Google Strategy

In: Business and Management

Submitted By hyojeong
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12주. 리더십(4) - 여성부문

1. 여성 리더십의 대두
산업화의 진전에 따라 여성의 사회경제활동 참여가 꾸준히 증가하고, 여성의 사회적 지위가 높아지고, 사회각계에서 여성리더들이 활약하면서 여성의 리더십에 대한 관심이 증가하고, 여성 리더십의 연구도 활발히 진행되고 있는데요.
여성리더십 본론에 들어가기 전에, 구체적으로 왜 여성 리더십에 대한 관심이 증가되었는지 그 이유에 대해서 먼저 설명드리겠습니다.
첫째는 여성들의 사회참여가 늘고 리더의 위치에 오르는 경우가 늘어나면서 지도자로서의 여성에 대해 관심이 커졌습니다. 즉, 리더의 위치에 오르는 여성이 남성에 비하면 소수이기 때문에 많은 사람들이 관심을 갖는 것이죠. 이러한 관심은 과연 여성이 리더로서 어떤 자질을 가지고 있는가, 남성과 비교할 때 여성의 리더십 스타일은 다른가 하는 논쟁을 불러일으켰습니다. 이 내용이 저희가 얘기하고자 하는 것입니다. 여성이 리더로서 어떤 자질을 가지고 있는가는 두번째 여성 리더십의 특징에서, 남성과 여성의 리더십 스타일이 어떻게 다른지는 세번째 여성 리더십과 남성리더십의 차이에서 다루게 될 것입니다.
그럼 다시 여성 리더십에 대한 관심이 증가된 두번째 이유를 말씀드리겠습니다. 두번째 이유는 조직의 변화에 따라 남성적이며 가부장적인 리더십의 비효율성이 드러나면서 그에 대한 불만과 대안적 리더십에 대한 욕구가 증대되었다는 것입니다. 상명하복식 근무체계와 수직적인 조직문화가 수평적이고 개인의 개성을 중요시 여기는 조직으로 변화하면서 위계적이고 관료적인 전통적 리더십은 변화에 효율적으로 대처하지 못합니다.
변화하고 있는 조직문화의 효율적으로 대응할 수 있는 대안적 리더십으로서, 보다 참여적이며 민주적인 인간중심의 리더십에 대한 요구가 증가하는 것이고 여기에서 여성 리더십이 주목 받는 이유를 찾을 수 있는 것입니다.

2. 여성 리더십의 개념
이제 여성 리더십의 개념에 대해 말씀드리겠습니다. Loden(1985)이라는 사람이 여성적 리더십(Feminine Leadership)이라는 개념을 제시했습니다. 여성의 리더십을 말할 때 여성적 리더십이라고 많이 사용됩니다. 이 사람은 오늘 날 조직원들은 전제주의적 리더십을 거부하고 팀 위주의 참여적 관리구조를 선호하기 때문에 팀 구조와 협동적 의사 결정을 특징으로 하는 여성적 리더십이 위계적 구조와 전제적 의사 결정에 의존하는 전통적 리더십보다 유용하다고 주장하였다. 여성적 리더십이라는 개념은 앞에서 보았듯이 전통적인 리더십 모델이 현대 사회의 변화하는 조직에 적합하지 못하다는 인식과 관련이 있다.
John(1976)은 여성 리더십을 분담된 리더십(Shared Leadership)이라고 말하면서, 리더의 기능이 한 사람에 의해 모두 수행되는 것이 아니라 조직구성원들이 모두 동등한 인격체로서 유기적인 관계를 통하여 조직의 목적을 달성해 나가는 것을 의미했습니다. 이런 측면에서 여성 리더십은 민주적 리더십이라고 할 수 있습니다.
상호적 리더십(Interactive Leadership)은 여성의 리더십을 나타내는 또 다른 개념으로 사용되는데요. Rosner(1990)은 상호적 리더는 조직 구성원들의 발전을 도모함으로써, 그들의 가치를 높이고자 하고 집단의 과제수행 못지 않게 성원들의 복지와 안녕을 중시하는 리더라고 했습니다.

3. 여성 리더십의 특징
그렇다면 이러한 여성 리더십의 개념을 바탕으로 여성 리더십의 특징을 구체적으로 살펴보도록하겠습니다.
첫번째로 말씀드릴 여성 리더십의 특징은 여성 리더십이 민주적 리더십이라는 것입니다.
민주적 리더십은 참여적 리더십이라고도 하는데요. 이는 조직의 방침, 활동 등을 되도록 다수성원의 의사를 종합하여 결정하고, 그들의 자발적인 의욕과 참여에 의하여 조직목적을 달성하려는 것이 특징입니다. 각 조직원들은 지도자를 중심으로 적극적인 참여와 협조를 아끼지…...

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