Hpv Research

In: Other Topics

Submitted By sknight27
Words 2560
Pages 11
Our class exercise was focused on the subject of Human papillomavirus (HPV). It has been defined as: ‘one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), with the highest rates of infection observed among individuals aged 15 to 24 years’. HPV types 16 and 18 can ‘cause cervical, penile, and anal cancers’; whereas non cancer causing ‘HPV types 6 and 11 can cause genital warts. Some of the risk factors for HPV infections in men include: having multiple sexual partners, smoking and using condoms infrequently’ (Gerend & Barley, 2009, p. 58). However, according to the National Cancer Institute HPV can still be transmitted even when using condoms but ‘condom usage is associated with lower risks for cervical cancer’ (National Cancer Institute, 2010). ‘Genital warts are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease in the UK with 81,000 new diagnoses in 2005, and a 30% increase in the last ten years. HPV types 6 and 11 are also responsible for virtually all cases of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP)’ (Szarewski, 2009, p. 81). For the class research exercise my group carried out was to first find out the knowledge and understanding males had of HPV and assess their perceived risk of acquiring the disease. This question was chosen because we felt that there has been a lot of media attention given to HPV by the vaccine program aimed at only females. For example, a misleading article in the BBC was titled, ‘Gay men seek “female cancer” jab’ (Roberts, 2007). We wondered if males felt there were any risks to them or if they perceived that HPV only cause’s cervical cancer therefore not an issue for males. There are two types of vaccinations for HPV, Cervarix protects from HPV types 16 and 18 while Gardasil protects from HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. Currently the NHS in the United Kingdom (UK) is offering Cervarix to females at no cost and Gardasil to…...

Similar Documents

Teens and Hpv

...Epidemiology: Teens and Human Papillomavirus Carmen Holder NUR/408 Epidemiology: Teens and Human Papillomavirus Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease found in the young, sexually active population. It is presenting itself as a growing concern among the most vulnerable population; teenagers. Usually, there are no signs or symptoms associated with HPV so most people do not realize they are infected or that they are exposing a sex partner to the virus. There are more than 40 types of HPV that can infect the genital area, but the two most common types are HPV 16 and 18. These two types are responsible for approximately 70% of all cervical cancers (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). This paper will define epidemiology and describe the epidemiology triangle as it relates to HPV. A specific type of epidemiology, descriptive, will be explained in addition to various levels of prevention. “The word epidemiology comes from the Greek words epi (upon), demos (people), and logos (thought), and it originally referred to the spread of diseases of infectious origin (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2012, p. 255). It was not until the twentieth century that the field of epidemiology was recognized as a discipline. The focus of epidemiology is on evidence-based practice and the outcomes are used to guide a change in practice. Due to the many manifestations of chronic diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, and other circumstances......

Words: 2224 - Pages: 9

Hpv: Yes or No?

...HPV- Will We Let It Kill Our Families? In recent months, three letters have been gaining an increasing amount of recognition throughout millions of American homes, colleges, hospitals and courtrooms - HPV. The letters do not just spell out the commonly used acronym for the sexually transmitted human papilloma virus, with the aid of a new vaccine coupled with a Texas law, HPV has recently managed to spell out a mixture of controversy and celebration as well. HPV is the second most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Some estimates put it at a rate of one million new cases a year, and forty to fifty percent of sexually active women will contract it by the time that they die. HPV is a family of viruses that cause genital warts in men and women, it is also known to cause cellular changes that can lead to cancer of the cervix in women and anal cancers especially in homosexual men. Cervical cancer kills about five thousand women per year. Scientists have discovered over sixty types of the human papilloma virus. Visible genital warts occur in only about one percent of sexually active adults infected with the HPV virus while other types of HPV are sub clinical infections. The types of HPVs that cause genital warts are not associated with increased cancer risks and are caused by HPV types 6 and 11. HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35 have been linked to cervical cancer. These high-risk HPVs have also been linked to increased risk of cancers of the vulva,......

Words: 2013 - Pages: 9

Hpv Notes

...* What is HPV? * The most common STD * Infects the skin and mucous membranes of humans * Impacts women far more than men * Almost considered normal to have * Statistics * Approximately 5.5 million new cases each year are reported * At least 20 million people in the United States are infected, most do not even know it * At least 50 percent of sexually active men and women acquire a genital HPV infection * Up to 30 percent of individuals infected with HPV are infected with multiple strands of the disease * Types of HPV * Over100 stands of HPV known * 30 forms are spread through genital contact * Around 12 are considered “low-risk” * Approximately 15 are considered “high-risk” * Low-Risk HPV * Often cause no symptoms * sometimes cause changes in a Pap smear * Does not progress to cancer * Can cause genital warts * Strain 6 and Strain 11 cause 90% of genital warts * High-Risk HPV * Can cause cervical cancer * Strain 16 and Strain 18 are believed to cause around 70% of cervical cancer * Could have no symptoms * Transmission * Transmitted through vaginal, anal or oral intercourse * Sometimes transmitted through sexual contact without intercourse * Very rarely a pregnant woman can pass HPV to her child during vaginal delivery. Resulting in warts on the voice box. * Prevention * HPV Vaccine ...

Words: 339 - Pages: 2

Hpv Summary

...August 8,2012 Everything you Need to Know About HPV: Millions of Women come into contact with HPV every year- Learn what to you're dealing with now. By: National Woman’s Heath Resource Center Article Rating: Fair Chances are you have at least came into contact with the human papilliomavirus and had no clue you did. Most adults have whom are sexually active have been exposed to HPV, with as many as 20 million estimated Americans to be infected with the strains that cause genital warts. The good news, most cases have no symptoms of health problems. Now for the bad news, it causes nearly all cases of cervical cancer . In many ways, you can compare HPV to genital herpes. Both are incurable and rarely have symptoms. However, both are capable of causing medical problems and are both widespread in this country. Luckily, HPV only causes cancer in a small percentage of those infected. Besides cervical cancer, which is usually all that ever gets mentioned when discussing this infection, HPV can also cause cancer of the vulva, penis, head, neck, and anus, but these are extremely rare. These viruses are called papillomavirus because they tend to cause warts, or papillomas. Which are benign tumors. Warts caused from HPV can appear in the hands, feet or on/around the genital area. The strains of HPV that cause warts on the hands and feet are rarely the same as the ones that cause genital warts. There are about two hundred different types of HPV. Only about forty strains are caused......

Words: 366 - Pages: 2

Microbiology Hpv

...mouth and throat, Human Papillomavirus, or HPV (“Genital HPV infection,” 2009). This virus is transmitted through sexual activity, sometimes unknowingly. HPV is carried by men, but there is no test for men to determine if a male has it to prevent them from spreading it (“Genital HPV infection,” 2009). It’s usually caught when woman have their yearly Pap smear exams; the cells of the cervix are tested for abnormalities. “About 8 out of 10 woman will become infected with HPV in their lifetime” states Hpv.com. “In the United States 30 woman are diagnosed with Cervical Cancer every day” (“Get the facts,” 2011). This virus has over a hundred different strands that may contribute to different diseases (“HPV,” 2011). Although most cause no harm, there are 2 classifications of the virus that do cause disease. The “low-risk” strands are the number one cause for Genital Warts, and the “high-risk” initiate Cervical Cancer (“Genital HPV infection,” 2009). The CDC states that HPV, if undetected and untreated can contribute to cancers of the throat, penis, head and anus as well. It is possible to have this virus and display no signs and symptoms. This is the reason why so many contract the virus and have no knowledge of it; which leads to not seeking any medical care and the virus secretly progressing into cancer. At the other end of the spectrum the Center for Disease Control and Prevention voiced that “In 90% of cases, the body’s Immune system clears HPV naturally within two years”. The......

Words: 1118 - Pages: 5

The Hpv Virus Microbiology

...“HPV vaccine cuts abnormal pap smears in 4 years” Skin & Allergy news 39.4(Apr 2008) P43 Abnormal Pap tests and cervical procedures have already declined markedly among young women who were vaccinated against the human papillomavirus in three pivotal clinical trials, according to data presented in Tampa at the annual meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists.****rewrite in your own words. Comparison of 4,696 vaccinated women with 4,759 women in placebo groups showed reductions of 19% in colposcopy, 22% in cervical biopsy, and 42% in excisional therapy at an average follow-up of 3.3 years after the first dose of the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardisil/Silgard) against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18. (Macneil, 2008) The end-of-study data reported came from three large efficacy trials sponsored by Merck & Co., maker of the vaccine. All told, the studies randomized 18,150 women aged 16-26 years to the vaccine or a placebo. Participants had cervicovaginal sampling and Pap smears on their first day in the studies and were followed with Pap smears every 6-12 months for up to 48 months. Median follow-up was 4 years from day 1.****what the study is The most dramatic reduction was 43% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) seen on Pap smears. Although the drop was substantial, the numbers were small with only 41 cases in the placebo group and 24 among vaccinated women. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) declined by 14%...

Words: 3912 - Pages: 16

Hpv as a Causative Agent in the Development of Cancer

...Verdiner Wolf Abram Zavulunov Group 6: HPV as a leading cause of Cancer Human papillomavirus (HPV) was founded in the 1950s as a virus infection that is associated to many cancers. It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact and less intimate skin-to-skin contact. Preventions have been implemented to raise awareness of the virus. The first vaccine for HPV approved as a widespread use in the US was in 2006. The virus acts to infect the keratinocytes in the skin and mucosal membrane. Other areas the HPV acts as a carcinogen are the cervix, anus, penis, vulva, vagina, oropharynx, benign genital and cutaneous warts, respiratory papillomatosis, and nasal or oral papilloma. Some researchers have concluded that the HPV infection which is more common during the active period of age is directly related to certain cancers. Researchers have found that HPV is associated with certain types of cancers and also have found that HPV can have no association with certain cancers. The research we did will explain the various cancers associated with HPV and attempt to answer the question “is HPV the leading cause of cancer?” In the United Stated and around the world, cancer is and continues to be a very serious disease that affects millions of people. Head and neck cancers are “the sixth most common cancer in the world” (Lajer et al. 2012). While the link between HPV and cervical cancer has been established; it is still unclear to researchers how HPV is related to head and neck......

Words: 2420 - Pages: 10

Teenagers & Hpv

...Should Vaccination for HPV Be Mandated for Teenage Girls? Yes: Joseph E. Balog, a health science professor, believes there is a moral justification to institute a mandatory vaccine for the HPV virus. He speaks of the significance of the polio epidemic and how the decision to implement a vaccination was effective and resulted in the elimination of the disease. Since this infection is transmitted through sexual intercourse he uses data from high school public information and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to establish numbers that show evidence of the problem. He feels it is unlikely teaching abstinence will result in a realistic solution and would not be as effective as a vaccine. No: Law Professors Gail Javitt and Lawrence Gostin and physician Deena Berkowitz believe we do not have enough data and history to mandate this vaccine currently. Although clinical trials have some information, they contend it is widely known these trials cannot represent all aspects that may be harmful, resulting from a particular product such as Gardasil. Because of these and many other concerns they do not support this drug being instituted in a mandatory way to teenage girls. I wrestle with my own personal opinion regarding this topic for several reasons. HPV is transmitted through sexual activity and directly linked to Cervical Cancer. Data shows an increased occurrence in younger woman in their child bearing and child rearing years. I personally experienced the fear......

Words: 499 - Pages: 2

Hpv Vaccine

...Each year, approximately 14 million people are infected with HVP, the Human papillomavirus (Genital HPV Infection, 2015). This virus is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States of America (Genital HPV Infection, 2015). Most types of HPV show no symptoms, but some cause genital warts. HPV is also associated with many cancers such as cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, and anal. About 40%-60% of all penile, vulvar, and vaginal cancers are caused by HPV. This virus also causes about 80% of all anal cancers and about 100% of all cervical cancers (Pandhi & Sonthalia, 2011). The 2015 estimates of cervical cancer are that 13,000 women will be diagnosed and about a third of that will die (Statistics about Cervical Cancer, 2015). Specifically, the HPV genotypes 16 and 18 are associated with 64% of these cancers (Petrosky et al., 2015). The HPV vaccines, Cervarix and Gardasil, protect against these oncogenic genotypes (Godi, Bissett, Miller, & Beddows, 2015). Even though there are risks with taking this vaccine, the HPV vaccine is safe and saves thousands of women from getting cervical cancer and other types of cancers because there have been studies done to examine the safety of the vaccine around the world and there is a less chance of being diagnosed with some autoimmune diseases the influenza vaccine. The vaccines themselves are noninfectious and actually have proteins that “self-assemble to form virus like particles that induce a protective......

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Hpv Term Paper

... HPV Vaccine The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection that affects both male and female. Low-risk HPVs, which do not cause cancer but can, cause skin warts technically known as condylomata acuminata on or around the genitals, anus, mouth, or throat. High-risk HPVs can cause cancer. About over a dozen high-risk HPV types have been identified. Throughout years of research scientists, doctor, and medical staff have discovered what HPV is, how one contracts the virus, the symptoms or lack of symptoms, treatment and prevention for HPV. Contracting HPV People can contract HPV from skin to skin contact. Many people can get it from direct sexual contact or oral sex. It is recommended by the CDC that preteen boys and girls at 11 or 12 are have sex with someone who is infected. It's possible for a mother with an HPV infection to transmit the virus to her infant during delivery. This exposure may cause HPV infection in the baby's genitals or upper respiratory system. Sign and Symptoms of HPV Most people with HPV do not know they are infected and don’t develop symptoms or have health cause any health problems, but when HPV does not go away, it can cause problems like genital warts and cancer. Genital warts usually appear as a small bump or groups of bumps in the genital area. like a cauliflower. A healthcare provider can usually diagnose warts by looking at the genital area. Cervical cancer usually does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced...

Words: 553 - Pages: 3

Research Paper of Hpv

...I chose this article HPV in inner city teenagers because I remember hearing about the vaccine at the end of high school and being told it was probably too late for me to have the vaccine! I was interested in find out how many girls are getting the vaccine these days. I plan to have all my children, boys included vaccinated against HPV. As future health professional I may also find myself in the position to recommend the vaccine to the patients or clients I work with. The article states that the current recommendations are to vaccinate young people before they become exposed to HPV. However women up to the age of 26 may “catch up” and get vaccinated. Only about a third of adolescent women have had all three doses of vaccine as recommended. While cervical HPV rates are highest among young women, rates of infection in other parts of the body (e.g, mouth, anus) are currently being examined. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HPV in the three main sites on the body in a group of young unvaccinated inner city women. METHODS Participants In the Bronx, New York City, 97 sexually active women aged 15-22 were enrolled in the study at Mt. Sinai Adolescent Health Center between July 2005 and March 2006. All women coming in for gynecological exams, sexually transmitted infection treatment or screening, and follow up for abnormal pap smears or genital warts were included. The women in the study were  mostly African American (54%) and Latina (39%) with an with a......

Words: 724 - Pages: 3

Hpv Proposal

...Cover Letter Women Empowering Women Health Center Po Box 7234 Lexington, SC 29073 December 6, 2011 Arnold School of Public Health Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior Columbia, SC 29210 re: HPV & Cervical Cancer: A Health Promotion Plan to Promote Awareness and Prevention of HPV & Cervical Cancer Dear Dr. Brandt: I am writing to request funding for a program that is designed to bring awareness and prevention to Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which causes virtually all cases of cervical cancer and genital warts, while encouraging a healthier lifestyle among young minority girls ages 10-18 in the state of South Carolina. Many young girls are at risk of getting the HPV virus due to lack of education and awareness about the virus. The program that we are launching is relatively simple. WEWHC is a non-profit organization that prides itself on educating the public about sexually transmitted infections/diseases. We are dedicated to empowering the public and proving them with the necessary tools and resources to make sound and educated judgments. Our staff is compiled of volunteers to include nurses, social workers, administrative assistants, health care physicians, and psychologists. Our motto is, “It takes a village.” With this concept in mind, the staff at WEWHC knows and understands the importance of having more than one person involved in helping the community. After one year the program will be evaluated by an independent source to......

Words: 1015 - Pages: 5

Prevalence of Oral Hpv Infection

...Prevalence of Oral human papillomavirus Infection in the United States, 2009-2010 Protection of Human Participants Gillison et al., (2012), used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to establish the widespread of oral Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the United States. There was a sample of 5571 participants used to conduct the study. NHANES explains the benefits of participating in the research study are that the participants receive free examinations in which there are measurements and tests that are not a part of a routine exam done in the physician office. Participants benefited by having many important tests performed free of charge while they also gain new insight into their health. They receive a preliminary report of findings from the test performed after their examinations are completed. To maintain confidentiality, the participants are given a password and number to call for their results when they were tested for sexually transmitted diseases. Regardless of age, every participant receives a cash payment as a "thank-you" for their time and effort. NHANES will also reimburse participants for transportation and baby and elder care (NHANES 2009-2010). According to NHANES, the participants are selected through a complex statistical process using the most current census information. NHANES 2009-2010 divides the United States into communities. The communities are divided into neighborhoods. The neighborhoods are selected at random. From...

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

What Is Hpv

...Papillomavirus (HPV) General Biology 1406 TTR 8:00-2:00 Clifford Campbell What is genital human papillomavirus HPV? HPV is known as Genital human papillomavirus, it is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of males and females. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it. HPV is not the same as herpes or HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). These are all viruses that can be passed on during sex, but they cause different symptoms and health problems ("Human papillomavirus (hpv)," 2012). HPV is passed on through genital contact such as vaginal and anal sex. It is also passed on by skin-to-skin contact. At least 50% of people who have had sex will have HPV at some time in their lives ("Hpv (human papillomavirus)," 2011). How do people get HPV? People can get HPV through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. HPV may also be passed on during oral sex. HPV can be passed on between straight and same sex partners even when the infected partner has no signs or symptoms. A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sexual contact with an infected person. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus on to a sex partner. It is also possible to get more than one type of HPV......

Words: 1841 - Pages: 8

Patient Education on Hpv

...Human Papillomavirus Andrea Wagner NUR/427 July 25, 2011 Shannon Smith Patient Education Plan for Human Papillomavirus Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is very common in both women and men. More than 100 types of HPV have been found, and about 30 of these types are spread from person to person through sexual contact. There are more than 100 types of HPV, some types of HPV cause genital warts, while others cause cancer of the cervix. Two vaccines are available that can protect against some of these HPV types (The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2010). HPV is a very common virus. Some research suggests that at least three out of four people who have sex will be diagnosed with a genital HPV infection at some time during their lives. HPV is primarily spread through vaginal, anal, or oral sex, but sexual intercourse is not required for infection to occur. HPV is spread by skin-to-skin contact. Sexual contact with an infected partner, regardless of the sex of the partner, is the most common way the virus is spread. Like many other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there often are no signs or symptoms of genital HPV infection. The infected person often is not aware that he or she has been infected (The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2010). Molly S, 26 y/o Caucasian female visited her gynecologist for her yearly examination and renewal of birth control pills. She is healthy and of normal weight. Molly S. is......

Words: 1124 - Pages: 5