History of Schizophrenia

In: Science

Submitted By stephf90
Words 1060
Pages 5
History of Schizophrenia
Stephanie Fernandez
California Baptist University

History of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a mental illness that people have been dealing with throughout history. When we look at research as early as the 1800s, we find that there is evidence of individuals who were dealing with schizophrenia. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (2013), Schizophrenia is defined as abnormalities in five domains which are delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking and speech, disorganized or abnormal motor behavior, and negative symptoms (p. 87). For this reason, this article will examine the history of Schizophrenia from three time periods which is in the 1800s, mid 1900s, and in the 21st century.
1800s
In the 1817, the first moral-treated asylum was opened in America by the Philadelphia Quakers along with the Congregational Church in 1818 (Whitaker, 2002, p. 25). The Quakers and the church would not use any form of treatment to treat the mentally ill, however; they would help the people cope with their illness by creating activities for them such as gardening or playing games (Whitaker, 2002, p. 26). In the asylum, there were people who varied in mental illnesses. Emil Kraepelin, a psychiatrist, was one of the first people who presented schizophrenia in a category which he called dementia praecox. He would diagnose his patients by putting them into categories based on the symptoms and the patterns of the symptoms (Lyons and Martin, 2014, p. 33). Kraepelin believed that those who had schizophrenia was because of a genetic or biological cause. He believed that schizophrenia, or dementia praecox was caused because of an abnormality in the person’s sex glands. Kraepelin was a large contributor to the finding of schizophrenia as a mental illness (Lyon and Martin, 2014, p. 34). Some of the treatments that…...

Similar Documents

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia which affects approximately 1 percent of the population usually begins before age 25 and persists throughout life. The illness is a life long debilitating condition for about 40% of patients and is enormously costly in both social and economic terms. Despite the presence of delusions, hallucinations and cognitive impairment which characterize the illness, overall life expectancy is not altered (although there is a significantly increased risk-of suicide in the early years). Schizophrenia is usually viewed as a functional psychosis, a label which implies that the symptoms arise from the disorderly activity of neurons without accompanying anatomical and pathological alterations of brain structure. This view is due to the failure of pathologists to find convincing pathological changes associated with the disease in the first seven decades of the century. Over the last ten years things have changed considerably. Recent CT and MRI scan, and also postmortem studies show that various brain areas of schizophrenic patients are altered. HISTORY The two key people in the history of Schizophrenia were Emil Kraepelin and Eugene Blealer. Kraepelin organized the seriously mentally ill patients by three diagnostic groups: dementia praecox, manic depressive psychosis, and paranoia. Kraeplin’s description of dementia praecox emphasizes a chronic deteriorating course, in addition to including such clinical phenomena as hallucinations and delusions. Kraepelin reported......

Words: 1796 - Pages: 8

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia, What’s Real? Image a world where reality is distorted and you’re unsure if the voices you’re hearing are real or if you’re the only one that can hear them. You’re paranoid of the people and things around you and things are not what they seem. To some people this scary image is their reality, an actual mental disorder called Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia affects 1.1% of the population which is about 2.2 million people in the United States. The official definition of the disorder is a brain abnormality that interprets reality abnormally and can cause side effects of hallucinations, delusions, and abnormal thinking. The DSM-IV recognizes the disorder and gives it criteria to be met when health care personnel who are diagnosing an individual they believe may have the disorder. The DSM-IV states a person must have at least 2 of the following symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly abnormal psychomotor behavior including catatonia, or negative symptoms like diminished emotional expression or avolition. At least two of these symptoms must be present for a significant portion of a 1 month period. Last it should at least delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech. Next since the onset of symptoms daily functioning like school, work or personal aspects must be lower than what was before the onset of symptoms. Lastly the symptoms can not be a result of substance abuse such as illegal drugs or alcohol (DSM-IV-TR, 2005). ......

Words: 1469 - Pages: 6

Schizophrenia

...SCHIZOPHRENIA UNIT9 GE375 Richard Riggins 5/24/2012 Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that has affected people throughout history. About 1 percent of Americans have this illness. People with the disorder may hear voices other people don't hear. They may believe other people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. This can terrify people with the illness and make them withdrawn or extremely agitated. People with schizophrenia may not make sense when they talk. They may sit for hours without moving or talking. Sometimes people with schizophrenia seem perfectly fine until they talk about what they are really thinking(Schizophrenia, 2012) The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three broad categories: positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive symptoms. Positive symptoms are psychotic behaviors not seen in healthy people. People with positive symptoms often "lose touch" with reality. These symptoms can come and go. Sometimes they are severe and at other times hardly noticeable, depending on whether the individual is receiving treatment(Carpenter, Huffman 2010). Negative symptoms are associated with disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors. These symptoms are harder to recognize as part of the disorder and can be mistaken for depression or other conditions. People with negative......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia has affected people throughout history and is the least understood of the major mental illnesses. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe and disabling brain disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. Contrary to what people believe, schizophrenia is not a split personality or multiple personality disease. According to the “Mayo Clinic” (n.d.), “The word ‘schizophrenia’ does mean ‘split mind,’ but refers to a disruption of the usual balance of emotions and thinking.” Families and society are also affected by those who suffer from schizophrenia because people who suffer with schizophrenia have difficulty holding down jobs or even caring for themselves which means they have to rely on others for help. There are five types of schizophrenia and each type is based on what symptoms the person is experiencing during the assessment. • Paranoid schizophrenia is when the person is preoccupied with one or more delusions or auditory hallucinations but they do not have symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia. • Disorganized schizophrenia is when the person is showing prominent symptoms of disorganized behavior or speech and their affect is flat and or inappropriate. • Catatonic schizophrenia is when the person is experiencing at least two of the following symptoms: difficulty moving, resisting moving, excessive moving, and abnormal movements and or repeating what others do or say. • Undifferentiated type is when the person shows two or more of the following......

Words: 1160 - Pages: 5

Schizophrenia

...people think about the psychological disorder known as chizophrenia, many believe that this defines a person who portrays multiple personalities. However, this is not what schizophrenia is. Schizophrenia is a complex type of dementia, which means that people perceive voices and behaviors that do not necessarily exist. This research paper on schizophrenia will observe the disorder’s: symptoms, prevalence, causes and treatments. ​When observing a specific mental illness, the first step is to always investigate its symptoms. The symptoms of a mental illness are basic signs that a person with the disorder portrays. In schizophrenia, there are two main types of symptoms (and each of these types has a sub-type). The first are positive symptoms, in which a person is not aware of reality. These symptoms are easily distinguishable. The second are negative symptoms. Unlike positive symptoms, negative symptoms are harder to recognize for other people. These symptoms are simply emotions and behaviors that are absent in schizophrenic individuals, that are common in other people. ​The first sub-type of positive symptoms are hallucinations. This positive symptom characterizes an individual who hears, smells or feels something that is not actually there. The most common type of hallucination that people with schizophrenia experience is “voices”. These voices are heard in schizophrenic people’s imagination and are different from the internal voice that most people perceive. Unlike the......

Words: 873 - Pages: 4

Schizophrenia

...Paper| | Case Study: Brian| | | | Ashley Allen Due: 12/5/2011 Ashley Allen Case Study: Brian Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that has affected many people all over the world. It is a term that many people have heard but few understand the true meaning. When described, those with schizophrenia involve abnormal changes in their behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and views on the world. Those with schizophrenia are considered to have their behavior disturbed in particular way along with having difficulty with reality. With a remarkable amount of evaluation on the client, Brian, he has shown a pattern that leads to the diagnosis of Schizophrenia. There are a number of factors that play an important role when considering one with abnormal behavior (Beidel et al, 2010). By acknowledging particular factors such as gender, age, ethnicity, family & health history, work & health status, social relationships, drug & alcohol history, and various behavioral habits, it is easier to fully understand Brian’s behavioral influences. Hyman (2006) explains that schizophrenia affects both men and women equally though men tend to experience symptoms at a younger age than women do. Schizophrenic symptoms often develop in late adolescence to early twenties for males and given that Brian is a 25 years old male, he falls into the appropriate age of onset for schizophrenia. It is important acknowledge that at 19 years old, Brian has experienced his father’s death which is......

Words: 2735 - Pages: 11

Schizophrenia

...Mental Illness Schizophrenia HCA/240 October 21, 2012 Marnie Bingham Mental Illness Schizophrenia The Greek word schizophrenia (split mind) is less than 100 years old. Bénédict Augustin Morel was first to diagnosis the disease in the mid1800’s. Emil Kraepelin was however first to do extensive research on the disease. The disease was first called the disease dementia praecox because it was believed that the condition was a form of early dementia. The condition of dementia praecox was then called schizophrenia in the late 1900’s by Eugen Bleuler because the disease was found to not relate to actual dementia at all. Schizophrenia could have been around for much longer however, there are recorded behavioral traits of the disease in Pharaonic Egypt, as far back as the second millennium before Christ (The Internet Mental Health Initiative, 2012). There are many myths associated with the disease. In the early 1900’s people believed that schizophrenia was a form of demonic possession and praying could cure the illness. Some were believed to be witches or they had a curse on them. Some believed that they were blessed by god and talking to angels. The most common myth is schizophrenia means a person has a split personality. The term schizophrenia does mean split mind, however the term is used to define the mental breakdown of a person’s mind. Split personality disorder does exist however it is referred to as dissociative identity disorder and is considered an entirely......

Words: 1338 - Pages: 6

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia, referred to as a split personality disorder, is a chronic, severe, devastating mental illness that affects approximately 1% of the population, equivalent to more than 2 million people in the United States. Statistics indicates schizophrenia affects men about 1½ times more frequently than women. (National Comorbidity Survey, 1994) It is a psychotic mental disorders characterized by symptoms of thought, behavior, and social problems. The thought problems linked with schizophrenia described as psychosis, in that the individual thinking is totally out of touch with reality. The individual with this disorder may also have disorganized speech, and behavior, physically or careless behavior, extensively decreased behaviors or feelings, as well as delusions, which are ideas about themselves or others that have no basis in reality. The term schizophrenia first introduced in 1911. In 1887, Emil Kraepelin deemed it a separate mental illness. Regardless of recent history, (Addington, Bouchard, Goldberg, 2005) described throughout written history. Ancient Egyptian, Hindu, Chinese, Greek, and Roman writings described symptoms comparable to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. During medieval times, schizophrenia, like other illnesses, often viewed as evidence of the sufferer possessed by spirits or evil powers. Schizophrenia is a multifaceted illness. Experts in the field are somewhat baffled as to what causes it. Some doctors believe that the brain may not be able to......

Words: 1173 - Pages: 5

Schizophrenia

...240 April 10, 2011 Thea Lawton Analyzing Psychological Disorders Schizophrenia, referred to as a split personality disorder, is a chronic, severe, devastating mental illness that affects approximately 1% of the population, equivalent to more than 2 million people in the United States. Statistics indicates schizophrenia affects men about 1½ times more frequently than women. (National Comorbidity Survey, 1994) It is a psychotic mental disorders characterized by symptoms of thought, behavior, and social problems. The thought problems linked with schizophrenia described as psychosis, in that the individual thinking is totally out of touch with reality. The individual with this disorder may also have disorganized speech, and behavior, physically or careless behavior, extensively decreased behaviors or feelings, as well as delusions, which are ideas about themselves or others that have no basis in reality. The term schizophrenia first introduced in 1911. In 1887, Emil Kraepelin deemed it a separate mental illness. Regardless of recent history, (Addington, Bouchard, Goldberg, 2005) described throughout written history. Ancient Egyptian, Hindu, Chinese, Greek, and Roman writings described symptoms comparable to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. During medieval times, schizophrenia, like other illnesses, often viewed as evidence of the sufferer possessed by spirits or evil powers. Schizophrenia is a multifaceted illness. Experts in the field are somewhat......

Words: 2236 - Pages: 9

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia Almar Lim CNI College ADN Program NSG 265 Holistic Health Concepts Ms Shadia Maksemous RN, MSN February 4th, 2015 Schizophrenia is not a single disease, but a broad category of mental illnesses. Schizophrenia is a psychiatry disorder where several structural disturbances occur in the brain. It normally takes place in the temporal and frontal lobes, changing the neural systems and affecting the neurotransmitters in charge of controlling the functioning that takes place in these areas. It is not a structural brain disease that shows up early on X-rays CAT scans, or EEGs. Schizophrenics also have defects in the handling of amino acids. Etiology The exact causes of schizophrenia are unknown, but research suggests that a combination of physical, genetic, psychological and environmental factors can make people more likely to develop the condition. Current thinking is that some people may be prone to schizophrenia, and a stressful or emotional life event might trigger a psychotic episode. However, it's not known why some people develop symptoms while others don't. (Smith & Segal, 2014) Clinical Manifestation There are two ways that schizophrenia begins. One way is called Acute Onset. This happens very fast, about a couple of weeks. It is easier to recover from this. You are able to get help faster because people notice it sooner. The other way is called Process Onset. This takes a longer period of time to show. It is gradual, sometimes up to years.......

Words: 1321 - Pages: 6

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia Stephanie Renee Huston PSY 326 Research Methods Instructor: Keisha Keith 11/23/2015 Schizophrenia Introduction Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder that gives a misleading or false account of the way a person thinks, behave, communicate their feelings, realize or understand, and relates to others. Schizophrenia has been considered as one of many chronic and disabling conditions for people that suffers with a major mental illness. People with schizophrenia often have problems fulfilling a task in the general population, at work, at school, and in relationships leaving an individual not wanting to communicate with other people and frightened. Schizophrenia suffers will live with it the rest of their life, it cannot be cured but treatments are available and controllable with proper and advance treatments. Contrary to popular belief, schizophrenia is not a split or multiple personality. Schizophrenia is a psychosis, a type of mental illness in which a person cannot tell what is real from what is imagined. In writing this paper on Schizophrenia I will show how popular belief, has an antithesis of what is really Schizophrenia? Is it really a......

Words: 3391 - Pages: 14

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness characterized by incoherent or illogical thoughts, bizarre behavior and speech, and delusions or hallucinations, such as hearing voices. Schizophrenia typically begins in early adulthood. People with schizophrenia may not make sense when they talk. They may sit for hours without moving or talking. Sometimes people with schizophrenia seem perfectly fine until they talk about what they are really thinking. Families and society are affected by schizophrenia too. Many people with schizophrenia have difficulty holding a job or taking care of themselves, so they rely on others for help. Schizophrenia affects men and women equally. It occurs at similar rates in all ethnic groups around the world. Symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men tend to experience symptoms a little earlier than women. Most of the time, people do not get schizophrenia after age 45. Schizophrenia rarely occurs in children, but awareness of childhood-onset schizophrenia is increasing. Additionally, it can be difficult to diagnose schizophrenia in teens. This is because the first signs can include a change of friends, a drop in grades, sleep problems, and irritability- common behaviors among teens. A combination of factors can predict schizophrenia in up to 80 percent of youth who are at high risk of developing the illness. These factors include isolating oneself and withdrawing from others, an increase in......

Words: 326 - Pages: 2

Schizophrenia

...controlling hold of his father costs him opportunities to study music in several renowned schools, before David finally develops enough strength to defy his father and study at the Royal College in London. The consequence he faces is disownment and a lifelong estrangement from his father, which sadly never mends. While in London he begins to experience the beginnings of his mental decline with what appears to be schizophrenia. After achieving notoriety as a musician, the musical world loses him to his mental illness. David finds himself living in psychiatric hospitals, and with support of others, eventually lives back on his own. Through a series of events, he finds himself reunited with the piano, first in a local restaurant and eventually returning to the concert hall. His reclamation of music parallels his reclamation of relationships as he adjusts to a functional life with schizophrenia. The movie instills hope as it shows a marked return to positive functioning as David finds love and fulfillment in his life. Client name: David Helfgott Psychiatric diagnosis: Schizophrenia—Disorganized Type DSM-IV-TR criteria: * Client has two or more of the following characteristic symptoms for a significant portion of 1 month: 1. delusions 2. hallucinations 3. disorganized speech 4. grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior 5. negative symptoms (affective flattening, avolition, or alogia) * Client has significant social/occupational dysfunction since......

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia is a mental illness that usually strikes in late adolescence or early adulthood, but can strike at any time in life. The signs and symptoms may vary from individual to individual, but all who deal with the disorder show many of the same symptoms. Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that has affected people throughout history. About one percent of Americans suffer from this illness. It’s a serious mental illness that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People who have Schizophrenia find it difficult to tell the difference between real and imagined experiences, to think logically, to express feelings, or to behave appropriately (eHealthMD 2002). One’s who suffer from Schizophrenia lead very different lives. They tend to forget things that have happen and look at situations in a different light. They become confused in certain courses that their lives may take. Many times, what they do can not only be dangerous to themselves but also to others who are surrounding them (eHealthMD 2002) Certain experiences can seem threatening and can make them fearful which is when they withdraw themselves from many things that people whom do not suffer from Schizophrenia do on a normal daily basis. People who suffer from Schizophrenia have trouble organizing their thoughts and expressing themselves. Even their speech and behavior can be so disorganized that they may seem frightening to others (eHealthMD 2002). This is one of the most......

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Schizophrenia

...Schizophrenia is one of the most common serious and scary psychiatric illnesses in the United States. It’s a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that has affected people throughout history. Approximately 1% of all Americans suffer from this illness, but it occurs in 10% of people who have a first-degree relative with the disorder. A person with schizophrenia hears voices that no one else around them hears. They believe that people around them are constantly plotting to harm them. They act really agitated. Schizophrenia not only affects the person but it also affects their friends and family. The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three general categories: positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive symptoms. Positive symptoms are psychotic behaviors. Some of the positive symptoms of n,Disorders. Negative symptoms are related with interruptions to normal emotions and behaviors. Negative symptoms are often confused for Depression. Some of the negative symptoms are: Little or no interaction, Lack of beginning or completing a planned activity, & Flat affect which is when their face doesn’t move or they speak in a monotonous voice. Cognitive symptoms are more restrained. These symptoms are harder to recognize. They are often detected during more intense tests. Some Cognitive symptoms are: Having a hard time understanding information and using it to make decisions, hard time focusing or paying attention, and having a hard time using information......

Words: 878 - Pages: 4