Lalal

In: Business and Management

Submitted By zoi17
Words 9628
Pages 39
ΟΙ ∆ΗΜΟΣΙΕΣ ΣΧΕΣΕΙΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΡΧΑΙΟΤΗΤΑ
Ο Edward Bernays, η εµβληµατική φυσιογνωµία για τις δηµόσιες σχέσεις, και για πολλούς ο εφευρέτης της σύγχρονης µορφής τους, είχε γράψει ότι, «Τα τρία κύρια στοιχεία των δηµοσίων σχέσεων, είναι πρακτικά τόσο παλαιά όσο και η ανθρώπινη κοινωνία: η πληροφόρηση, η πειθώ και η ενοποίηση/ συµφιλίωση ανθρώπων µε άλλους ανθρώπους. Βέβαια τα µέσα και οι µέθοδοι για την επίτευξη αυτών των στόχων, έχουν αλλάξει καθώς µεταβάλλεται και η ανθρώπινη κοινωνία». Κατά τον Bernays αλλά και για πολλούς ακόµα ιστορικούς του χώρου, η πρακτική των επαγγελµατικών δηµοσίων σχέσεων ήταν πάντα πιασµένη «χέρι – χέρι» µε την εξέλιξη του πολιτισµού. Μέσα από αυτήν την οπτική, το µεγαλύτερο µέρος της καταγεγραµµένης ιστορίας µπορεί να ερµηνευτεί σαν πρακτική δηµοσίων σχέσεων. Ενώ οι πρωτόγονες κοινωνίες κυβερνιόνταν κυρίως µέσω του φόβου και της τροµοκρατίας, οι πιο εξελιγµένοι πολιτισµοί βασίζονταν σε µεγάλο βαθµό στο διάλογο και την δηµόσια αντιπαράθεση των σκέψεων και των απόψεων. Καθώς οι άρχοντες και οι κάθε µορφής εξουσιαστές των κοινωνιών, αναζητούσαν την επίτευξη της συναίνεσης µε τα εξουσιαζόµενα πλήθη τους, η πειθώ βασίζονταν όλο και λιγότερο στη βία και περισσότερο στα λόγια. Με την εφεύρεση της γραφής, οι δηµόσιες σχέσεις εµφανίστηκαν µε την µορφή που τις αντιλαµβανόµαστε σήµερα. Αρχαίοι πολιτισµοί Οι ηγέτες των αρχαίων πολιτισµών (Σουµέριοι, Βαβυλώνιοι, Ασσύριοι και Πέρσες) στη προσπάθειά τους να σχηµατίσουν και προωθήσουν την εικόνα τους, χρησιµοποιούσαν ποιήµατα και άλλα συγγράµµατα για να προβάλλουν την υπεροχή της δύναµής τους στην µάχη και της πολιτικής τους εξουσίας. Στην αρχαία Αίγυπτο, η τέχνη και η αρχιτεκτονική (αγάλµατα, ναοί, τάφοι) χρησιµοποιήθηκαν για να εντυπωσιάσουν το λαό προβάλλοντας την υπεροχή των ιερέων, των ευγενών και των γραµµατέων συµβούλων των ηγεµόνων. Στο Ισραήλ της αρχαιότητας, η Βίβλος και άλλα παρόµοια συγγράµµατα…...

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