Free Essay


In: Business and Management

Submitted By HuySuke
Words 2923
Pages 12
Business strategy is the strategy which the company uses to compete with their rivals in the same industry. Business strategy is also considered as the spine of the business because it dominates other operations in the company and helps create competitive advantages over their competitors. Due to these very important roles of the business strategy, we decided conduct this research paper with the aim to test whether choosing different types of business strategies will lead to difference in the performance of the companies or not. This research paper is based on the data from quarterly financial reports of the three companies in the computer industry in US from 1999 to 2011. With the findings of the research, the paper draws a conclusion that the impacts of different strategies are not the same, so that the managers should choose the most appropriate and profit-maximizing strategy for their company. Moreover, this result of the test will give incentives to the firms to put forward further test to find out the most effective strategy, which then can be recommended to Vietnam’s businesses.

I. Scenario
Computer industry is a very young industry in the world and it was not until the late 1990s that it really developed rapidly. In spite of this fact, the computer industry has gained a lot of significant achievements, opening a new era for the human-beings. It is also considered as an industry that has the fastest growth rate with a lot of new innovative products being produced every minute. As well as this, the number of companies operating in this field also increases considerably. Specifically, there are more than 2000 computer companies worldwide, creating a very competitive and hostile environment to work in. On the contrary to the rapid development in the world, the computer industry in Vietnam is still so weak that it can not keep up with the pace of changing technology in the world. Thus, most of the computers used in Vietnam are still imported from abroad. Therefore, in order to survive and prosper in such environment, Vietnamese companies should have to choose the most appropriate business strategy to match with the organization’s strengths and core competencies, so that they can compete with their foreign rivals. However, Vietnamese companies often confuse when choosing the strategy because there are many types of strategy. Realizing this fact, we think that it is necessary to do a research to find out whether different strategies will have different influence on the performance of the companies or not and then recommend the most effective business strategy to Vietnamese companies. In fact, this research paper only refers to three major types of business strategy: cost leadership, differentiation and customer service. When an organization competes on the basis of having the lowest cost of production in its industry, it should follow a cost leadership strategy. But if company offers unique products that are widely valued by customers, it uses differentiation strategy. Company can choose customer service strategy to focus on satisfying the demand of customer well. Our research is based on the figures gathered from the quarterly financial reports of 3 companies in US: IBM, Dell, Sony, aims to thoroughly test whether differences exist among the three strategies in terms of their effectiveness by applying single-factor analysis of variance with three independent samples (one-way ANOVA). Concurrently, this piece of research also makes logical analysis about collected data and show the most proper strategy for firm to run the business.

II. Research methodology
1. Population and sample: • Populations: we randomly choose three computer corporations: IBM, Sony and Dell among 9 computer corporations in US. The populations are 48 quarterly sales from 1999 in each of these three computer corporations (3 treatments). • Samples: +Sampling method: We choose all quarterly sales from 1999 (48 quarterly sales) in each of these three computer corporations. We do not mention the figures before 1999 because the computer industry has only developed rapidly since this year.

+Sample size: Among all quarterly sales we choose, we randomly take samples size of 15 quarterly sales for each treatments.

• Factor : The factor that defines the populations is the business strategy that has 3 levels ( cost leadership, differentiation and customer service) • Responses in our test are actual value of sales of the 3 corporations.

2. Research method:
Corporations in different samples have used different business strategies (factors). To be more specific, Sony, IBM and Dell have used cost leadership, differentiation and customer service respectively. All of them use only one strategy to operate their business. Through their annual financial reports on their websites, we collect the data of quarterly sales each year from 1999 and take samples. We recorded all data by excel and used them for research purpose. The raw material would appear in Appendix.
We decide to choose the one-way ANOVA for the experiment because the purpose of this test is to examine whether the turnover is influenced by the business strategy or not. In addition, the populations are also satisfied the assumptions of ANOVA test: data is quantitative and the samples we collected are large enough to become appropriately normal. Moreover, we can realize that all of these corporations have quite similarity in their size and their ages. As an evidence for this, all three companies has around 500 branches in about 120 countries, more than 300,000 employees and all of them has operated business in this area for approximately 30 years. Thus, the size and the age of company do not affect the differences in sales of 3 companies much, therefore they do not affect results remarkably.
For the reason that there is an inverse relationship between the probability of making a Type I error (alpha) and the probability of making a Type II error (beta), for a given sample size, any decrease in alpha results in an increase in beta. Therefore, we decide to choose the reasonable value of alpha equals to 0.05.

3. Conclusion
Using ANOVA test we can conclude whether 3 population means are different or not given chosen α.There are two possible results: • If we reject the null hypothesis or there is enough evidence to conclude that there are differences among the 3 population means, we will continue to conduct a test to find out the most effective factor to use. • If we do not reject the null hypothesis. It means that there is not efficient evidence to conclude that there is any factor of the three shows more effectively than the others. In this case, we choose the smallest factor regarding to economical reason.

III. Analysis and Discussion: 1. Analysis: * The problem question: “Can we conclude at 5% significant level that a difference exists between the sales generated from using different business strategies.” - The problem objective is to compare 3 populations (quarterly sales of 3 companies: IBM, Dell, Sony, which use different strategies: Differentiation, Customer service, Cost leadership respectively). - The data is quantitative. - The parameter of interest is the central location, the mean quarterly sales of 3 companies. Therefore, the proper technique to be used is the Analysis of Variance. *Checking assumptions: - Firstly, the F-test of the analysis of variance requires that the random variable is normally distributed. This requirement is easily checked by drafting the histograms for each sample. From the histograms below, we can see that the three populations are approximately normal, so the requirement is satisfied.

[pic] [pic] [pic] - Secondly, the population variances must be equal: [pic]
From the data shown in appendix, the sample variances are calculated as follows: [pic] = 8.2

[pic] = 8.7

[pic] = 8.65

Obviously the three sample variances are approximately equal to each other. This allows us to assume that the population variances are equal. • Samples are independent.
[pic] At least two means differ
Test statistic:
Significance level: α = 0.05
Decision rule: Reject H0 if F > Fα,k-1,n-k = F0.05,2,42 = 3.23 [pic]
Value of the test statistic:
Using the application of Microsoft Excel, the ANOVA table is conducted and interpreted below:

|SUMMARY | | | | |
|Groups |Count |Sum |Average |Variance |
|24.12 |14 |312.66 |22.33286 |8.597684 |
|6.14 |14 |193.37 |13.81214 |5.140464 |
|16.58 |14 |217.32 |15.52286 |9.230468 |

|ANOVA | | | | | | |
|Source of Variation |SS |df |MS |F |P-value |F crit |
|Between Groups |568.891 |2 |284.4455 |37.15228 |9.29E-10 |3.238096 |
|Within Groups |298.592 |39 |7.656205 | | | |
| | | | | | | |
|Total |867.483 |41 | | | | |

As the table shows, the value of the test statistic is:
F = 5.33 > F0.05,2,42 = 3.23 ( Reject H0.

Conclusion: There is enough statistical evidence to infer that differences exist among the average quarterly sales of three companies which use different business strategies at 5% level of significance.

2.Discussion: - As being mentioned above, a question arose before the test is that whether different types of business strategies will have different effects on the performance of the companies (reflected through their sales). Basing on the analysis of the findings, we can conclude that three types of strategies (cost leadership, differentiation, focus on customer service) do not have the same impacts on the sales of three famous computer-manufacturing company (Sony, IBM, Dell) at 5% level of significance. It is a helpful information for manager because it reflects that business strategy is one of the important factors affecting their sales, so if the company are experiencing a decline in sale, manager should consider their strategies again to make sure that whether the strategy is appropriate or not. Then managers can take some actions to make necessary adjustment to their strategies to improve sales. For example, they can make a combination of two most effective strategies to increase their sales, such as utilizing both the cost leadership and the customer service rather than using just only current strategy. - Moreover, this difference in the effectiveness of different strategies may give researchers incentives to conduct further tests to find out which is the best strategy. Next, we can apply the practices of the most effective strategies for the computer industry in Vietnam, which is still very young and weak. For instant, if further research prove that the strategy which focusing on customer services is the most effective one, generates the highest profit, Vietnamese computer companies can consider this strategy as one direction to improve their company’s performance. To be more specific, Vietnamese company can imitate the practices of Dell – a very successful corporation in using this strategy. Like Dell, they can do all customer service online, from which customer can choose any parts that they prefer for their new computer through internet, then their orders are transmitted directly to the manufacturing department, so they can produce a computer that can satisfy the customer’s need quickly. - Additionally, the features of the products are affected significantly by the business strategy, such as cost leadership strategy will lead to low-price product or differentiation strategy will help create innovative products that may be more expensive but have some outstanding features. Therefore, it can not be denied that the difference in sales generated from different strategies will reflect the trend of the customers’ tastes. For instance, if the sales of products of company that follow differentiation strategy is highest, it means that people nowadays seems to be more favorable in the quality of computers, they may prefer computer with more the innovative applications, so they are willing to pay more for the computer. Knowing this trend, computer-manufacturing companies can have more precise plan of production for future by focusing on features that customers value most in order to attract customers and improve their profit.

IV. Limitation.
There are some limitations of our tests that might distort the conclusion of the test to some certain extent. - Firstly, it is obvious that there are some other factors that can affect the company’s sale rather than just business strategy and the size of the business. For example, the sales may depend on the general economic situation, the effectiveness of the management board or the quality of the staffs, etc. However, the business strategy still has the greatest impact because business strategy can influence all the operation, decisions of managers and staffs or even the future plan of the company. Hence, we still can conclude that the performance of the company (reflected in the sales) is influenced mostly by its business strategies despite some small distortion caused by other factors. - Secondly, Ho is rejected; however, we can not be absolutely sure that Ha is true. Thus, we can not 100% confident that the business strategies affect differently on the sales. We just prove there is evidence so strong against Ho and in favor of Ha. If we reject Ho when they have proved that Ho is true, this mean we have made Type I error and this probability is equal to 5%.

V. Conclusion and recommendation for further research:

With the aim of considering whether or not the business strategy affects the revenues of companies, we conducted this research and some conclusions can be drawn as listed below:
Firstly, the ANOVA test helps us determine whether differences exist among population means in an effective way. Therefore, we can use it popularly in our daily life, specially in business field. In this situation, we choose single-factor ( one way) analysis as the most appropriate technique to carry out the test rather than the multifactor model. It is really important for us to apply the suitable approach to reach the accurate results.
Next, we have strictly followed all steps from checking assumptions to drawing final conclusion to practice ANOVA. Actually we can solve by hand or employing different software test but in our research, we applied Microsoft Excel to analyze data in order to perform the test faster and more accurate and still give priority to the process of doing the test.
Finally, after sufficient process of doing this project as described above, we can strongly conclude that the data provide enough evidence at 5% significance level to infer that the business strategy has strong impacts on the revenues of the companies.

VI. References: Business Machines_(IBM)/Data/Revenue VII. Appendix:

Appendix 1: List of computer companies using 3 types of business strategies in US

|Cost |Differentiation |Customer |
|leadership | |service |
|Acer |IBM |HP |
|MIS |Apple |Dell |
|CMI | |Asus |
|Compuware | | |
|Sony | | |

Appendix 2: Population list of IBM (quarterly sales from 1999 to 2010)

|IBM | | | | | |
| |Annual |Q1 |Q2 |Q3 |Q4 |
| |1999 | | | | |
| | |$20.32 |$21.91 |$21.14 |$24.18 |
| |2000 | | | | |
| | |$19.35 |$21.65 |$21.78 |$25.65 |
| |2001 | | | | |
| | |$21.04 |$21.57 |$20.43 |$22.83 |
| |2002 | | | | |
| | |$18.55 |$19.65 |$19.82 |$23.68 |
| |2003 | | | | |
| | |$20.07 |$21.63 |$21.52 |$25.91 |
| |2004 | | | | |
| | |$22.25 |$23.15 |$23.43 |$27.46 |
| |2005 | | | | |
| | |$22.91 |$22.27 |$21.53 |$24.43 |
| |2006 | | | | |
| | |$20.66 |$21.89 |$22.62 |$26.26 |
| |2007 | | | | |
| | |$22.03 |$23.77 |$24.12 |$28.87 |
| |2008 | | | | |
| | |$24.50 |$26.82 |$25.30 |$27.01 |
| |2009 | | | | |
| | |$21.71 |$23.25 |$23.57 |$27.23 |
| |2010 | | | | |
| | |$22.86 |$23.72 |$24.27 |$29.02 |

Appendix 3: Population list of Dell (quarterly sales from 1999 to 2010)

|Dell | | | | | |
| |Year |Q1 |Q2 |Q3 |Q4 |
| | | | | | |
| |2010 |14.90 |14.87 |15.53 |15.39 |
| |2009 |13.43 |12.34 |12.76 |12.90 |
| |2008 |15.99 |16.08 |16.43 |15.16 |
| |2007 |14.47 |14.72 |14.78 |15.65 |
| |2006 |15.18 |14.22 |14.21 |14.42 |
| |2005 |13.46 |13.39 |13.43 |13.91 |
| |2004 |11.51 |11.54 |11.71 |12.50 |
| |2003 |9.74 |9.53 |9.78 |9.62 |
| |2002 |8.06 |8.07 |8.46 |9.14 |
| |2001 |8.67 |8.03 |7.61 |7.47 |
| |2000 |6.80 |7.28 |7.67 |8.26 |
| |1999 |5.17 |5.54 |6.14 |6.78 |

Appendix 4: Population list of Sony (quarterly sales from 1999 to 2010)

|Sony | | | | | |
| |Year |Q1 |Q2 |Q3 |Q4 |
| | | | | | |
| |2010 |18.14 |18.77 |20.75 |27.20 |
| |2009 |9.80 |16.58 |18.55 |24.04 |
| |2008 |28.03 |18.67 |19.48 |23.77 |
| |2007 |18.26 |16.07 |18.11 |25.08 |
| |2006 |15.79 |15.17 |15.71 |21.91 |
| |2005 |13.88 |14.18 |15.07 |20.06 |
| |2004 |18.58 |14.93 |15.34 |20.86 |
| |2003 |14.77 |13.37 |16.19 |21.71 |
| |2002 |13.84 |14.47 |14.67 |19.23 |
| |2001 |11.85 |13.21 |15.02 |17.33 |
| |2000 |13.76 |14.87 |15.70 |18.35 |
| |1999 |11.28 |12.25 |15.26 |18.78 |

Appendix 5: Sample list of the three treatments:

|IBM |Dell |Sony |
|Differentiation |customer service |cost leadership |
|$24.12 |6.14 |16.58 |
|$19.82 |16.08 |18.67 |
|$22.83 |14.72 |21.71 |
|$27.46 |15.18 |15.34 |
|$18.55 |13.46 |16.19 |
|$23.77 |15.53 |11.85 |
|$19.35 |14.78 |13.76 |
|$27.01 |14.21 |18.26 |
|$20.66 |13.91 |19.23 |
|$22.27 |12.50 |15.02 |
|$19.65 |14.90 |15.70 |
|$21.71 |13.43 |12.25 |
|$23.25 |9.78 |14.18 |
|$26.26 |8.46 |13.88 |
|$20.07 |16.43 |11.28 |…...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Gramatika E Gjuhes Shqipe

...kufirin. • Parafjalë të rasës kallëzore: në, me, pa, për, më, mbi, nën, ndër, nëpër etj.: Erdhi vonë në shtëpi. • Parafjalë të rasës rrjedhore: prej, ndaj, buzë etj.: Ishte prej Durrësi. Pasthirrma • Pasthirrma është pjesë e pandryshueshme e ligjëratës, që shërben për të treguar ndjenjat e folësit ose përdoret për të tërhequr vëmendjen e dëgjuesve: O, sa mirë që erdhët! Ishim bërë merak për ju. • Pasthirrmat janë karakteristike për gjuhën e folur dhe kuptimi i tyre shpesh qartësohet nga intonacioni. • Pasthirrmat grupohen në pasthirrma emocionale – që shprehin ndjenja dhe në pasthirrma urdhërore – që shprehin dëshirën ose vullnetin e folësit. • Pasthirrma emocionale që shprehin: • Ndjenja të gëzuara: o, oh, oho, hoho, të lumtë, urra etj.; • Frikë, tmerr: bobo, kuku, obobo etj.; • Habi: au, oj, u, ua, uh etj.; • Mosbesim, mospërfillje, përbuzje: aha, ahu, i, ptu etj.; • Pakënaqësi, keqardhje, mërzi, dhembje: a, ah, of, uf etj.; • Nxitje (thirrje, urdhër, lutje): hej, o, ore, pëst, forca, hop, hë, shët etj.; • Përshëndetje, mirënjohje, mallkime, sharje, ngushëllime etj: faleminderit, lamtumirë, mirëmëngjes, mirëdita, mirëmbrëma, mirupafshim, mirë se erdhe etj. • Pasthirrmat vendosen zakonisht në fillim të fjalisë, por shpesh përdoren edhe në mes, edhe në fund të saj. Pas tyre vihet presje. Kur shqiptohen me fuqi të veçantë, pas tyre vihet pikëçuditje: Ua! Paske ardhur! Onomatopetë • Onomatopetë janë fjalë që......

Words: 11117 - Pages: 45

Free Essay


...du kunne ikke lade være med at stoppe. Dagene gik, og du klarede det rigtig godt, du var virkelig glad for at have Louis’ støtte på dine skuldre, selvom han ikke var der. Det var endelig blevet dagen hvor han skulle komme hjem, og du sad og ventede ude i køkkenet, foran hoveddøren, hele dagen, du kunne bare ikke vente; døren åbnede, og du løb hen i armene på din søde kæreste. Han holdte sig helt ind til sig, kyssede dig på panden, og aede dig i håret. ”Hvor har jeg dog savnet dig Samantha” sagde han. Du kiggede op på ham, og svarede at det havde du da også! – han kyssede dig blidt på læberne, og sagde at han havde købt take away mad hjem, det passede dig helt fint. Resten af aften gik på film foran fjerneren, i din kærestes arme, og mad. HØHØ! Imagines til Nadia Kohkan med Niall Horan Du løb væk. Væk fra kærligheden, og væk fra dit hjem. Du var ked af det, du græd og tårerne var værre end nogensinde. Niall din kæreste gennem de seneste 4 år, havde kysset en anden, du havde selv set det. Lige der i dit eget hus, i din egen stue, midt i sofaen. Ordene fløj igennem dit hoved ”hvem er det Niall?”, spurgte den højrøvede kost som havde gjort din kæreste fra forstanden. Imagines til Mathilde T. Rasmussen med Harry Edward Styles Imagines til Isabell Wenegrem AQ med Harry Edward Styles....

Words: 8575 - Pages: 35

Free Essay

El Arte Robado

...Composición 3 El Arte Robado Estimado Señor Hoho, Este es un informe sobre una mujer sospechosa de ser una peligrosa criminal internacional. Por fin pude probar que ella es una criminal porque tengo la fotografía de uno de sus crímenes. Además, el siguiente informe se va a dar más información sobre el crimen, por lo que vi. Para empezar, ayer el 25 de diciembre, 2012, eran las nueve de la noche cuando la mujer que yo sospechaba, por fin hizo un movimiento. Se llama Bernarda Chaueng. Tiene 25 años, y ella es de América. Desde el año 2009, sabíamos que ella estuvo implicada en una organización criminal internacional. Esta organización tiene miembros en los Estados Unidos, China, y Brasil. También, la organización vende cocaína, está involucrada en la prostitución, y venta de arte robada. Bernarda es la líder en los Estados Unidos. Esto es lo que sucedió esa noche. Hacía mucho frío y había neblina. Había mucha gente en la estación y todos parecían felices por las vacaciones. Estábamos en Nueva York y la seguí a la estación de tren. Bernarda vestía de rojo y ella llevaba una bolsa. Yo estaba segura de que la escultura robada era en su bolsa. Sabía que ella iba a reunirse con un comprador esa noche. Poco después, mientras la miraba, Bernarda se acercó a alguien. Era un hombre que tenía 30 años aproximadamente y llevaba una chaqueta de color negro. También llevaba una bolsa y se la dio a ella rápidamente. Evidencia uno es una fotografía que tomé de ellos después de......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


... National University Bachelor of Business Administration (Honours) or B.B.A. (Honours) Degree Department of Accounting, Management, Marketing, Finance & Banking Second Year Term Paper Guidelines: (1) Each Department shall form a Term Paper Committee consisting of all teachers of the Department, to monitor the overall supervision of the preparation of Term Papers. The Head of the Department shall be the ex-officio Chairman of the Committee. (2) One student shall submit three (3) copies of Term Paper, first copy for the Supervisor, second copy for Second Examiner and third copy for the Controller of Examination of the National University. (3) The Committee shall select a list of Term Paper Topics during the first month of starting the classes of the second year of BBA (Honours). The Term Paper Topic should be selected on an area only from the major subjects of a student at First Year or Second Year. The number of topics shall be at least ten (10) and shall not be more than 20 (twenty) in total. One Chapter Heading of a Major Subject may be customized for a topic of the Term Paper. (4) Term Paper shall be prepared in English by each student individually and every student shall be assigned under a Supervisor for preparing a Term Paper. (5) The Committee shall assign a Term Paper Topic randomly to the students and shall also select the Supervisor and the Second Examiner randomly from the teachers of the concerned Department. The students of a Department shall be primarily......

Words: 658 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...— AN O— AN O — AN O— AN O — AN O VERVIEWVERVIEW VERVIEWVERVIEW VERVIEW — — — — — Using the Ecological Footprint concept, this policy brief addresses three fundamental questions: 1.1. 1.1. 1. WhWh WhWh Wh atat atat at doe doe doe doe doe ss ss s it it it it it c c c c c urrurr urrurr urr entlyently entlyently ently t t t t t akak akak ak e te t e te t e t o fo f o fo f o f eed ueed u eed ueed u eed u s?s? s?s? s? First we describe humanity’s current food Footprint. By showing how cropland, pasture, fishery, and energy use affect the food Footprint, we pinpoint high impact and low impact consumption patterns to reduce our overall food Footprint. 2.2. 2.2. 2. HoHo HoHo Ho w cw c w cw c w c an wan w an wan w an w e ave av e ave av e av oid the coid the c oid the coid the c oid the c ll ll l aa aa a sh betwsh betw sh betwsh betw sh betw eeneen eeneen een ee ee e xpxp xpxp xp andinandin andinandin andin g humg hum g humg hum g hum an deman dem an deman dem an dem and and limitand and limit and and limitand and limit and and limit ed eced ec ed eced ec ed ec oo oo o logiclogic logiclogic logic alal alal al cc cc c apap apap ap acac acac ac ity?ity? ity?ity? ity? We put food in the context of the total human Footprint and identify strategies for shrinking our impact. The food sector provides a golden opportunity to reduce our......

Words: 8911 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Business Management

...even larger share of the profits). A growing number of businesses have also connected their digital networks with suppliers and distributors to create a more seamless flow of goods and services.17 © Jo achim Wen dler /Shu tters tock .com C 12 ar ni ng © Phil Boorman/Cultura/Jupiterimages rman/Cultura/Jupiterimages Innovation: For Better or for Worse of the social environment is crucial since successful businesses must offer goods and services that respond to it. World Wide Web The service that allows computer users to easily access and share information on the Internet ternet in the form of text,, graphics, video, apps, and ps, a animation. mobile Web users than desktop users.” — U NIVERSAL M IND © ga Alternative selling strategies thrive on the Internet, giving rise to a more individualized buying experience. If ved shopyou’ve browsed seller reviews on eBay or received sh ping recommendations from Amazon, you’ll have a sense e technolof how personal web marketing can feel.. Online technolustomized ogy also allows leading-edge firms to offer customized parable products at prices that are comparable to standardized te, nstance, products. On the NikeID website, for instance, customers es, g, can “custom build” Nike shoes, clothing, and gear, all while ajamas. sitting at home in their pajamas. ntinues speed As technology continues to evolve at breakneck spe speed, ge—both the scope of change—both in everyday life and bus......

Words: 44673 - Pages: 179

Premium Essay


...its struggle against India as a fight against political and economic exploitation of Manipur. The outfit is inspired by the Maoist ideology of Peoples’ War, based on guerilla warfare and the three phases of conflict: the strategic defensive, strategic equilibrium and strategic offensive stages. The PLA states that the people of Manipur will continue to suffer neglect and economic backwardness 31 The 6th Naga Peoples’ Consultative Meeting was held on July 27, 2007 at Camp Hebron near Dimapur, Nagaland, which I attended as an observer. The meeting comprised nearly 5000 Naga peoples’ representatives from Naga areas in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur and Nagaland. Civil society organizations like the Naga Hoho (Apex Council) representatives, Presidents of Tribal Hohos, Naga Mothers’ Association, Naga Students’ Federation, Human Rights Organizations, Village Headmen Association, Senior Citizens’ Forums, members of the intelligentsia and media were also in attendance. Field Visit to Assam, February 10-20, 2009. Phanjoubam Tarapo, Bleeding Manipur (New Delhi: Har Anand Publications, 2003), p.27. Ibid. 32 33 34 INDIA'S INTERNAL SECURITY SITUATION | 75 as long as they continue to stay in India.35 Most of its ideological musings can be found in its journal titled Reflection.36 The PLA repeatedly asserts that it is not limited to the cause of the Meiteis but is representative of the Nagas, Kukis, Chins, as well as other smaller tribal groups in Manipur thereby forming......

Words: 45406 - Pages: 182

Free Essay

Awwaw relationship natin! Pero pag hindi mo ako pinagbigyan, ipagkakalat ko talaga yung recorded voice mo. MWAHAHAHA!" "Blackmailer." =__= Number 8: That girl is a deceiver. Asar lang. Asar lang. Asar lang. Mag-3.30am na! Buset kang babae ka! Buset! LAKI NG SAKIT MO SA UTAK! Asar. >___< - 9 She's so gullible. xxx-xxx-xxx-xxx-xxx "one day, everything will change. " - Unknown xxx-xxx-xxx-xxx-xxx -9 She's so gullible "I'm here!" "Wow! On time ka ngayon." "Shemperds. Magpapalate sana ako ng mga 30minutes kasi nabasa ko sa internet na dapat daw ang babae nagpapalate sa date para masukat nya daw ang patience ng kadate nya." "Ano namang mga katangahan pinagbabasa mo." =_= "Hoho. Forum yun! Pero hindi ko sinunod kasi alam kong maiinipin ka eh." "Buti alam mo..." =__= "Pero hindi rin totoo yun," "Ang alin?" "Yung maiinipin ka, kasi nung nanuod tayo ng sine at nagpunta tayo sa park nagawa mo akong maintay kahit sobrang late ako." "Eh? Ginawa ko iyon?" tinuro ko sarili ko ng hintuturo ko na hindi makapaniwala at matandaan kung ginawa ko nga ba iyon. Pero tumawa lang sya at hinigit ako sa kamay, "Tara na, mamaya dadami na ang tao at sisikip na." ^v^ Oo nga pala, dahil official 'couple' na kami ay halos araw araw nya akong niyayang lumabas na lagi nyang tinatawag na 'date'. Blackmailer itong babaeng ito, ayaw kong makarating sa klase yung recorded voice ko. Ang hirap pa man......

Words: 27209 - Pages: 109

Premium Essay


... (Ray, 2013) Bibliography: Ray, J. 2013. Top 10 World's Biggest Financial Crises Ever - List Dose. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 15 February 2014]. 1) Federal Reserve Bank of SAN FRANCISCO, 2002. What are business cycles and how do they affect the economy. [Online] Available at <> [Accessed: 15 February 2014]. (Federal Reserve Bank of SAN FRANCISCO, 2002) (monetary policy) 2) S-cool, 2014. UK Monetary Policy. [online] Available at: < > [Accessed: 16 February 2014]. (S-cool, 2014) (centra bank as lender of last resort) 3) The Economist.2014. Economic A-Z terms beginning with C. [Online] Available at: [Accessed: 20 February 2014] (The Economist, 2014) * 4) 2014.......

Words: 501 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...J.KAU: Islamic Econ., Vol. 19, No. 2, pp: 3-20 (2006 A.D./1427 A.H.) Monetary Dynamics and Gold Dinar: An Empirical Perspective MANSOR H. IBRAHIM* Professor of Economics International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia E-mail: ABSTRACT. According to proponents of Gold Dinar particularly Meera and Aziz (2002), termed as Dinarists’, the fiat monetary system is inherently unstable. In providing an empirical perspective on this contention, this paper investigates monetary dynamics of a Muslim economy, Malaysia. To this end, the paper adopts a vector autoregressive (VAR) framework to document dynamic interactions between money supply and various macroeconomic variables including real output, price level, interest rate and stock prices. The results seem to provide some support for the Dinarists’ contention. First, the results portray clearly an important causal role of money supply for other macroeconomic variables. Second, we document some evidence that expansion in money supply is inflationary. Lastly, money supply – interest rate and money supply – stock price interactions are destabilizing. More importantly, expansion in money supply has the potential of breeding asset price bubbles. However, apart from the above findings, we also find that money supply reacts positively to increase in real output. Since the accommodative role of money supply is necessary or a pre-condition for expansion in production, arguments for Gold Dinar need to be qualified.......

Words: 8516 - Pages: 35

Free Essay


...converse and laugh for several minutes. Is this the reason why Kathy is always here in the library? I sure hope not! They continued to laugh that I unconsciously drop the book. I gasped and hide myself. I prepared to be unseen, or Kathy will think I'm a total weirdo. No. That guy IS. "Hatid na kaya kita?" the odd guy offered. Noooo! Don't accept it. Please don't! "Sure ka? Baka kasi mapaga—" Ouch. "Akin na nga bag mo." And then he grabbed her bag then they walked together towards the exit. Three words, ten letters. I am jealous! Unlucky Cupid © 2011-2012 ilovestars ➶ chapter 28: Interruption /ALYNA’S PERSPECTIVE After ng play nila Kath, pumunta muna kaming room para antayin siya. Pa-VIP si teh eh. Ayos lang, friends-friends eh. Hoho! Nang makarating na si Kath sa room, ayun tinukso muna namin sandali. Bagay kasi talaga sila ni Kenneth. Sayang nga lang at nakarating pa si Sharlyn, kaya di natuloy yung plano ni Kenneth. Syempre naman boto kami sa kanya para kay Katherine. Biased na kung biased. Hinatid na kami ni Lindsay pauwi. Hihi. Driver anywhere, anytime. I so so love her. Ang agap pa pala. Wala namang magawa. Magsisikap na nga akong mapataas ang grades ko sa Geometry, kainis naman kasi yun eh. Aanhin ko ba ang figures sa trabaho? Di naman ako magiging Architech, ew, no. Puro math yun, right? Well whatever. Real life application nga. Tch. Hinagilap ko ang Geom book ko at notebook. Shemay! Wala sa bag ko. Wala din sa study table. "Oh GeoMeo, where art......

Words: 84202 - Pages: 337

Free Essay

Thesis on Laughter my Laughter Yoga sessions, I am asked if  I get depressed and encounter  problems, too.  I reply I have  no  problems, only challenging  situations, and say, “Hello! I am as human as anyone.  The big difference is I don’t dwell on any situation toxic and negative. I lift them up to God, who willingly takes on all our burdens for us.  He carries us on His shoulders during our most trying  moments.”  Jokingly, but  seriously, I added, the louder  my  laughter, the  heavier  or  more  difficult  the challenges that besiege  me. Also, at the onset of a any negative feeling, I do  some Laughter Yoga exercises, particularly the Hearty Laughter, my favorite. It is good for the mind, body and spirit and guaranteed  to make one feel better. The hoho haha-ing is another good stress buster, good for the overall well-being.  Any rhythmic movement of the diaphragm  makes one feel better.  It overhauls the mood and mindset.  In addition, I do positive chanting like: “I feel good, very good; I am happy, very happy,” complete with body movement, and in no time at all, the cobwebs crowding my mind are gone.  I realize the great need to spread Laughter Yoga to help and make as many of our kababayans experience the best, fastest, easiest, stress-and-depression buster there is —  Laughter Yoga. Acceding to the  numerous  emailed requests, the following are the Laughter Yoga benefits:  lifts depression, reduces cholesterol level, clears the air passages,  boosts the immune system, brings down......

Words: 7824 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Hujan Hitam

...berkata bahawa kita tidak anggap mereka sudah mati dan terus dibakar. * Beliau tidak percaya kepada keabadian roh tetapi meraskaan setiap mayat itu perlu dipelrakukan dengan hormat * Beliau meminta Shigematsu mengambil alih tempat paderi untuk membacakan doa * Shigematsu menolak kerana dia masih mentah dalam agama Buddha * Pengurus menjawab, ini bukan soal mahir atau tidak. Ia juga tidak melanggar apa-apa undang-undang. * Shigematsu terpaksa akur dan melawat sebuah kuil yang kononnya ada seorang paderi muda yang mengisytiharkan dirinya menuntut di Kolej Buddha * Beliau disambut oleh seorang perempuan tua yang menyampaikan kepadanya bahawa paderi muda itu terpaksa dikerah menjadi tentera dan berkhidmat di bawah Unit Akatsuki (hoho). * Shigematsu melawat pula sebuah kuil Mazhab Shin yang terdapat seorang paderi tua dan paderi pembantu * Paderi tua itu lemah dan terlantar di atas katil dan paderi pembantu itu pula keluar untuk menguruskan pengebumian. * Paderi tua itu mendengar tujuan Shigematsu ke situ dan meminta perempuan yang bersamanya membawakan beberapa teks Buddha. * Majlis pengebumian akan dibacakan- Perlindungan Tiga Kali Ganda, Dedikasi, Gita Puja Buddha. Kemudian akan dibacakan Sutra Amida dan barulah Khutbah Kefanaan | Perkara 11- Paderi Gantian * Dalam perjalanan pulang, Shigematsu berlatih baca, beliau tidak memiliki sebarang kelayakan tetapi niatnya hanyalah untuk mendoakan keselamatan mereka. * Ketika dia pulang, keranda berisi mayat......

Words: 967 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Finance and Stock

...大 局 观    看着那么多的人连连亏损,真是于心不忍。我要说的是,一个聪明人,应该用智慧去做事,你们首先要给自己准确的定位!            我要说的是,你们99%的人把自己定以为天才与超级天才了,你们仅仅是普通人。普通人应该做自己力所能及的事!先了解下什么是期货吧,期货是远期交割的货物,说到底就是个贸易.             为什么期货这么残酷,因为你们没看清诱惑的代价。首先要明白,期货是个好东西,但是期货的杠杆交易却是个极度缺德的东西!全球各大交易所的那帮渣子希望杠杆越高越好,杠杆越高,期民的血汗钱就源源不断的流进了交易所腰包,hoho...这真是无本生意,万世基业啊。一旦你用了杠杆,那么你就要深刻明白,你做了超出你能力范围的事了,期货的本质仅仅是贸易,现货贸易年均下来,一般人也就10%-15%的利润,而且程序繁杂,辛劳无比。             如果大家都不使用杠杆 ,交易所的那帮渣子的收入就立即爆跌百分之几百,他们也不会那么得瑟了。期货会产生10%左右整体的赢利或亏损,这是经济发展正常的新陈代谢可以接受的!做期货,就是把自己定义为一个做贸易事业的人!!!当你使用杠杆时,你就是个投机分子或者说赌徒了。     投机分子,总想以最少的代价获得最高的收益,一方面绝大多数是受害者,另一方面助长交易所那帮渣子的嚣长气焰。助长整个市场的残酷。当你们把自己定义为投机分子时,你们就要有精准的判断行情的能力,这是多么难的一件事啊。当你们把自己定义为投机分子时,你们就要有超越凡人的承受心理,那需要多么大条的神经啊。这一切,只是你们过度的放大了你们的贪婪,过度的贪婪,往往是毁灭之源……     期货多么美好的词,可以远期交割的货物啊,多么前卫风骚的美好事物啊。。。。。期货这个美好的词,被一帮利欲熏心及贪婪的家伙毁了…..             当你以做现货贸易的心态来做期货时,那我首先要恭喜你,你成功了!只要你究其一生去做,你一定会富甲天,名动全球!如果你以现货去做期货,随便顺根日K的20日均线就行了,你需要不断的止损吗???日内交易,98%的止损在未来两周都可以解套赚钱!你们的大亏,一次次的爆仓,就是不停的止损止没了。你只需要不停的去止赢,震荡不过是给你送钱!单边一个大原则,20日均线就够了。极限的顶底还可以来个价值投资!               10W块做一手锌,看错2000点才亏10%,看错4000点,才亏20%。你顺了日K的20日均线,这种错误,一百年也难发生一次,比真正的现货还安全N倍。而你使用了杆杠,你就要强迫自己在50点,100点,200点,300点等微小的区间内试图判断对行情!这种本事,只有0.1%的人不到可以有。这是多么巨大压力与挑战啊。10W块做一手锌,以最好的心态,最轻松的心情去做,一年照样30%-50%,你们不信吗?哈哈。期货比股票好N倍,T+0,多空都可以做,前提是,你不使用杆杠! 只是以锌举个例子。一句话,绝对不使用保证金。比如白糖,你也只能7W块做一手!一旦你使用杆杠,就将自己置入了危险的边缘! 还有一点,平时放2等份的资金在帐户里,其它就到股市里逢低买债券吧,那2份资金波动,8份资金一年稳健的再搞回4%的年收益!需要了,随时可以出来。             新人,你们是张白纸,你们有美好伟大的前程,不要跟投机岛95%的赌徒学,你们完全可以开启一份无比美好的稳健的事业。永远不要去羡慕别人一年几倍几十倍的神话,那些只属于0.1%的人都不到!走最稳健的路,时间与复利一样帮你成就传奇!你...

Words: 4002 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Real Estate Finance

...2.65 4.02 4.23 5.86 Miscellaneous Goods & Services Total 4.52 100.00 0.01 0.76 5.12 6.45 Kenya National Bureau of Statistics is ISO 9001:2008 Certified -2- Table 2: Overall CPI and Inflation Rates Month Mar-2015 Apr-2015 May-2015 Jun-2015 Jul-2015 Aug-2015 Sep-2015 Oct-2015 Nov-2015 Dec-2015 Jan-2016 Feb-2016 Mar-2016 Overall CPI 155.86 158.70 159.98 160.46 160.57 160.90 161.33 162.13 162.97 164.72 165.37 164.67 165.92 February 2009=100 Overall Rate of Inflation 6.31 7.08 6.87 7.03 6.62 5.84 5.97 6.72 7.32 8.01 7.78 6.84 6.45 Table 3: National Average Retail Prices of Selected Commodities Commodity Name Cabbages Kale-Sukuma Wiki Irish Potatoes Pilipili Hoho Fresh Unpacketed Milk Fresh Packeted Milk Peas Mutton/Goat Meat Cigarettes Beer Kerosene Electricity Electricity Charcoal Gas (LPG) Water Services Maissionette Diesel Petrol Kiosks: Food Units of Measure Average Price March 2015 Average Price February 2016 Average Price March 2016 % Change on last month 1 Kg 1 Kg 1 Kg 1 Kg 44.38 42.51 53.16 185.35 48.07 36.81 72.32 181.61 54.46 38.22 73.88 190.46 13.28 3.84 2.16 4.87 % change on same month last year 22.72 -10.10 38.99 2.76 1000 ml 500 Ml 1 Kg 1 Kg 1 Packet 500 Ml 1 litre 50 KWh 200 KWh 4 Kg 13 Kg 1000 litres 3 Bedrooms 1 litre 1......

Words: 803 - Pages: 4