can obtain success into a competitive, global, dynamic and continuous changing environment (Sims R.R., 2002). Peter Drucker mentioned in 1992 about the nature of recruitment that « any organization is competing for......

Words: 6980 - Pages: 28

Correlation of Students’ Reading Comprehension Level and Their Academic Performance in Key Learning Areas

...“Correlation of Students’ Reading Comprehension Level and Their Academic Performance in Key Learning Areas” which is prepared and submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in Education is hereby accepted. MYREL M. SANTIAGO, MAET Adviser THESIS COMMITTEE NINEZ L. BAUTISTA, MAED Chairman LILIA M. SANTIAGO, Ed. D. Member | AUGUSTO N. LULU JR., MAED Member | Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Arts in Education [MAED]. Comprehensive Examination passed. MYRNA Q. MALLARI, DBA Academic Administrator ECF Project – FREE Date: ___________________ CORRELATION OF STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION LEVEL AND THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN KEY LEARNING AREAS A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the Graduate School University of St. La Salle Bacolod City In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Education Major in English OLIVER IBARRA YUMUL June 2013 ABSTRACT Title: CORRELATION OF STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION LEVEL AND THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN KEY LEARNING AREAS Researcher: Oliver Ibarra Yumul Degree: Master of Arts in Education Major: English Institution: University of St. La Salle, Bacolod City This study is aimed to determine the level of reading comprehension skill of first......

Words: 1318 - Pages: 6

The Effect of Infrastructural Facilities on School Enrollment Rates and Learning Levels in Rural India

...EFFECT OF CHANGES IN INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES ON SCHOOL ENROLLMENT RATES AND LEARNING LEVELS IN RURAL INDIA Sara Abraham Table of Contents Sl. No. | Content | Page No. | 1. | Methodology | 1 | 2. | Sampling Method | 1 | 3. | Scope and Challenges faced | 1 | 4. | Introduction | 2 | 5. | Performance of States | 2 | 6. | Inferences and Concluding Remarks | 4 | 7. | References | 5 | 8. | Appendix | 6 | Methodology The primary data source for this project is the ASER reports from 2007,2009-2012. Analysis of the obtained data has been done by constructing state-wise tables for school infrastructural facilities and studying the trends in both, time-series and cross-sectional data. Only disaggregated data was available for school enrollment and learning levels (disaggregated age-group wise and gender-wise. While such data prove useful for analysis of gender, age and social gaps, for this project, they were more of an impediment). Ranking of different states was done for all of the disaggregated data and a weighted average (equal weights assigned to each state) was taken to determine the final ranking of states in terms of school attendance and learning levels. Working papers from CDS and DSE, obtained from the respective websites and EPW articles have also been used to aid the analysis. Cross-checking as to whether the inferences drawn from the analyses are in line with other reports and studies have also been done. Sampling Method A sample of......

Words: 2894 - Pages: 12


... Mezirow defines learning as "process of using a prior interpretation to construct a new or a revised interpretation of the meaning of one's experience in order to guide future action."(2000, p.5) We use past experiences to change and to get a better understanding of how to cope with situations for our future. When adult learners return to school, they are skeptical in their understanding of what the teacher is expecting them to learn in order to pass their GED test. When adults have not worked in years or living in poverty, a new job may intimidate them. As adults, we have to be to open to change; therefore, being able to understanding how their experiences and deconstructing their thought processes. During Mezirow's transformation learning of early development, critiques leveled against the theory, and various revisions were made. We have to use prior knowledge to gain more knowledge. Adult learners cannot rely on the teachers or employers for all the information needed to successful, but deconstruct using instruction, dialog and self-reflection. Friere argued the consciousness growth, the lowest stage, was intransitive thought. I agree that you can't rely solely on your higher power to achieve everything for you. Some things that one wants to accomplish can be done in the right manner along with the one’s higher power’s assistance. I agree with Friere’s higher level of critical transitivity that one can think globally and critically about the present condition and......

Words: 479 - Pages: 2

Vines Laboratory and Elearning on Retention of Learning Among Level Ii Student Nurses

...Retention of Learning Among Level II Student Nurses A Thesis presented to the Faculty of Institute of Nursing Far Eastern University By: BSN 118 Group 71 Balanay, Shara Jane; Lewis, Samantha; Lisay, Kathreen; Martinez, Nikka; Obar, Zharmaine; Patiño, Mary Caryl; Quigao, Abigael; Reyes, Laurice; Silang, Johnas; Taylor, Ivanna Jane; Uy, Ashley Chloè In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for The course in Nursing Research Far Eastern University September 2010 Abstract The study seeks to determine the difference in the learning retention rate of students exposed to either eLearning or VINES laboratory instruction.             88 students from Level II Institute of Nursing of the Far Eastern University were purposively selected for the experiment, specifically those without prior experience with the modules. Subjects were notified of the purposes of the research through an informed consent. The respondents, categorized randomly as either Group A or B and were given the same lessons thru eLearning or a simulated-hospital setting using VINES respectively.             Mean scores gathered from the two groups were computed, with the difference evaluated using independent t-test. Significant difference was noted between the mean scores of students under Group A and B suggestive that VINES provides students greater advantage in learning retention than eLearning.  Given the results, the researchers recommended the use of more VINES sessions since......

Words: 11711 - Pages: 47

Consumer Behavior - Why Would Some Consumers Have High-Involvement Levels in Learning About This Sales Promotion

...of choosing an airline? 2. Would this plan suggested by the vice president help in convincing the customers to use Star Airways? Give your reasons. 1. Has Shobha identified the best target market for Mouse-Rid? Why or why not? 2. Does Shobha have enough needed data on consumer behaviour? What type of consumer research should Shobha conduct? 3. What type of advertising can influence consumers for this type of product? 1. Discuss the nature of problem(s) in this case? 2. Suggest the kind of consumer research needed? 3. How should Golden Glow be positioned/ repositioned to bring about the desired change among consumers? Give your reasons. 1. Why would some consumers have high-involvement levels in learning about this sales promotion? 2 Is a level of 75 per cent comprehension realistic among those who become aware of an ad? Why or why not? 3. Do you think such promotions are likely to influence the quality image of the retail store? Explain. WE PROVIDE CASE STUDY ANSWERS, ASSIGNMENT SOLUTIONS, PROJECT REPORTS AND THESIS aravind.banakar@gmail.com ARAVIND - 09901366442 – 09902787224...

Words: 298 - Pages: 2


...Critical Reflections on Learning Learning and teaching We would suggest that learning and teaching are two sides of the same coin and our understanding of what it means to be a good teacher (see Critical reflection on teaching) is based in part on what we had to do to become successful learners, so this area of our belief system will provide fruitful material for evaluation and reflection. Williams and Burden express this well: The successful educator must be one who understands the complexities of the teaching-learning process and can draw upon this knowledge to act in ways which empower learners both within and beyond the classroom situation. (Williams and Burden,1997: 5) As a start to reflecting on your teaching, you are asked to reflect on (your own) learning. Take a few moments to: • think about the strategies, techniques and approaches that you personally found helpful (or not) as a learner • consider whether we should assume that others (especially your students) will respond in the same way • analyse distinctive elements of learning in your own subject or discipline Exploring learning We probably all have personal beliefs about how learning happens.  Take a few more moments to think about your own learning • Do you consider yourself to be a successful learner of your subject? Why (not?) • Are there any particular strategies or techniques that work(ed) well for you as a learner? • Did you learn your......

Words: 3447 - Pages: 14

Topic One: Hardware; Learning Level Two: Application/Analysis

...Level Two: Application/Analysis Memory management is dived into three areas and is mostly concerned with application memory management. Hardware: At this level is concerned with electronic devices that store data which includes the RAM and memory cache. Application: This involves supplying memory needed for data structures and program objects from limited resources thus allowing for recycling of the memory to be reused when no longer required. Application programs cannot predict in advance how much memory it will require so additional code is needed to handle the memory chances. Two tasks done by application * Recycling: Memory blocks have been allocated, the data contained is no longer required by a program, the blocks are recycled for reuse. Memory can be recycled when the programmer decides what memory need reuse known as manual or the memory manger decides known as automatic. * Allocation: When a program requests a block of memory, that block of memory is allocated out of lager blocks received from the operating system. This is all done by the allocator. Constraints done by application * Interactive pause time: The delay and interactive user observes. * CPU overhead: Time taken while a program is running. * Memory overhead: Wasted space by poor layout or known as external fragmentation, administration or rounding or known as internal fragmentation. Operating System: Memory is allocated to user programs and reused...

Words: 257 - Pages: 2


... The reason I think this is possible is . or A universal problem at federal, statl', and local levels is ensuring that funds intended for a progwm are used to enhance it rather than merely substituted for program funds al­ ready allocated. Accountants are extremely resourceful at moving money around to de­ feat legislative provisions intended to ensure enhancement. This project will search for successful legislative practices, both here and abroad, that accountants haven't been able to defeat. Contrast these brief examples with the opening statements in Warters's paragraph 1 in chapter 11, which gets to the problem in the third sentence. But 48 ADVICE COMMON TO MOST PROPOSALS DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM 49 even Warters could be sharpened; consider this alternative first sentence: "If therapists who treat men who batter their wives view their problem differently from the batterers themselves, clearly the effectiveness of treatment is likely to be affected." Show the problem in the paspective of the larger field in whicll it is embedded­ management practices as a part of our lagging in international economic com­ petition, accounting procedures as a facet of making government intervention Hfective. Warters does this in his tenth paragraph. Show the problem's generality. Although the dissertation's place in t.he gradu­ ate program has become that of a learning experience, it was originally con­ ceived that it should be a contribution to knowledge. And many......

Words: 4660 - Pages: 19