General Psychology

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By smilesy1509
Words 20821
Pages 84
Chapter 1
The Dimensions of Psychology
Summary:
Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain cognitive functions and behaviors.
Structuralism was the first school of psychology and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Researchers tried to understand the basic elements of consciousness using a method known as introspection. Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the first psychology lab, was an advocate of this position and is often considered the founder of structuralism, despite the fact that it was his student, Edward B. Titchener who first coined the term to describe this school of thought.
Functionalism formed as a reaction to the structuralism and was heavily influenced by the work of William James and the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more systematic and accurate manner. Rather than focusing on the elements of consciousness, functionalists focused on the purpose of consciousness and behavior. Functionalism also emphasized individual differences, which had a profound impact on education. While Wundt's work helped to establish psychology as a separate science and contributed methods to experimental psychology and Titchener development of structuralism…...

Similar Documents

Psychology

...Chapter 1 – Psychology and Life * Psychology research has immediate and crucial applications to important issues of every day experience, including your physical and mental health, your ability to form and sustain close relationships, and your capacity for learning and personal growth Definitions * PSYCHOLOGY: The scientific study of the behaviour of individuals and their mental processes * SCIENTIFIC METHOD: The set of procedures used for gathering and interpreting objective information in a way that minimizes error and yields dependable generalizations * BEHAVIOUR: The actions by which an organism adjusts to its environments * The subject matter of psychology largely consists of the observable behaviour of humans and other species of animals * Psychologists focus on behaviour in individuals Goals of Psychology 1. Describing what happens 2. Explaining what happens 3. Predicting what will happen 4. Controlling what happens Describing What Happens * The first task in psychology is to make accurate observations about behaviour * BEHAVIOURAL DATA: Observational reports about the behaviour of organisms and the conditions under which the behaviour occurs or changes * From broad, general, and global aspects all the way to microscopic details of the organism under study * Reporting facts as they actually occur (Free of any bias or subjectivity) * Each level of analysis yields information essential to the final......

Words: 1263 - Pages: 6

General

...of Firm and Household Decisions CHAPTER 11 General Equilibrium and the Efficiency of Perfect Competition Prepared by: Fernando Quijano and Yvonn Quijano General Equilibrium and the Efficiency © 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 7/e Karl Case, Ray Fair © 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing C H A P T E R 11: Perfect Competition • Input and output markets cannot be considered separately or as if they operated independently. Principles of Economics, 7/e Karl Case, Ray Fair 2 of 33 General Equilibrium and the Efficiency • Partial equilibrium analysisis the process of examining the equilibrium conditions in individual markets and for households and firms separately. • General equilibrium is the condition that exists when all markets in an economy are in simultaneous equilibrium. General Equilibrium and the Efficiency General Equilibrium and the Efficiency of Perfect Competition General Equilibrium and the Efficiency of Perfect Competition • In judging the performance of an economic system, two criteria used are efficiency and equity (fairness). • Efficiency is the condition in which the economy is producing what people want at the least possible cost. of C H A P T E R 11: Perfect Competition © 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 7/e Karl Case, Ray Fair 3 of 33 © 2004 Prentice Hall Business Publishing C H A P T E R 11: Perfect Competition of ...

Words: 2419 - Pages: 10

Psychology

...The article that I chose is titled “Overview of Social Psychology; Sociology & Related Fields”. It begins with a detailed definition of Psychology; stating Psychology or the study of human behavior is an amply sized, expansive field that encompasses several distinct factions, each of which offers its own unique brand of specialization (Gibson, 1994). Throughout the articles overview it speaks on the different branches of psychology, counseling psychology, clinical psychology and developmental psychology. This article is a review of existing research and psychological experiments. I can tell that the information in this article is based from existing research due to the article making reference several times to different classic studies, insights and experiments that were conducted to implement the study of “Social Psychology”. The main purpose of this article was to conduct classic social psychological studies including Stanley Milgram’s experiment on obedience; the study also examined the Bystander Effect and also addressed cognitive dissonance to better understand how one’s behavior changes through a social psychological lens. Stanley Milgram’s Experiment on Obedience was titled “Behavioral Study of Obedience”, and was designed to uncover material encompassing the darker side of human behavior. Throughout the Milgram experiment they used fake actors who assumed various roles within the framework of a man made scenario to receive psychological insight towards human......

Words: 569 - Pages: 3

Psychology

...Abnormal and Normal Psychology Normal psychology is the study of human behavior, with a primary focus on the word “normal” or average, socially acceptable traits and behaviors. The study of normal psychology involves the examination of general psychological and behavioral responses of a population. It creates a frame of reference from which inferences about typical behavior and thought patterns can be drawn. Normalcy is something that is created by people in a given time or environment. It is possible that whatever trend may be happening at the time can be considered normal and anything or anyone outside of that would be in the outlier or “abnormal”. Abnormal Psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought. Abnormal Psychology or also called psychopathology focuses on responses that cause a significant amount of damage or distress in a persons life. It is important to identify the distinction between normal and abnormal. Consider a characteristic such as athletic. A person who falls at the very upper end of the curve would fit under our definition of abnormal; this person would also be considered a freak athlete. When you think about abnormal psychology, rather than focus on the distinction between what is normal and what is abnormal, focus instead on the level of disruption a troubling behavior might cause. If a behavior is causing problems in a persons life or is disruptive to other people, then this would be an......

Words: 267 - Pages: 2

Psychology

...Psychology is a huge topic and conveying the depth and breadth of the subject can be difficult. As a result, a number of different fields of psychology have emerged to deal with specific subtopics within the study of the mind, brain and behavior. Most general and introductory psychology courses cover many of these fields of psychology. As you delve deeper into the subject, you’ll soon find courses offered in each individual area. Each field of psychology represents a specific area of study focused on a particular topic. Oftentimes, psychologists specialize in one of these areas as a career. The following are just some of the major fields of psychology. For many of these specialty areas, additional graduate study in that particular field is required. * Abnormal Psychology: Abnormal psychology is a field of psychology that deals with psychopathology and abnormal behavior. The term covers a broad range of disorders, from depression to obsession-compulsion to sexual deviation and many more. Counselors, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists often work directly in this field. * Biopsychology: Biopsychology is a field of psychology that analyzes how the brain and neurotransmitters influence our behaviors, thoughts and feelings. This field can be thought of as a combination of basic psychology and neuroscience. * Clinical Psychology: Clinical psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the assessment and treatment of mental illness, abnormal behavior...

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

General Psychology

...General Psychology Autism- severe chronic developmental disorder * Characterized by severely compromised ability to engage in and by a lack of interest in social interaction. *Autism Spectrum* 1. Asperger’s Syndrome * high/ normal intelligence * shy * problem on eye contact * don’t recognize facial expressions * focus only on 1 thing * absent minded * can’t adapt to changes 2. Semantic Pragmantic Disorder- more sociable 3. Hyperlexia- more on a symptom than a disorder - fascinated in letters and numbers but don’t communicate 4. Non-verbal Learning Disability- can’t recognize faces 5. Prosopagnosia- face blind (2.5% of the entire world) ~ ~ ~ Learning Disorder Dyslexia- reading disorder “Dyslexia” ADHD- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Stuttering- therapy “singing” Tics- abnormal movement that can’t be controlled Tourette’s Syndrome-vocal tics (5 in every 10k people) Coprolalia- involuntary shouting Separation Anxiety (No Description) Conduct Disorder (No Description) ~ ~ ~ Jean Piaget- 1st a BIOLOGIST Cognitive Development- ability to understand Genetic Epistemology- study of the development of knowledge Schemas- sensory motor skills A. Assimilation (No Description) B. Accommodation (No Description) Equilibrium- Balance of adaptation Stages of Cognitive Development 1. Sensorimotor- birth- 2 years old Primary Circular Reaction | 1 to 4 months | Mental......

Words: 881 - Pages: 4

The General

...because of how he did it. Harold Lloyd made us laugh as much, Charlie Chaplin moved us more deeply, but no one had more courage than Buster. I define courage as Hemingway did: "Grace under pressure." In films that combined comedy with extraordinary physical risks, Buster Keaton played a brave spirit who took the universe on its own terms, and gave no quarter. I'm immersed in his career right now, viewing all of the silent features and many of the shorts with students at the University of Chicago. Having already written about Keaton's "The General" (1927) in this series, I thought to choose another title. "The Navigator," perhaps, or "Steamboat Bill, Jr.," or "Our Hospitality." But they are all of a piece; in an extraordinary period from 1920 to 1929, he worked without interruption on a series of films that make him, arguably, the greatest actor-director in the history of the movies. Most of these movies were long thought to be lost. "The General," with Buster as a train engineer in the Civil War, was always available, hailed as one of the supreme masterpieces of silent filmmaking. But other features and shorts existed in shabby, incomplete prints, if at all, and it was only in the 1960s that film historians began to assemble and restore Keaton's lifework. Now almost everything has been recovered, restored, and is available on DVDs and tapes that range from watchable to sparkling. It's said that Chaplin wanted you to like him, but Keaton didn't care. I think he cared, but was......

Words: 6535 - Pages: 27

Exam 2 General Psychology

...Kind of learning that occurs when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus; pavlov (dog) a method of learning that occurs through rewards or consequences; B.F. Skinner(skinner box) Positive reinforcement occurs by presenting a motivating stimulus after the behavior has been exhibited (reward). Negative reinforcement occurs when a stimulus is removed after a behavior (consequence). Primary reinforcers are biological (food, drink, and pleasure), secondary are conditioned (money, grades in school, tokens). gradually molding or training an organism to preform a specific response by reinforcing any responses that come close to the desired response. identified by David Premack in 1965, some behavior that happens reliably can be used as a reinforcer for a behavior that occurs less reliably. (Cant watch tv (reliable behavior) til dishes are done)) a conditioned response starts occurring in response to the presentation of another similar stimuli Classical- the ability to distinguish between a CS and another similar stimulus, but not an US. Operant- distingush between a learned voluntary response and a nonlearned response Ex.- The reduction of a repsonse. Classical- resluts from US not occurring after the CS is presented over tine. Operant- results by a response no longer being inforced. negative reinforcement- something that motivates you or increases the behavior punishment- something that decreases the behavior FR-organism must make a......

Words: 1068 - Pages: 5

Psychology

...Psychology is the science[1] of mind and behavior.[2] Its immediate goal is to understand behavior and mental processes by researching and establishing both general principles and specific cases.[3] For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society.[4][5] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social scientist, behavioral scientist, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore such concepts as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Some, especially depth psychologists, also consider the unconscious mind.a Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology incorporates research from the social sciences, natural sciences, and humanities, such as philosophy. While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also applied to understanding......

Words: 284 - Pages: 2

General Psychology

...General Psychology Chapter 1 The Dimensions of Psychology Summary: Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain cognitive functions and behaviors. Structuralism was the first school of psychology and focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components. Researchers tried to understand the basic elements of consciousness using a method known as introspection. Wilhelm Wundt, founder of the first psychology lab, was an advocate of this position and is often considered the founder of structuralism, despite the fact that it was his student, Edward B. Titchener who first coined the term to describe this school of thought. Functionalism formed as a reaction to the structuralism and was heavily influenced by the work of William James and the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin. Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a......

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Psychology

...*BRANCHES OF PSYCOLOGY* 1.GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY- field of psychology that explais the underline principles of human behavior-the study of how and why people behave this way or that way. 2.COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY- traits of the behavior & mental processes of the different species. 3.DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-is concern itself with the study of human behavior in all its aspects of growth & development. 4.CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY-is concern with the investigation of the varied facts of marketing & buying behavior affects of advertising studies of mass media & other problems arising from the relationshipbetween the buyer & the seller. 5.EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-deals with observation and experiments in a psychological laboratory. 6.DIFFERENTIAL PSYCHOLOGY-is a branch of study which deals investigates differences & similarities existing among individuals groups and races. 7. PSYCHOLOGY-applied in medicine it concerned with the treatment of mental diseases. 8.CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL-pertains to the diagnosis of psycho therapy of the milder behavior disorder. 9.EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-deals with learning motivation & other subject in the actual eductional process. 10.SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY-is the study of the behavior of groups & individuals in their relationship to other group. 11.PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY-study between personality and behavior. 12.ADOLESCENE PSYCHOLOGY- study of behavior of man from poverty to later life approximately from 12-20 yrs.old. 13.SENESCENT PSYCHOLOGY- is the......

Words: 566 - Pages: 3

Psychology

...Psychology From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Psychology | | History · Subfields | Basic science | Abnormal · Biological Cognitive · Comparative Cultural · Differential Developmental · Evolutionary Experimental · Mathematical Personality · Positive Social | Applied science | Clinical · Consumer Educational · Health Industrial and organizational Law · Military Occupational health · Political Religion · School · Sport | Lists | Disciplines · Organizations Outline · Psychologists Psychotherapies · Publications Research methods · Theories Timeline · Topics | Portal | v · d · e | Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles Psychology is the science[1] of behavior and mental processes.[2] Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[3][4] For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social scientist, behavioral scientist, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore such concepts as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology,......

Words: 355 - Pages: 2

Psychology

...Psychology is the study of the mind, occurring partly via the study of behavior.[1][2] Grounded in scientific method,[1][2] psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and for many it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist, and can be classified as a social scientist, behavioral scientist, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore such concepts as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Psychologists of diverse stripes also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology incorporates research from the social and natural sciences, and from the humanities, such as philosophy. While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and......

Words: 307 - Pages: 2

Psychology

...GHANA TELECOM UNIVERSITY COLLEGE FACULTY OF IT BUSINESS LEVEL 100: FIRST SEMESTER (SEPTEMBER, 2011) |General Information | | | | |Course Title: |INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY | |Course Code |BBA 109 | |Overall |Improve students’ perception and understanding of psychological principles underlying behaviour and | |module aims |also be in a position to relate what they have learnt to issues of everyday life. | | | | | |Lectures, PowerPoint Presentations | |Teaching Methods |Explanations on Whiteboard | | |Individual and group problem solving | | ...

Words: 582 - Pages: 3

Psychology

...for all visitors, visitor inductions and security card access * Administration support for internal staff * Setting up and clearing of meeting rooms * General administrational tasks * Processing of inbound and outbound mail and couriers Sept 2011 – Nov 2011 Receptionist/Administration (Temporary Contract) Interior Engineering- Milton, Brisbane * Answering and redirecting all telephone enquiries * First point of contact for visitors and contractors * Creating Project proposals * Creating and setting up new jobs * Administration support for internal staff * Responsible for cleaning of the kitchen * Stationary ordering * Ordering of Catering * General administration including mail, couriers and filing * Booking flights and car hire for staff July 2011- July 2011 Receptionist (Temporary Contract) (1 Day) Contact Energy Head Office, Wellington * First point of contact for internal and external staff, visitors and contractors * Responsible for meeting room, data show, company cars schedules and car park allocations * Administration support for internal staff * Assistance to customer enquiries * Answering and redirecting all phone enquiries * Processing daily inbound and outbound couriers * General office maintenance and office housekeeping Jul 2011-Sept 2011 Business Support Administrator/ Receptionist (Temporary Contact) Contact......

Words: 1098 - Pages: 5