Free Essay

I Read It but I Don't Get It

In: English and Literature

Submitted By them
Words 3251
Pages 14
I read it but I don’t get it[1]

The title of my article is a title of a book by Cris Tovani but more of that later!

I want to explore why I feel that Ken Rowe’s literacy report misses the complexity of literacy development in young people– at least from my secondary perspective. Of course he covers some bases and on the surface suggests a balanced approach. He is also right that teachers need to be better educated about reading practices. However, the emphasis on phonics which has been widely reported in the media appears disproportionate to its usefulness. Some students can manage to read and spell without phonics so why do we need to occupy their brains with phonemes or phonic practices. Others need them. The informed primary teacher differentiates accordingly. What Ken Rowe does not focus on is the literacy needs of young people in secondary schools where decoding is less of a problem than comprehension. For many students reading is meaningless – particularly fiction. The Four Resource Model of Allan Luke and Peter Freebody[2] outlines what students need to do as they read:
Effective literacy draws on a repertoire of practices that allow learners, as they engage in reading and writing activities, to: • break the code of texts: recognising and using the fundamental features and architecture of written texts including: alphabet, sounds in words, spelling, conventions and patterns of sentence structure and text • participate in the meanings of text: understanding and composing meaningful written, visual and spoken texts from within the meaning systems of particular cultures, institutions, families, communities, nation-states and so forth; • use texts functionally: traversing the social relations around texts; knowing about and acting on the different cultural and social functions that various texts perform both inside and outside school and knowing that these functions shape the way texts are structured, their tone, their degree of formality and their sequence of components; • critically analyse and transform texts: understanding and acting on the knowledge that texts are not neutral, that they represent particular views and silence other points of view, influence people's ideas; and that their designs and discourses can be critiqued and redesigned, in novel and hybrid ways.
The proposition here is that all of these repertoires are variously mixed and orchestrated in proficient reading and writing. The key concept in the model is necessity and not sufficiency - each is necessary for literacy in new conditions, but in and of themselves, none of the four families of practice is sufficient for literate citizen/subjects and also it is not a linear model. As a proficient reader, I am constantly drawn back to decoding when I read unfamiliar words. And indeed it is insufficient in itself because reading is not merely an instrumental process. It requires of people that they bring their own experience to any reading. Having context for reading, understanding the worlds that the texts are opening up, having the vocabulary/cultural knowledge to explore the text, having the vocabulary to talk about the text are all important cultural overlays which make reading meaningful. This short video clip from YouTube of James Gee is critical here. He talks about the importance of developing the kinds of conceptual relationships that reading a text in any genre depends on.
What I particularly like about the James Gee text is the notion that teachers are translaters for students and rephrase back to them what they say in EnglishSpeak. Let me explain through observations of student learning. My example is from a Year 9 class which I sat in on recently. The teacher was starting a new novel and asked the students what the cover suggested to them. The novel was called Boys of Blood and Bone (Metzenthen 2003) and had two images on the front which merged into each other. On top was a fire colour within which a soldier’s torso with gun was depicted. It merged into the darkness of an earth colour at the bottom of this half page The lower image showed a boy against the blue of the sea and the yellow of the land. His colour was the same as the torso above. It was an abstract rather than a realistic image.

The second student who put up his hand looked at the cover of the book and talked about the soldier at the top and the colours of blood and fire. He mused on the sense of the faceless soldier merging into the darkness at the bottom – a kind of ‘unknown soldier’. He picked up the life and death images in the words ‘blood’ and ‘bone’. He looked at the war, as opposed to peace, images. He mentioned innocence associated with the word ‘boys’ and linked the freedom of the boy at the bottom of the picture to the suffering of the soldier at the top. He talked of the boy in the image at the bottom seemingly carefree in the midst of bright yellows and blues but moving towards death as his body was depicted in the same colour as the image at the top. He looked at the colours as symbolic of the cycle of life: earth, fire and water. He talked about contrasting worlds which were related. This student had internalized the world of EnglishSpeak. Another student said it reminded him of fertilizer. This student spoke first and said it as if it were a joke and it was not followed up. An opportunity missed But the teacher’s role here might have been why do you say fertilizer – what do blood and bone depict. In what sense is blood and bone regenerating. This feeds back to that student a valuing of his comment and a different way of saying it It moves him closer to the world of Englishspeak.That is what we do as teachers.

Many of the students with reading problems I see in secondary school - and some of them I might add will get 90+ scores for their enter - have comprehension problems, particularly with fiction but also with text books. They cannot ‘participate in the meaning of texts’ and of course that means they cannot readily critically analyse and transform texts or use them functionally. Ben, for example, will read a book from beginning to end and not take anything in unless he makes a conscious effort to do so: however, I want to talk to you about Tom and what Tom has taught me.

Tom is in Year 10. He is sharp, witty, and talks intelligently about ‘Rabbit Proof Fence’ which he is presently studying. He has great visual literacy. He has recently done his work experience in an architect’s office and his work demonstrates his giftedness in this area. He wants to be an architect but his work in English which goes across all his subjects will prevent this unless we can help him with his literacy. Here is the piece of work he did in one of his first English classes this year when asked to compare Dorothea McKellar’s My Country with Oscar Krahnvohl’s My Country:

Dorethea see’s Australia as a country place where it only rains once year. Most of the time she see’s it as a brown and beautiful land but Oscar see’s it as a busling country expanding all the time popluting and paving the land making this a waste land big and grand

He see’s and love’s tall buildings and music and see’s the rivers as waste dumps with bottles and papers everywhere.

Dorothea loves her country but does not judge any other to it because her hart will always be their.

Oscar believes we made this country big and better than any other known to him.

Immediately, you may be drawn to the mistakes in punctuation and spelling but I would ask you to hold your fire at this stage. Too much emphasis is put by teachers on these things and there are much more fundamental problems with Tom’s work that need to be dealt with before this. I believe if Tom gets these more fundamental things right he will take pride in his work and the mechanics of language will improve. So what is wrong with Tom’s work? It is the paucity of Tom’s thinking and his lack of engagement with the task reflected in this short skimpy piece of work. Krahnvohl’s poem is a parody of McKellar’s but Tom makes no mention of this. Tom has just hit the surface of the poems and has not seen what either poet is exploring.

In my first session with Tom I sat with him and went through the poems and discovered that he had not read either of them after class. His writing on the two poems was based on what he heard. Time and time again I hear of students moving through classes and picking up the gist of what something is about from their friends, from discussion or from cramming notes when they get to VCE level and using this as a replacement for reading. In interviews we are presently conducting we find students who are weak readers avoid reading the novel. Tovani quotes the voices of her students in her reading class:

How can Lisa pass her courses without reading? I ask her how she does it. ‘It’s easy’ she says. I sit in the back of the classroom and wait for one of the smart kids to answer the teacher’s questions.’
‘What if no one knows the answer?’
‘It doesn’t matter’ says Lisa. ‘If no one talks, the teacher gives us the answer’.[3]

When I talk to teachers about what they do to ensure students experience the book, I hear time and time again, ‘We read the book in class’ or ‘I read it to them’. Not good enough even if it is well-meaning! Because it merely puts off students developing their own strategies. When I ask Tom what strategies he uses for reading, he tells me that he uses two: he visualizes and he reads every second word. I probe for reasons for the second strategy and discover a teacher told him to do that because he could not retain the sentence in memory until the end of the line. It is obvious that Tom’s strategies are not effective enough. It is the work of Cris Tovani which has helped me to help Tom. She advocates a methodology which is metacognitive in approach. But first let me digress about my own reading practices, and the reasons why I had difficulty in articulating what I did, and how that must have impeded the Toms in my class from reading for many years.

The teacher
I have always been a reader. As a child I visited the library every night and took out two fiction and two non-fiction books. I never read the non-fiction books but obviously it was part of library policy at that time to encourage the reading of non-fiction or perhaps they did not have enough fiction. I read the fiction voraciously and developed reading strategies which were to stand me in good stead for life but my reading strategies were not evident to me. They had become automated and I realized this when I looked at the research of the Leiners in Neuroscience:

• The ‘hardware’ and ‘software’ capabilities in the human cerebro-cerebellar system make it possible for the cerebellum to perform parallel processing on the information sent to it from the central cortex, and to send back to the cerebral cortex a wide variety of complex messages about what to do and when to do it. • With successive experiences, the cerebellum can learn which messages to send to specific places in the cerebral cortex, and when to send them, thereby helping to automize some of the sensory, motor, cognitive and linguistic skills which are characteristically human[4]

My reading was deeply embedded and automated to a large degree. I took it for granted and therefore I was not explicit with students about reading practices and many of my students did not need me to be because they had automated processes. Working with Tom helped me to understand what I did when I read and how articulating that would help him. Here are the strategies I believe I developed as a child:

• I started the text with a context for reading it. It might be reading the blurb or my experience of another book. After all once I had read one of the ‘Wells’ books or the Pony books or Georgette Heyer or Enid Blyton I had a context for reading others. I can still remember going into the library and picking up the book, looking at the cover, reading the blurb, and reading the first page. That was important because it not only helped me make sense of the book but it set up an expectation of enjoyment • I had an experience of enjoyment in reading. It was my private world and I can still remember the places I lived in with Enid Blyton. A new Famous Five book was treasured! • I linked the text to memory. This was a constant ongoing process. and in this way the text became a vital living thing. Let me make it clear, these were not memories which crowded out the narrative of the book: they were memory moments and sensory moments which vitalised the narrative of the text into complexity. • I built the text through accumulating information about characters, and places and plot • I asked questions of the text • Sometimes I deliberately skipped over whole chunks of text • I sometimes stopped and went back if I felt I had missed out on a vital chunk

It is, however, the third dot point – linking the text to memory which was most important. It was a glimpse here, or a word there, and my visualization became a sensualisation – I smelt something, I felt something, I heard something, and something joined the text in my mind and gave it breath. Later, of course, when I studied for my English degree other ways of looking at texts joined my repertoire of strategies but these were the strategies I used at Tom’s age. How could I help Tom use them?

Cris Tovani teaches students strategic reading. I believe her explicitness is critical to the Toms of this world... Here are some of her ‘fixit’ strategies:

1. Build a context in which to read the text 2. Make a connection between the text and your life, your knowledge of the world, or another text 3. Link information in the text 4. Ask questions about the text 5. Make predictions about the text

They were similar in kind to my strategies but she gave me a way of working with Tom to make it explicit. She suggests using highlighters or sticky notes. I used sticky notes with Tom. I asked him to put a sticky note on the book every time he connected something to his own experience. This was valuable because it pulled out the strategy. I did the same for characters – to pull out what he was learning about characters as he went along and I did the same for questions or what he wondered about. This was time consuming but Tom started to become aware of the strategies which you need to use for fiction and therefore the narrative devices that writers use to make meaning. He had no idea about these things. However, I found that the book chosen to do this mattered. It was much better for Tom to use a work of literature which used symbolism and which had patterns so that he could see the value of reading properly. He was better with Animal Farm than To Kill a Mockingbird. This metacognitive awareness helped Tom take advantage of the good English teaching in his classroom but I freely acknowledge how much easier that teaching of Tom was in a one-on-one teaching situations and that has cost implications.

I don’t pretend to have solved Tom’s problems but he now has a way of solving them for himself and he has a long way to go. His success has motivated him. He had already decided he would do literature at Year 10 because he had difficulties with reading and he is now working on Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in that class. I asked him how he was going. He told me he was ahead of the others because he was reading the ‘sub-text’ using the strategies he had developed. I gave him the word ‘sub-text’ and Tom has added that to his metacognitive vocabulary about texts suggesting that it is now a framework he can work with in reading. His strategies are starting to become internalized. Now Tom needs practice to consolidate his skills. He also needs practice in listening to what he writes.

And what of Ben. Well Ben is using strategies too and I model reading with him and discuss the texts and also look explicitly at the narrative devices the writers are using. After a discussion, he does an amazing amount of thinking and next time I visit he has internalized and transferred this learning to other parts of the text. He has the capacity to get a high score in English. He has recently got A+ on his issues SAC. He is becoming fascinated with his texts because he has suddenly seen the layers and realized what reading can be and how much he can make the meaning and not be the receiver of a fixed reading from the teacher.

These are just the stories of two students. We need more research as to why there are literacy problems at Secondary School. I suspect a lot of it is to do with a lack of practice, a growing focus on ICT, a lack of understanding of what reading is and therefore the strategies needed, a lack of explicit teaching of literacy, and for a small percentage auditory, visual processing, or decoding problems. We have embarked on literacy research at The Geelong College because we believe that literacy is a key to improved outcomes for our students and also will enable them to have better lives. We have presently identified students who are good readers, moderately good readers and poor readers using the International Schools Assessment from ACER on which PISA is based and we are about to interview a randomly selected group of students to find out about their reading habits, strategies, home reading and so on. We have more boys than girls who have reading difficulties. I am looking forward to finding out what are the literacy blocks for our students and then working on ways in which we can work with student groups to improve their literacy.

A great aid to my thinking has come from Cris Tovani’s book I read it but I don’t get it which is available from the Curriculum Corporation. It is written by a practising teacher and is full of useful strategies. If you have students in your class like Tom, you will find it very helpful.

Mary Mason
Director of Teaching and Learning
The Geelong College
[1] I am grateful to Tom and Ben for their help in understanding literacy
[3] Cris Tovani I read it but I don’t get it Stenhouse 2000 pp 14 -15

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

I Don't Know

...I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I Don't Know I......

Words: 1760 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Why Do I Read

...I have to admit that I am not as prolific of a reader as I used to be. My current reading mainly consists of reading news and science articles from the internet, and occasional bed time stories with my son. I enjoy reading news rather than watch or listen to news, mainly because it allows me to gather and analyze information from various sources without the filter or the bias of television or radio networks news anchors. In addition to news and various articles I prefer to read short stories. My fascination with short stories began at around age 12 or 13. At the time, since access to television in Iran was very limited. We had to entertain ourselves and being a mischievous child I spent a lot of time in my room (being punished) either listening to radio or reading. My favorite books at the time were horror books. I remember buying these paperback books and reading them cover to cover in two or three days and be scared out of my wits for a few days. I recall at the end of some of these books were teasers about the next story that was due to arrive next. However, at the end of one of the books there was a short story by Edgar Allan Poe titled “The Cask of Amontillado”, I read that story several times and every time I found something new that I Had missed previously. That was the reason I got interested in short stories. My fascination with short stories always have been with a given writers ability to develop main characters, , story plot, and a that in novels might take......

Words: 501 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

I Don't Know

...Agree No | | | | | | 1. | I spend too much time studying for what I am learning | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 2. | I usually try to study with the radio and TV turned on | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 3. | My class notes are sometimes difficult to understand | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 4. | When I get to the end of a chapter, I can’t remember what I’ve just read | 1 | 3 | 3 | 4 | 5. | I lose a lot of points on essay tests even when I know the material well | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 6. | When my teachers assign papers I feel so overwhelmed that I can’t get started | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 7. | I study enough for my test, but when I get there my mind goes blank | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 8. | I rarely change my reading speed in response the difficulty level of the selection, or my familiarity with the content | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 9. | I don’t know how to pick out what is important in the text | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 10. | I usually seem to get the wrong material into my class notes | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 11. | I can’t sit and study for long periods of time without becoming tire or distracted | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 12. | I usually spend hours cramming the night before an exam. | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 13. | I can’t keep up with my assignments, and then I have to cram the night before a test | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 14. | I often study in haphazard, disorganized way under the threat of the next test. | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 15. | I often wish that I could read faster | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 16. | I usually write papers the night before...

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

I Don't

...Problem 3 Now I will explain why the NPVs of these two approaches are different. For Approach A, NPV is calculated using cash flows denoted in Peso and interest rate in Mexico and then transferred into Euro at the lowest exchange rate in 2008, which is 15.99 MXN/EUR. This is equivalent to using a constant exchange rate of 15.99 to transfer Peso into Euro every year. On the other hand, for approach B, cash flows are transferred into Euro every year and NPV is calculated using cash flows denoted in Euro and interest rate in France. Since Peso is depreciating across time, cash flows are transferred into Euro using a series of increasing exchange rates. Cash flows in Approach B are lower than those in Approach A. Therefore, NPV denoted in Euro for Approach B is higher than that for Approach A. Problem 4 If the inflation in Mexico is 3%, which is the same as that in France, the nominal interest rate in Mexico will be the same as that in France according to International Fisher Effect. So the discount rate will be the same. According to the Interest Rate Parity, the exchange rate between these two currencies will stay the same due to the same nominal interest rate. Thus, the cash flows denoted in Euro for these two approaches will be same. Since both cash flows and discount rate are the same for these two approaches, NPV will be the same. You can see the calculations in this spread sheet. Both approaches give you the same NPV if both countries have the same inflation rate. ...

Words: 475 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

I Don't Know the admission forms, are  required  to  submit  the  same  and  get  all  documents  verified  from  the  hostel  office  before  the  date  of  interview and any discrepancy with respect to merit position/marks please be brought in writing to the  notice of Provost, UGHG on 06.08.14 at 10:00 am to 12:00pm.  S.NO.  1. FORM  NO.  1188  NAME OF COLLEGE  UG IN DEPTT. OF  GERMANIC& ROMANCE  STUDIES    DYAL SINGH COLLEGE (M)  GARGI COLLEGE  GARGI COLLEGE  GARGI COLLEGE  GARGI COLLEGE  HINDU COLLEGE  I.P. COLLEGE  I.P COLLEGE  INSTITUTE OF HOME  ECONOMICS  JANKI DEVI MEMORIAL  COLLEGE  KALINDI COLLEGE  KALINDI COLLEGE  KALINDI COLLEGE  KALINDI COLLEGE  KAMLA NEHRU COLLEGE  KIRORI MAL COLLEGE  KIRORI MAL COLLEGE  KIRORI MAL COLLEGE  KIRORI MAL COLLEGE  KIRORI MAL COLLEGE  LADY SHRI RAM COLLEGE  NAME OF CANDIDATE  SOMYA PATHAK    YEAR  I  CATEGORY  GEN    2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1623  1471  1466  430  1604  1506  1065  9. 886  10. 318  11. 1606  12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 1685  1627  1677  299  1436  1389  1071  912  514  427  1057  ARUSHI SRIVASTAVA  KHUSHBOO SHARMA  ANJALI VERMA  SHREYA  ZAINAB  AKANSHA  NONGMAITHEM  SUSHMITA DEVI  KAUSHIKI PARIHAR  DIKSHA SHAH  SUMAN  POOJA YADAV  ARCHANA  AYUSHI YADAV  GYANVI CHAUHAN  NIDHI TRIPATHI   HIMANSHI TALDA  PRAGYA BHARTI  ANSHU RAJ  SHRUTI MAJUMDAR  SUMAIYA TAQDEES  VAIBHAVI RAI  I  I  II  II  II  I  I  I  II  I  I  II  II  II  II  I  I  II  I  I  I  GEN  OBC  OBC  GEN  GEN  SC  SC    GEN  GEN    OBC  OBC  OBC ......

Words: 636 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

I Don't Care

...målt i basispriser. Formelen for BVT: samfundets samlede produktionsværdi ÷ rå- og hjælpestoffer BNP: - Et lands samlede erhvervsmæssige produktion af varer og tjenesteydelser i et år. - opgøres i markedspris, de priser der er gældende på markedet, så her pålægges varende moms og diverse afgifter Produktion og tjenesteydelser Alle former for produktion skabt med salg for øje regnes med dvs. noget en person eller virksomhed producere for en virksomhed eller person som er et salg. Eksempel: Hvis du selv reparer en bil (hjemmeproduktion), så tæller det ikke med, men hvis du får en mekaniker til det, ja så tæller det med som erhvervsmæssigt produktion. Sort arbejde og betaling regnes ikke med. Forskellen mellem BVT og BNP BNP opgøres i markedspris, hvor BVT opgøres i basispriser - BNP er tillagt mons og diverse afgifter, mens BVT ikke er inkluderet pålagte moms og afgifter.. C) Årets priser - årets priser også kaldet løbende priser, er hvor tallet er opgjort i de priser, som gjaldt de pågældende år. - BNP udtrykker her både ændringer i mængder og priser Faste priser - beregner hvad BNP ville være i de forskellige år, hvis priserne havde været i de samme som i 2000 dvs. med et givet års priser. tallene for BNP vil være ”kunstige”, da de beskriver udviklingen i BNP uden prisstigninger. - BNP udtrykker her kun mængdeændringer D) Fordelen er at vi har en række tal, som selvom de betrængtes som ”kunstige” er nyttige. Tallene beskriver udviklingen i......

Words: 451 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

I Don't Speak White

...Pathos Positioned Research Paper: Language Identified with Race and Minority “I Don’t Speak White” Written by Kendra Alexander Your language is your identity; the way you speak depends on your environment and the people surrounding you. Race and ethnicity are not huge factors in the way one expresses themselves. While some associate certain slang verbiage with the African American race, each ethnicity and race have their own “slang” or abbreviations they use. The way we communicate within our social groups connects us to one another. Edward Sapir, in Language: an Introduction to the Study of Speech, stated “Language is the most massive and inclusive art we know, a mountainous and anonymous work of unconscious generations.”  Every culture creates their own language, they find a way to clarify themselves amongst each group, whom is to say one language is better than the other. Negative connotations can be placed on the way one speaks due to their background, or ethnicity. If a minority person speaks “well”, along with these negative race connotations, the person is then seen as acting as though they are the “superior” race. Language can connect us, but it can also segregate our defined cultures. Language and behavior tend to be associated with race, class, and popularity. The connotations of language and race create the “acting white” phenomenon showing that basic stereotypes still exist unrealized or unnoticed, and not only affect social aspects of a person’s life......

Words: 2550 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

When I Get Old

...Running head: WHEN I GET OLD 1 When I Get Old Janice Johnson SOC304 – Social Gerontology Dr. Elaine Alden October 26, 2014 Running head: WHEN I GET OLD When I Get Old There are conflicting ideas about what to expect as we get older. Will we be able to keep growing our gardens, be able to keep our present jobs or will the younger generation take our 2 freedom and pride from us. Our text states that no matter how old you are, child or adult, that we are told to “act our age” because societies have a social system that is considered to be normal (Markson & Stein, 2012). It is getting harder to think of a norm for saying someone is old now because we are living longer and for example women are having their children, are almost a grandparent or a last child is just graduating and leaving the home around the same age. The chronological age is not enough to say whether someone is reaching a certain norm age group as easily as it used to be determined (Markson & Stein, 2012). Some of the issues that we do have to deal with as we grow older are when others discriminate against us, the aches and pains that come with different levels of intensity and how we feel about ourselves at this time. Discrimination Anyone who has gone and applied for a job, no matter what kind of education they may have or how they feel, they are turned down for the position and while not telling you, it is because of your age that you were turned down. It is much the same kind of discrimination......

Words: 1781 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

I Don't Have

...sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just need one of yours. I'm sorry, i don't have an essay. I just......

Words: 1821 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

I Don't Know

...enthusiasm for the subject ← Be proactive: ← Read widely from booklists given to enrich and broaden knowledge and understanding ← Go to the theatre, listen to arts programs on TV/radio, read reviews ← Share independently gained knowledge/insights with the class ← Undertake independent wide reading and research (including internet and library resources). Always note down bibliographical details to acknowledge sources in essays/exams ← Ask for help whenever necessary; not the due date of an essay/the morning of an exam ← Put in at least SIX hours of private study per week on: ← Preparation for class ← Homework ← Essay research, planning, writing ← Exam practice questions ← Revision ← Be thoroughly prepared for all lessons and for assessments: ← Pre-read the next section of the text before the lesson ← Read commentaries and textual notes before the lesson ← Make notes on what you have read; jot down questions, ideas, queries ← Think about how the text relates to your assessment ← Take an active part in lessons, contributing to verbal and online discussion forums, questioning the text, and being prepared to lead group discussions. You may be asked to present a seminar. ← Prepare coursework thoroughly: ← Read class reading list ← Read focus text ← Research widely ← Be......

Words: 4760 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

I Don't Know

...Sound Economic Reasoning” There are five common pitfalls to avoid when people are applying the economic perspective. The first one is biases. People usually bring their biases to the businesses. Government regulation is not always good for everybody’s economics. People should abandon their preconceptions of the economics, then they can avoid the pitfalls. The second one is loaded terminology. People get many information and loaded terminology from newspapers and broadcast media. Some people think that all the government workers are “mindless bureaucrats”,and all the high profits are “obscene”. Those wrong opinions make people far away from success. The third one is fallacy of composition. People should jump our of their own world to see the whole economics, so that people could get a better view and make good decisions. People should not let the fallacy confuse them. The fourth one is post hoc fallacy. Sometimes, people think event A is the cause of event B because A precedes B. But not all the situation are the same. There is an example that the Great Depression. Many people don’t think that the weaknesses in the economy caused the Great Depression, they think the stock market crash caused it. People should not look at the whole situation to find the cause of an event.The last one is correlation. Many people think that if variable X increases and Y also increases, it is increases in X cause increases in Y. That is not always correct. X and Y are two conjoint things, they......

Words: 292 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

I Don't Have a Paper

...caused? It is important to come forward when building damage is caused because: 1. If you don’t come forward, everyone in the entire dorm will get hit with a fee for something they had nothing to do. For example, if you break a washer and don’t come forward, everyone will have to pay for a new washer even if they haven’t even used that specific washer before. 2. Also, if you don’t come forward you will always have that monkey on your back that you caused people to pay for something they never did. 3. If you don’t come forward, eventually evidence can arise that you broke the specific object. Your punishment will be significantly worse and your reputation will be destroyed. Community billing charges and procedures To expand upon building charges and procedures: 1. Once a situation arises, everyone involved will be processed and given a chance to state their side of the story. For example, the person who committed the crime will make their statements, while the witnesses will also come forward and state exactly what they saw in the specific situation. 2. Once all possible information is gathered and observed in full capacity the RDs of the building will come out with a statement illustrating who will be paying for the door, along with a series of other punishments. 3. The one excused will pay for the damage through direct payment or they can choose to get the bill added to their tuition (Student Account) at the end of the given semester....

Words: 362 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Books That I Have Read ...

...created by the use of the new material, and therefore production costs can be cut by using this material. Clair is concerned that this would expose the company to potential environmental liabilities. She believes that these potential future costs need to be estimated and included in the analysis. Don disagrees and reiterates that there are no laws being violated and replies, “There is some possibility that we may have to incur costs in the future, but if we bring it up now, this proposal will not go through because our senior management always assumes these costs to be larger than they are. The market is very tough and we are in danger of shutting down the company. We don’t want all our colleagues to lose their jobs. The only reason our competitors are making money is because they are doing exactly what I am proposing.” Required: 1. Calculate Baska’s breakeven revenues for 2013. 2. Calculate Baska’s breakeven revenues if variable costs are 48% of revenues. 3. Calculate Baska’s operating income in 2013 if variable costs had been 48% of sales. 4. What should Rob Keen do? Provide the analysis and recommendations. ...

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Idk - I Don't Know

...propagandizing, which Orwell portrays as one example of how the elite class abuses language to control the lower classes. Although the slogan seems to help the animals achieve their goal at first, enabling them to clarify in their minds the principles that they support, it soon becomes a meaningless sound bleated by the sheep (“two legs baa-d”), serving no purpose other than to drown out dissenting opinion. By the end of the novel, as the propaganda needs of the leadership change, the pigs alter the chant to the similar-sounding but completely antithetical “Four legs good, two legs better.” 2. Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland, Beasts of every land and clime, Hearken to my joyful tiding Of the golden future time. These lines from Chapter I constitute the first verse of the song that Old Major hears in his dream and which he teaches to the rest of the animals during the fateful meeting in the barn. Like the communist anthem “Internationale,” on which it is based, “Beasts of England” stirs the emotions of the animals and fires their revolutionary idealism. As it spreads rapidly across the region, the song gives the beasts both courage and solace on many occasions. The lofty optimism of the words “golden future time,” which appear in the last verse as well, serves to keep the animals focused on the Rebellion’s goals so that they will ignore the suffering along the way. Later, however, once Napoleon has cemented his control over the farm, the song’s revolutionary nature......

Words: 2398 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

I Don't Know Who I Am

...I Don’t Know Who I Am In the movie Wanted directed by Timur Bekmambetov, a young man finds out his long lost father is an assassin. When his father is murdered, the son is recruited into his father's old organization and trained by a man named Sloan, actor Morgan Freeman, to follow in his dad's footsteps. The anxious, clumsy and abused office clerk Wesley Allan Gibson, actor James McAvoy, has a boring routine life: his obese boss humiliates him all the time and his girlfriend betrays him with his colleague and best friend. When he meets the attractive Fox, actress Angelina Jolie, Wesley is informed that his father was a professional killer that belonged to an ancient organization called Fraternity and killed by the skilled and powerful Cross, a hit-man that has betrayed the Fraternity. Wesley learns that his anxiety actually is a symptom of his hidden abilities and he joins the society under the command of Sloan. Trained by Fox, he changes his personality and attitude, being prepared to face the dangerous Cross and find out the shocking truth. James McAvoy plays the role of the young and mediocre office clerk. He is a five foot seven one hundred and sixty pound man of the age of thirty. He is of Scottish nationality and in the movie Wanted he has scruffy brown hair with no facial hair. Wesley Gibson was, for a lack of a better word, as average as they get. James McAvoy’s character in Wanted, Wesley Gibson, is initially frail and practically everyone’s personal pushover......

Words: 626 - Pages: 3