Languages Affected the Way We Think

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Lecture 05

Periodicity

Semester 1: 2015-2016
Instructor
Office
Office hours

1

/

Dr. Huỳnh Kim Lâm
Rm. A1.705 or A1.712
8:30-11:30 Wednesday
(other: appointments needed)
Chemistry for Engineers (CH011IU) - Lecture 05 - Semester 1: 2015-2016

Periodic Table
Periodic Table
 In 1871, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published the most successful of these organizing schemes in the form of a table:
 The elements are listed by increasing atomic mass,
 Elements with similar chemical properties in the same column.  The modern periodic table of the elements (based on
Mendeleev's earlier version)
 arranged by atomic number, not mass
 one of the great classifying schemes in science
 an indispensable tool to chemists.

2

Earliest Periodic Table

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http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/June06/Mendeleev.jpg

Modern Periodic Table – Element Types

metal

4

nonmetal

Modern Periodic Table – Element Types

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Modern Periodic Table – Electron Configuration
A periodic table of ground-state electron configurations

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Modern periodic table – Rows and Columns

Main group (column): Group number = number of valence electrons

Period (row): period number = number of energy levels (shells)
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General Periodic Trends
 Atomic and ionic size
 Ionization energy
 Electron Affinity
 Metallic behavior
 Electronegativity

Higher effective nuclear charge
Electrons held more tightly
Larger orbitals.
Electrons held less tightly

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Effective Nuclear Charge, Zeff
Effective nuclear charge: “positive charge” felt by an (valence) electron

Zeff = Z – 

where 0 <  < Z ( = shielding constant)

Zeff  Z – number of inner/core electrons

Zeff of carbon = 6(protons) – 2(electrons) = 4 (positive)
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Chemistry for Engineers (CH011IU) - Lecture 05 - Semester 1: 2015-2016

Effective…...

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