F35‘S Delimma

In: Historical Events

Submitted By suddencause
Words 1141
Pages 5
F-35的困境 据日本媒体报道称,随着F-35的价格不断上涨以及其研发进程不断拖延,日本政府将很有可能因经济承受能力的不足将放弃采购F-35的计划,这对于F35本已坎坷的命运无疑是雪上加霜。实际上,这已不是F35第一次遭到其购买国家“弃单”的命运——在之前,已有像印度,澳大利亚,德国等主要购买对象都已放弃对F35的购买。是什么铸就了F35如今的悲惨境地?我将在下面为大家详细阐明。 1. 艰难的研发过程 F35属于美国空军中传统高低配置中的低配置一栏:在三代机时代,美国空军为F15与F16的一高一低配置,并且美军会将F15与F16以及两机的生产线引入各同盟国,以确保美国及其同盟的国家安全利益;而步入四代机时代后,则变为了F22与F35这样的高低组合,这本无任何问题,以美国雄厚的技术,经济实力,独立研发两种高低配置的四代机并不会有什么问题。但在美国步入四代机时代时,世界各国都未拥有研发并装备四代机的实力——如俄罗斯——因此,对四代机技术的保密也成为了美国最为关心的内容,以确保美国空军技术上的绝对优势。出于保密的目的,美国禁止向其同盟国,哪怕是日本,英国,出售F22,而仅提供给他们低配置的F35,而F35本身也必须在美国国内组装,以确保技术的绝对封锁。对于日本之类的同盟国,他们唯一的任务就是以入股的方式提供F35的资金并由此获得购买权,而美国也通过资金平摊的方式节省了大量研发经费。 然而由于F35本身的定位是低配的四代机,因此其设计本身为一款单引擎轻型战机,——在这样一个小小的机身内要打到四代机“4S”的标准是一件十分困难的事——我们可以直观的对比出F35与F22的大小差别。同时,由于美国只愿意提供F35给同盟国,而各国对F35的战术要求不同,因此,F35被迫分为三个型号同时进行研发:A,B 和C。A是一般型号,B为海军陆战队型号,C为航母舰载机型号,其中后两者的研发遇到了巨大的困难。B,C型号的指标内要求能做到垂直起降,而F35原先预想的一门F135引擎无法提供充足的起降动力,为此,通用电气公司被迫花费大量经费研发价值高昂的F136引擎,大大拖延了F35B/C的研发进程并是F35原已高昂的价格仍不断上涨,使得各同盟国无法承受。 2. 经济危机的影响 美国数场局部战争的巨大开支已经使美国的财政赤字不断攀升,F35不断增加的巨大研发费用也是F35的计划摇摇欲坠——事实证明,随着三种型号研发的不断进行,F35的问题暴露的越来越多,而要使F35打到预先的战术性能,就要不断往这个无底洞投入资金——然而,经济危机无疑给了F35致命一击。这场席卷全球大部分国家的经济危机注定导致了F35项目的悲惨境地:军火公司大量的裁员以及研发费用的缩水使得F35的研发进程摇摇无期;而F35的购买者们也无力承担F35不断上涨的高昂费用——他们需要把钱花到更重要的地方。于是,许多小国都放弃了购买F35,而像日本这样的大国仍处于观望中。 3. 变化的国际形势 2010和2011是不寻常且意义非凡的两年:2010,俄罗斯T50四代机成功首飞,标志着美国的四代机垄断被打破;2011,中国歼20“火龙”四代机首飞,标志着中国成为亚太地区空军实力的绝对优势拥有者。前文中我提到过,处于技术保密的考虑,美国只提供给盟国低配置的F35四代机,而T50以及歼20设计之初,却是以F22为目标,这对于许多购买F35的国家来说,是一个让他们彻底决定放弃F35的消息,我们以日本的观点来分析这个问题:中国已成功首飞四代机歼20,其战术性能为F22级别的;而F35本身研发受阻,价格也高的惊人,最重要的是,日本引入F35的本意是拥有对中国空军的优势,而以现在的情况看,等日本真一高价获得F35,中国也已拥有比F35更先进的歼20——更要命的是,美国拒绝提供相关技术,意味着日本本身在四代机上花了大钱,却得不到很好的效果,而且在四代机技术上国内一筹莫展!!!这无疑是日本人不愿看到的,也是为何日本决定另寻出路,放弃F35的原因。 当然F35的道路也并非一片黯淡,作为四代机,它仍是一款出色的战机,就在日本当局决定放弃F35之后,土耳其政府表示将花费160亿美元购买100架F35——相信随着其问题的解决,F35一定会有一个更好的未来。

F-35 's dilemma

According to Japanese media reports said F-35, with prices rising and the constant delays…...

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