Info Syst

In: Science

Submitted By LUCHOMENA
Words 737
Pages 3
ymbiosis – What is it?
The term symbiosis relates to close interactions between different biological organisms and the interdependent relationships between living things, in which completely different forms of life depend upon each other for existence. One example of beneficial symbiosis (or mutualism) is found between algae and the fungus of lichens. While fungi provide vital protection and moisture to algae, the algae nourish the fungi with photosynthetic nutrients that keep them alive.

Another example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship which exists between the ocellaris clownfish that dwells among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones. The territorial fish protects the anemone from carnivorous fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators. A special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles.

Plants that are pollinated by insects have highly specialized flowers modified to promote pollination by a specific pollinator that is also correspondingly adapted. Many herbivores have mutualistic gut fauna that aid them in the digestion of plant matter. Coral reefs are the result of mutualistic symbiotic relationships existing between coral organisms and various types of algae that live inside them. Most land plants and land ecosystems rely on mutualisms between the plants which fix carbon from the air, and fungi which help in extracting minerals from the ground.

Symbiosis – A challenge to evolution?
Darwin’s theory of biological change was based upon competition among the individuals making up a species. In The Origin, Darwin concedes that “If it could be proved that any part of the structure of any one species had been formed for the exclusive good of another species, it would annihilate my theory, for such could not have been produced through natural selection.”

How can plants…...

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