Handwashing

In: Business and Management

Submitted By pkgupta2003
Words 3296
Pages 14
Reabsorption of Sodium Chloride — Lessons from the Chloride Channels

PERSPECTIVE

prostaglandin inhibitors, and the molecular challenge is substantial as well. The molecular delineation of the genetic defects that result in tubulopathies can lead to a better understanding of their physiology. However, the DNA sequencing of the genes that encode transporters and channels (as well as their subunits) is not a trivial matter and must be complemented by experiments determining expression patterns. The Xenopus oocytes that have been used for such studies are transfected cells rather than “real” polarized cells of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle surrounded by the sophisticated hypertonic environment of the renal medulla.
The complex polyuria–polydipsia syndrome described by Schlingmann et al. is attributable to the concomitant loss-of-function mutations in both
CLCNKA and CLCNKB; the syndrome results in ion selectivity, demonstrating the means whereby a renal tubular cell lets one type of ion (chloride) through the lipid membrane to the exclusion of others. It thus provides yet another example of the molecular basis of Bartter’s syndrome (see Figure).

The contributions of Roderick McKinnon and
Peter Agre to solving these two complementary problems of the resorption of renal solute and renal solvent earned them the 2003 Nobel Prize in chemistry.5 We live in a fascinating time in which clinical syndromes can be deciphered at the molecular and even the atomic level.
From the Department of Medicine and the Membrane Protein
Study Group, University of Montreal (D.G.B.); and the Department of Human Genetics and Medicine, McGill University
(T.M.F.) — both in Montreal.
1. Peters M, Jeck N, Reinalter S, et al. Clinical presentation of genetically defined patients with hypokalemic salt-losing tubulopathies. Am J Med 2002;112:183-90.
2.…...

Similar Documents

Healthy People 2020

...Healthy People 2020: Handwashing After reviewing the Healthy People 2020 website, I decided to teach a group of four-year-old preschooler’s proper hand washing for my teaching plan. To meet this need several health-teaching projects have been developed to educate the preschoolers on how to better care for themselves. This teaching plan would fit into the category of disease prevention and health promotion. According to Bastable (2010), health promotion focuses on increasing wellness through approach behaviors, such as hand washing, rather than avoidance behaviors. Also, hand washing is one of the most important and effective ways to reduce the spread of germs and decrease the risk of illness and disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). The most effective method for preventing transmission is hand washing. Participants will be taught the step-by-step instructions on how to properly wash their hands, and when they should wash their hands. Before eating, when preparing food, after shaking hands, after going to the bathroom and after coughing or sneezing will be emphasized as important times to wash hands. The most difficult part of creating this teaching plan was developing rationales for the instructional methods. There were a lot of influential factors based on development, learning needs and learning styles. I had to really think about the reasoning behind my methods of instruction and the intended audience. Once their routines were determined, I...

Words: 525 - Pages: 3

Handwashing

...Chamberlain College of Nursing Research Summary Table: Handwashing Author, Year of Publication | Purpose | Sample | Design | Findings | Limitations | Creedon, S. (2005) | The purpose of this study is to show hand hygiene from a prospective of clinical behaviors. | A total of 314 hand hygiene observations were reviewed for changes in behavioral patterns, and a total of 62 questionnaires were completed. | A quasi-experimental design with a convenient sample was used. | Improvement in hand hygiene and a decrease in infections was noted at 83%. | No comparison group or random assignment to group | Bisset, L.(2003) | The purpose of this study was to identify whether different healthcare professionals understand the definitions of proper handwashing. | A total of n=105 nurses and n=18 doctors | The design used to complete this study was through questionnaires. | The findings revealed additional training and changes to policy and procedures need to be implemented. The study revealed over 60% of the staff did not know the correct definition of hand hygiene. | No inferential statistics were offered.No comparison group or random assignment to groupNo educational resources were completed. | Smith, S. (2009) | To identify the most effective handwashing practice. | The sample consisted of 5000 deaths that were reviewed. | The design was a systemic review. | Few studies described the effectiveness of handwashing. | No comparison between TBL courses and non-TBL......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Home Front

...Linda Segel N47 November 22, 2012 The Home Front 1. Basics of Handwashing to Promote Infection Control The number one intervention for prevention of infection and spreading of illnesses is proper handwashing. The home care nurse should get into the habit of washing his/her hands * when arriving and leaving the patient’s home * before and after patient care * before using clean equipment * after handling dirty equipment * when touching food * when going off duty. It is prudent for the home care nurse to bring his/her own dispenser of liquid soap and paper towels to each patient’s home. Liquid soap is definitely a better choice to bar soap because of bacteria growth. Even though soap and water are the best deterrent against disease, other alternatives such as antiseptic towelettes, antibacterial gets, etc are acceptable according to the CDC. Handwashing in the home is so important and is by far the most vital teaching a nurse can convey to a patient and caregiver. The patient should get into the habit of washing hands with liquid soap several times throughout the day. The nurse should demonstrate that this should be done for at least 10-15 seconds using the method of rubbing the lathered hands together and then rinsing thoroughly under running water. The nurse should never assume that the patient is familiar with this technique. 2. The “Bag Technique” and use of personal protective equipment to reduce the spread of......

Words: 702 - Pages: 3

Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs vs Handwashing

...     1   Language and Communication: Final Dianne Pacifico QBT1: Task 4 - Revisions January 29, 2013 Western Governors University Alcohol-­‐Based  Hand  Rubs  vs.  Handwashing   Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs versus Handwashing Efficacy Hand hygiene has been the foundation of preventing nosocomial infections throughout the hospital. It has been taught for several generations that hand hygiene is effectively accomplish through the use of handwashing with soap and water. Unfortunately, studies have shown that handwashing practices have fallen out, which have led to a noticeably low compliance rate with health care workers. This in turn has led to an increase of nosocomial infections, and has had a negative impact on improving the health of patients who rely on physicians, nurses and other ancillary staff who have direct contact with them. Fortunately, an introduction of a new product has been able to change the statistical data with low compliance rate for hand hygiene. Some facilities have introduced the use of alcohol-based hand rubs as an alternative to the conventional handwashing techniques to help decrease the rate of nosocomial infections. There are several factors that indicate a better efficacy rate with using hand rubs versus handwashing. Studies have shown that health care workers have listed barriers and constraints that prevent them from practicing proper hand hygiene; therefore, leading to a low compliance rate. The effect of this......

Words: 2416 - Pages: 10

Hand Hy

...1707 284429; fax: C44 1707 284954. E-mail address: e.a.jenner@herts.ac.uk 0195-6701/$ - see front matter Q 2005 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2004.12.014 Hand hygiene posters: motivators or mixed messages? Was the information given correct and consistent? To what extent were fear appeals used? What was the presentation style of the posters? 219 exhaustive and mutually exclusive at the same level of analysis.16 Four categories emerged: instructional, which simply told (i.e. instructed) the viewer to wash their hands; informational, which provided some reason to support the instruction for handwashing; training, which explained how to wash hands; and conscience raising, which attempted to heighten viewers’ sense of responsibility for handwashing albeit through the use of different strategies. Method A notice was placed in the Hospital Infection Society newsletter inviting infection control personnel to submit examples of their posters to be displayed at the Federation of Infection Societies’ Meeting in November 1996. Eighty-six posters were donated by 70 respondents. Two posters were sent by an infection control doctor in Belgium, and the rest were sent by infection control teams in Britain. Four British teams sent more than one poster: one sent six posters; one sent four posters; and two sent two posters. Eight different posters commissioned by the Infection Control Nurses’ Association of Great......

Words: 4703 - Pages: 19

Time as Control

...KEY WORDS: Handwashing, Cross-Contamination INSTRUCTIONS: 1. Train foodservice employees on using the procedures in this SOP. 2. Follow State or local health department requirements. 3. Post handwashing signs or posters in a language understood by all foodservice staff near all handwashing sinks, in food preparation areas, and restrooms. 4. Use designated handwashing sinks for handwashing only. Do not use food preparation, utility, and dishwashing sinks for handwashing. 5. Provide warm running water, soap, and a means to dry hands. Provide a waste container at each handwashing sink or near the door in restrooms. 6. Keep handwashing sinks accessible anytime employees are present. 7. Wash hands: • Before starting work • During food preparation • When moving from one food preparation area to another • Before putting on or changing gloves • After using the toilet • After sneezing, coughing, or using a handkerchief or tissue • After touching hair, face, or body • After smoking, eating, drinking, or chewing gum or tobacco • After handling raw meats, poultry, or fish • After any clean up activity such as sweeping, mopping, or wiping counters • After touching dirty dishes, equipment, or utensils • After handling trash • After handling money • After any time the hands may become contaminated Washing Hands, continued INSTRUCTIONS, continued: 8. Follow proper handwashing......

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Who Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: a Summary First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care Is Safer Care

...(HCAI) AND EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF HAND HYGIENE 2. The role of hand hygiene to reduce the burden of health care-associated infection 2.1 Transmission of health care-associated pathogens through hands Transmission of health care-associated pathogens takes place through direct and indirect contact, droplets, air and a common vehicle. Transmission through contaminated HCWs’ hands is the most common pattern in most settings and require five sequential steps: (i) organisms are present on the patient’s skin, or have been shed onto inanimate objects immediately surrounding the patient; (ii) organisms must be transferred to the hands of HCWs; (iii) organisms must be capable of surviving for at least several minutes on HCWs’ hands; (iv) handwashing or hand antisepsis by the HCWs must be inadequate or omitted entirely, or the agent used for hand hygiene inappropriate; and (v) the contaminated hand or hands of the caregiver must come into direct contact with another patient or with an inanimate object that will come into direct contact with the patient.28 Health care-associated pathogens can be recovered not only from infected or draining wounds but also from frequently colonized areas of normal, intact patient skin.29-43 Because nearly 106 skin squames containing viable microorganisms are shed daily from normal skin,44 it is not surprising that patient gowns, bed linen, bedside furniture and other objects in the immediate environment of the patient become contaminated with......

Words: 27087 - Pages: 109

Hospital Acquired Infections

...The HHS Steering Committee for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections was established in July 2008, the Steering Committee, along with scientists and program officials across HHS, developed the HHS Action Plan to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections, providing a roadmap for HAI prevention in acute care hospitals. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has identified the reduction of HAIs as an Agency Priority Goal for the Department. By September 30, 2013, HHS is committed to reducing the national rate of HAIs by demonstrating significant, quantitative, and measurable reductions in hospital-acquired central line-associated bloodstream infections and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Handwashing Handwashing frequently is called the single most important measure to reduce the risks of transmitting skin microorganisms from one person to another or from one site to another on the same patient. Washing hands as promptly and thoroughly as possible between patient contacts and after contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, and equipment or articles contaminated by them is an important component of infection control and isolation precautions. The spread of nosocomial infections, among immunocompromised patients is connected with health care workers' hand contamination in almost 40% of cases, and is a challenging problem in the modern hospitals. The best way for workers to overcome this problem is conducting correct......

Words: 1643 - Pages: 7

Handwashing Importance in Nicu

...not mature. They also occupy an environment in which frequently used antibiotics and invasive interventions often permit the invasion of common nosocomial pathogens, and the close proximity of patients in many NICUs facilitates transfer of organisms from patient to patient. Organisms that cause nosocomial infection in NICUs are most commonly transmitted by the hands of physicians, nurses, physiotherapists, and other hospital personnel.1–4 Hand hygiene has often been singled out as the most important procedure in preventing nosocomial infection.5,6 The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends hand-washing before and after contact with every patient.7 The recommendation on hand hygiene has recently been updated, and handwashing has been replaced by hand rub as the standard of care.8 The importance of good hand hygiene practices in a NICU cannot be overemphasized, yet many published studies conducted in intensive care units have reported that health care workers (HCWs) failed to wash their hands more than half of the recommended times, and in many cases, the hand-washing procedure was inadequate.9–11 Physicians in particular wash their hands significantly less frequently than nurses.11,12 Studies in clinical areas such as adult intensive care units, where patient contact is high, showed that strict compliance with hand hygiene occupies at least one quarter of nursing time, and implementing strict practices may affect the quality of patient care, a......

Words: 6599 - Pages: 27

Handwashing

...LAB 2- Hand washing Hand washing is the most integral part of health care`s universal precautionary rules, considering all exposures to human and animal samples is potentially hazardous and infectious. Exposure to potential infectious agents not only does it causes a diseases to the exposed person but it does also keep the line of infection for the agent to infect more and more people. Therefore, Hand washing is an important employee safety requirement in healthcare. There are crucial steps to be followed for a proper hand washing. I had a great experience at a hand washing short training where the trainer applied a starch powder and asked all of us to wash our hands. After we returned from washing our hands, the trainer examined our hands curvatures and skin under fluorescence light. It was proven that most of us didn’t know how to properly wash our hands. The steps for a proper hand washing is as follows: Consider removing all watches, rings from both hands, mostly microorganisms hide under those things. 1. Wet both hands and add enough soap to cover all hand surfaces. 2. Rub hands palm to palm right dorsum over left dorsum with interlaced fingers and vice versa. 3. Vigorously rub together all surfaces of the lathered hands including under nails and for at least 20seconds. 4. Rinse both hands well. 5. Dry hands completely with a clean dry paper towel from inside out and turn the water off using a dry paper towel. 6. use antiseptics and rub......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Topics Paper - Handwashing and Safe Work Place Hygiene.

...William Hughes Pathology Hand washing assignment In today’s society, people have become very physical as a whole. From hugging to shaking hands, everyone in the world has had contact with at least one other person in their life whether it be direct or indirect. With this much contact between people, you would think that people would keep in mind the presence of the different bacteria and germs that can be transferred from person to person. Hand washing has been proven to reduce the amount of germs on the surface of the hands. This in turn helps reduce the transfer of bacteria and germs from one person to another. Unfortunately not everyone washes their hands or if they do they don’t wash them properly. Over the past week I have gone to the same restaurant after school. I’ve sat at the same bar area looking back into the kitchen at the hand washing station. They have fourteen employees at the restaurant and over the past week I watched as they went through their different work tasks. Working with food, you would think that hand washing would be a huge part of their safety precautions. Although they washed their hands when they got food on them, they either didn’t wash them long enough or they just let the water run over their hands without any soap. As I sat there and observed them, I also noticed that of the fourteen employees only ten washed their hands and even then they didn’t do it for the full time. Ten out of fourteen would be 71% of the employees. 71% of the......

Words: 772 - Pages: 4

Paper

...Primary Prevention: Handwashing Education September 17, 2015 Primary Prevention: Handwashing Education Preventing a health problem before it occurs is a major goal of healthcare today. Health promotion, specifically primary prevention, is used to accomplish prevention of health problems, such as infections, before they occur (Institute for Work and Health, n.d.). “This is done by preventing exposures to hazards that cause disease or injury, altering unhealthy or unsafe behaviors that can lead to disease or injury, and increasing resistance to disease or injury should exposure occur” (Institute for Work and Health, n.d., para. 1). Providing communities with health education is the best way to satisfy primary prevention, and thus prevent an illness or disease from occurring. In order to provide appropriate education, the nurse must first assess a community of interest, and determine what health issues require the most attention. The nurse can then create a teaching plan to assist the community in preventing the identified health risk. This writer assessed the Harry Hoag Elementary School third grade class community in Fort Plain, NY. Based on the community assessment findings, handwashing education was determined to be the topic of focus for the Harry Hoag Elementary School third grade class. The community assessment, the epidemiologic reason for this topic, the teaching plan, and evaluation of the experience require a closer look. * Fort Plain is a......

Words: 2280 - Pages: 10

Communication Challenges and Barriers

...help show interest in the employees. b. Cultural and ethnic barriers: Barry may need to identify cultural beliefs and work to understand the ethnic barriers related to food safety. For instance, two employees come from the same country and they have made comments that controlling temperature in their country is not a priority; food can be at room temperature for long periods of time and nothing ever happened. c. Non verbal challenges: Barry’s appearance is a nonverbal cue to employees. Barry’s appearance is important as he is a role-model to the employees. His actions and behaviors should be consistent with what he is expecting of them. For example, because he is expecting the employees to follow proper handwashing procedure, he should also use proper handwashing procedures....

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Speech

...SPEECH 1100--SHELL OUTLINE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Attention Getter: Each year, 40 million Americans get sick and 80,000 die from bacteria that were transmitted by not handwashing properly. It is also estimated that one out of every three people do not wash their hands after using the restroom. Thesis Statement: Proper Handwashing has 3 main steps Significance Statement: You carry millions of microbes on your hand. Good old fashioned hand washing is one of the oldest and most powerful antibacterial treatments. Without proper handwashing, we can still spread many microorganisms with our hands. Credibility Statement: I work as a Certified Nursing Assistant at a hospital. I'am required to wash my hands frequently and throughly numerous times throughout my shift. Preview of Main Points: First: Wet hands Second: Apply Soap Third: Rinse hands/ Dry I. Wet hands A. Remove all jewelry. Turn on sink. B. Wet hands with warm running water before applying soap TRANSITION SENTENCE: Now that you have wet your hands with the warm running water. It's time to move onto the next step. Applying the soap. II. Apply Soap A. Apply a dime sized amount of soap to hands. Lather soap for about 15 to 20 seconds, equivulant to singing "Happy Birthday". B. Wash all surfaces including the back of your hands, around and below the fingernails, around your......

Words: 576 - Pages: 3

Effect of Antiseptic Handwashing vs Alcohol Hand Sanitizer

...Effect of Antiseptic Handwashing vs Alcohol Sanitizer on Health Care- Associated Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units Introduction This article seeks to determine if alcohol hand sanitizers are as effective as antiseptic handwashing at reducing or eliminating health care associated infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, recommends use of waterless alcohol hand products in lieu of traditional handwashing for patient care, but there is little data demonstrating the impact of this recommendation on health-associated infections. Protection of Human Participants 76.8% (119/155) of eligible nurses agreed to participate in the study and had one or more hand cultures performed. The primary reason nurses refused to participate was unwillingness to perform study procedures, such as completing diary cards. Over the course of the study, 12 nurses withdrew, 9 because they left the study NICU, and 3 because they no longer wanted to participate. Nurses completed 1070 daily dairy cards. No informed consent was obtained. Data Collection A clinical trial using a crossover design in two neonatal ICU’s in Manhattan, NY from 3-1-2001 to 1-31-2003, including 2,932 neonatal hospital admissions (51,760 patient days) and 119 nurse participants. Two hand hygiene products were tested, a traditional antiseptic handwash and an alcohol hand sanitizer....

Words: 729 - Pages: 3