Japanese Encephalitis

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Japanese Encephalitis is identified as a leading form of viral encephalitis that is known to be spreading globally. Belonging to the genus Flavivirus and the family of Flaviviridae, Japanese encephalitis exists in a zoonotic cycle that occurs in mosquito and vertebrate hosts, such as water birds and pigs. Epidemiological patterns of Japenese encephalitis have been discovered in both epidemic and endemic regions. Shlim and Solomon's (2002) research found: In northern temperate areas (Japan, Taiwan, China, Korea, northern Vietnam, northern Thailand, Nepal, and northern India), large epidemics occur during the summer months (roughly, May to October). In Southern tropical areas (southern Vietnam, southern Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and southern India), JE tends to be endemic; here, cases occur sporadically throughout the year, with a peak after the start of the rainy season. (p. 184)
Japanese encephalitis has been more commonly seen in children or in visitors to areas of the endemic region than in resident adults. In endemic countries, adults acquire immunity through natural infection. Solomon's (2004) research found: In rural Asia, where exposure to infected mosquitos is unavoidable, serologic surverys show that almost everyone is exposed to Japanese encephalitis virus during childhood. However, fever develops in only a small proportion (about 1 in 300) of those exposed, and neurologic disease develops in even fewer persons. Thus, Japanese encephalitis does not often occur in adults because, in most cases, they are already immune to the virus. (p. 371) Transmission of Japanese encephalitis begins at the lifecycle between mosquito transmission and the affected vertebrates. Kumar's (2014) stated: JEV is transmitted in nature between the vector (mosquito) and the vertebrate host. The main vector in most southeast Asia is…...

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