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Pengenalan.
Konfusianisme bukanlah satu agama tetapi lebih kepada pengajaran falsafah untuk mempertingkatkan moral dan menjaga etika manusia.
Confucius merupakan seorang ahli fikir serta ahli falsafah sosial yang termasyhur di China. Konfusianisme diasaskan oleh Kong Fu Tze yang lahir di negara China pada tahun 551 SM Kong Fu Tze merupakan seorang yang bijak sejak kecil lagi dan terkenal dengan penyebaran ilmu-ilmu baru ketika berumur 32 tahun. Konfucius banyak menulis buku-buku moral, sejarah, kesusasteraan dan falsafah yang banyak diikuti oleh penganut ajaran ini. Kong Fu Tze meninggal dunia pada tahun 479 S.M.
Konfucius tidak menghalang orang Cina menyembah keramat dan penunggu tetapi yang dipentingkan ialah setiap manusia perlu berusaha menjadi baik.
Konfucius disembah sebagai seorang dewa dan agama baru tetapi dia sebenarnya adalah manusia biasa. Pengagungan yang luarbiasa kepada Konfucius telah menukar falsafahnya menjadi sebuah agama dengan mengadakan perayaan-perayaan tertentu bagi mengenangkannya.

Falsafah Confucius menekankan prinsip moral peribadi dan politik, ketepatan hubungan sosial, keadilan dan keikhlasan. Nilai-nilai ajarannya terkenal di China, sewaktu zaman dinasti Han. Fikiran Confucius telah diperkembangkan menjadi sebuah sistem falsafah yang luas dan lengkap. Ia digunakan sejak zaman dinasti Han sebagai faham ortodoks maharaja, dan yang kini digelarkan Konfusianisme. Falsafah ini diperkenalkan kepada Eropah oleh Jesuit Matteo Ricci yang merupakan orang yang pertama untuk memberikan nama Latin kepada beliau.
“Analeks” merupakan sebuah koleksi ringkas mengenai siri perbincangan dengan pengikut-pengikutnya, dan disusun selepas kematian Confucius. Ia mengandungi gambaran keseluruhan ajarannya.

Ajaran Konfusius
Ajaran Konfusianisme atau Kong Hu Cu dalam bahasa Cina, istilah aslinya adalah Rujiao (儒教) yang bererti agama dari orang-orang yang lembut hati dan berbudi luhur. Konficius memang bukanlah pencipta agama ini melainkan beliau hanya menyempurnakan agama yang sudah ada jauh sebelum kelahirannya seperti apa yang beliau sabdakan: "Aku bukanlah pencipta melainkan Aku suka akan ajaran-ajaran kuno tersebut".
Walaupun orang kadang mengira bahawa Khonghucu adalah merupakan suatu pengajaran falsafah untuk meningkatkan moral dan menjaga etika manusia. Jika seseorang ingin memahami secara benar dan utuh tentang Ru Jiao atau Agama Khonghucu, maka mereka akan tahu bahawa dalam agama Khonghucu (Ru Jiao) juga terdapat Ritual yang harus dilakukan oleh para penganutnya. Agama Khonghucu juga mengajarkan tentang bagaimana hubungan antara manusia atau disebut "Ren Dao" dan bagaimana kita melakukan hubungan dengan pencipta alam semesta (Tian Dao) yang disebut dengan istilah "Tian" atau "Shang Di".
Konfusianisme mementingkan akhlak yang mulia dengan menjaga hubungan antara manusia di langit dengan manusia di bumi dengan baik. Penganutnya diajar supaya tetap mengingati nenek moyang seolah-olah roh mereka hadir di dunia ini. Ajaran ini merupakan susunan falsafah dan etika yang mengajar bagaimana manusia bertingkah laku.
Confucius tidak menghalang orang Cina menyembah keramat dan penunggu tetapi hanya yang patut disembah, bukan menyembah barang-barang keramat atau penunggu yang tidak patut disermbah, yang dipentingkan dalam ajarannya adalah bahawa setiap manusia perlu berusaha memperbaiki moral.

Penyembahan Leluhur

Ciri-ciri umum dalam agama orang Cina pada masa Konfusius adalah penyembahan leluhur. Penyembahan leluhur adalah pemujaan roh-roh orang mati oleh kerabatnya yang masih hidup. Mereka percaya bahawa kelanjutan kehidupan roh-roh leluhurnya bergantung dari perhatian yang diberikan oleh para kerabatnya yang masih hidup. Mereka juga menyakini bahawa para roh tersebut dapat mengendalikan peruntungan keluarga.

Jika keluarga menyediakan keperluan roh para leluhur, sebagai balasanya, roh para leluhur itu akan membawa hal-hal baik yang terjadi dalam kehidupan keluarga. Namun, jika para leluhur diabaikan, diyakini bahawa semua hal yang buruk akan menimpa keluarga.
Penyembahan leluhur oleh keluarga kerajaan dan rakyat jelata mendedahkan beberapa alasan mengapa mereka melakukannya. Mereka ingin para leluhur dapat hidup di luar kubur, menjalani hidup sama seperti bagaimana mereka hidup di bumi, oleh kerana itu, yang masih hidup mencuba untuk memberikan apapun yang sekiranya diperlukan. Alasan kedua adalah bahawa jika mereka tidak diberi makanan, senjata, dan peralatan yang diperlukan untuk bertahan hidup di luar sana, para leluhur dapat mendampingi mereka sebagai hantu dan membawa masalah bagi yang hidup. Hingga kini, orang Cina merayakan "Festival Hantu Lapar", dimana mereka menaruh makanan dan barang pemujaan di depan rumah untuk memuaskan roh leluhur atau hantu yang tidak diperhatikan keturunannya yang kemudian menghantui.
Motif ketiga adalah untuk memberitahu para leluhur apa yang terjadi pada masa kini, dengan harapan para roh leluhur itu, mengetahui bahawa semuanya baik-baik saja supaya mereka dapat hidup dengan damai. Dan alasan terakhir, pemujaan roh leluhur menunjukkan harapan bahawa para leluhur akan memberkati keluarga yang masih hidup, dengan anak-anak-anak, kemakmuran, keharmonian, dan segala yang berharga.

Kesolehan anak-anak.

Sebuah konsep yang berakar kuat di China sebelum masa Konfusius adalah kesolehan anak-anak (Hsaio), yang boleh digambarkan sebagai pengabdian dan kepatuhan orang-orang yang lebih muda kepada orang yang tua dalam keluarga, khususnya seorang anak lelaki kepada ayah. Kesetiaan dan pengabdian kepada keluarga adalah keutamaan utama dalam kehidupan orang-orang Cina.

Hal itu dinyatakankan dalam "The Classic of Filial Piety": "Sikap kasih dan hormat pada orang tua saat hidup, dan ratapan dan kesedihan luar biasa untuk mereka pada saat meninggal. Kedua hal tersebut benar-benar merupakan tugas paling fundamental semua manusia."
Konfusius menekankan konsep tersebut dalam ajarannya, dan hal itu diterima dengan baik oleh orang-orang Cina, baik dahulu mahupun masa kini.
Kitab Shijing.
Shi Jing iaitu kitab Sanjak adalah buku yang berisi kumpulan nyanyian-nyanyian rakyat di berbagai negara, nyanyian-nyanyian pujian untuk upacara di istana, dan nyanyian-nyanyian pujian untuk mengiringi upacara ibadah. Pada zaman “dinasti Zhou”, setiap negeri bahagian mempunyai petugas-petugas untuk menghimpun nyanyian-nyanyian itu. Menurut kitab Zhou Li,kesusilaan Dinasti Zhou yang ditulis Ciu Kong Tan/Zhou Gong Dan ,abad ke-19 sm adalah, salah satu guru besar musik ialah mengajarkan cara menjelaskan nyanyian-nyanyian itu apakah termasuk Hong/ Feng nyanyian rakyat adat istiadat, Hut/Fu, bersifat menceritakan, Pi/Bi bersifat perumpamaan, Hien/Xing bersifat sindiran/sanjungan, Nge/Ya bersifat puji-pujian, dan Siong Song bersifat pujaan. Tidak kurang dari 300 nyanyian dibaca oleh Nabi Kong Zi, dan dari jumlah itu dipilih 311 buah untuk diberikan kepada murid-murid. Nyanyian dan sanjak ini adalah yang tertua berasal dari zaman Dinasti Shang 1766 SM-112 SM dan yang paling muda berasal dari zaman Ciu Ting Ong/Zhou Ding Wang Kaisar Dinasti Zhou yang memerintah 606 SM-586 SM. Kitab suci Shijing.
Kitab Shujing.
Shujing adalah Puisi Klasik yang merupakan salah sebuah daripada lima buah karya kumpulan sajak pertama yang paling terkenal dalam sejarah China yang merangkumi 305 buah sajak. Sajak ini dihasilkan dalam tempoh lebih 500 tahun yang bermula pada abad ke-11 sebelum masihi sehingga abad ke-7 sebelum masihi, karya ini amat terkenal di seluruh negara China.
Kumpulan sajak ini terdiri daripada sajak-sajak yang dijadikan lirik lagu yang dinyanyikan sambil menari dan diiringi alat muzik dan ianya amat popular. Kumpulan sajak ini terbahagi kepada tiga bahagian, iaitu lagu rakyat dari pelbagai tempat, puisi yang berkaitan dengan hal-hal ehwal kerajaan dan lagu yang berkaitan dengan pemujaan.
Penulis "Puisi Klasik" ini meliputi kumpulan pekerja dan bangsawan. Karya "Puisi Klasik" bukan hanya karya kumpulan sajak, tetapi merupakan kumpulan catatan budaya dari Dinasti Zhou yang juga dijadikan buku teks kebudayaan yang digunakan oleh bangsawan dalam pendidikan di China untuk jangka masa yang lama.
Tokoh-tokoh kesusasteraan China memberikan penilaian yang tinggi terhadap "Puisi Klasik" ini. "Puisi Klasik" ini merupakan titik permulaan kecemerlangan kesusasteraan di China dan merupakan tanda-tanda awal kemajuan kesusasteraan China dari aspek ideologi dan kesenian. "Puisi Klasik" ini mempunyai pengaruh yang besar dan menggambarkan kepelbagaian kesusasteraan China dan meninggalkan banyak sajak kepada generasi selepasnya.

Kandungan puisi ini meliputi pelbagai aspek kehidupan masyarakat China pada masa awal, seperti sajak-sajak yang mencerminkan pekerjaan, percintaan, peperangan, pemujaan, puji-pujian, ejek-ejekan, adat resam, perkahwinan, perkabungan dan lain-lain.
Karya "Puisi Klasik" ini merupakan warisan kesusasteraan China yang berharga dan mempunyai pengaruh yang besar kepada kesusasteraan China seterusnya.

Kitab suci Shujing.

Kitab Li Jing.
Li Jing dikenali sebagai kitab kesusilaan dan juga dinamakan sebagai Dai Jing kerana jasa warga Dai dalam mengumpulkan kembali setelah pembakaran kitab. Kitab li jing terdiri dari 99.020 huruf, oleh Nabi Khongcu yang dibahagikan menjadi 3:
Zhou Li atau yang dikenali sebagai kesusilaan Negeri Zhou adalah susunan Zhou Gong. Di dalamnya terdapat huraian tentang Liu Guan yang terbahagi kepada 6 bahagian dan merupakan Tata Negara Negeri Zhou, pada zaman Han disebut sebagai Zhou Guan yang sebelumnya disebut Zhou Guan Li.
Yi Ji atau yang dikenali sebagai kesusilaan dan peribadahan yang berisi tata agama dan tata ibadah Negeri Zhou susunan Zhou Gong, yang sering dipakai oleh Nabi Khongcu sebagai acuan. Dinamakan juga sebagai Li Cu Jing yang bermaksud kitab kesusilaan kuno.
Li Ji atau yang dikenali sebagai catatan kesusilaan yang berisi himpunan tulisan tentang nilai agama dan moral dasar kaum Ru, sekaligus digunakan sebagai gunaan dan pentafsiran dari 2 kitab tersebut di atas. Merupakan kumpulan tulisan yang berasal dari Nabi Khongcu, murid-murid beliau, ada juga tambahan dari tokoh Ru pada Dinasti Han. 3 bab, Ming Tang, Yue Ling dan Yue Ji ditambah hasil kerja oleh Marga Dai yang menjadikan 46 bab ke 49 bab. Kitab suci Li Jing.

Kitab Chun Qiu.
Chun qiu adalah buku yang ditulis oleh “Khongcu”, Chun Qiu juga dinamakan Lien King, Lin Jing dan juga kitab kilin, kerana Nabi Khongcu mengakhiri tulisanya dengan peristiwa pembunuhan Sang Kilin. Chun Qiu terdiri daripada 18.000 huruf, tulisan tersebut merupakan satu risalah yang menulis murni dan langsung. Zaman Chun Qiu adalah dari 722-481 SM, ini adalah zaman yang melemahkan Dinasti Ciu iaitu pada1122-248 SM,dengan raja seperti Ciu Lee Ong dari 878 – 827 SM , raja ini adalah raja yang tolol dan semena-mena.Ciu Yu Ong dari 781–770 SM, raja ini adalah raja yang lemah dan huru-hara.
Ciu Ping Ong dari 770–719 SM raja ini memindahkan ibu kota yang hancur ke timur iaitu di Lok Yang, disebut Tang Ciu . Kuasa jatuh ke tangan para raja muda dimana pemimpin yang akhirnya mengangkat diri menjadi raja .

Kitab Da Xue .

Gambar di atas adalah buku Da Xue. Da Xue adalah sebuah kitab yang disebarkan oleh murid-murid Confucius. Kitab ini ditulis oleh Zeng Zi iaitu Zi Xing murid Nabi Khongcu dari angkatan muda. Buku ini merupakan pintu gerbang pembangunan kebajikan bagi para pemula. Buku Da Xue ini membolehkan murid-murid dapat memahami langkah-langkah yang diambil orang zaman dahulu dalam mendapatkan ilmu. Buku ini lebih dalam ertinya dari Analektika dan Mancius.
Buku ini memberi pengetahuan kepada murid sehingga mengelakkan perbuatan yang salah. Pelajaran agung dapat dipetik jika seseorang mewujudkan dan memperlihatkan secara nyata kebajikan alami yang dianugerahkan Dewa. Jadi seseorang mungkin dapat diperbaharui dan dibawa kembali ke jalan asalnya dan pelajaran itu tidak akan berhenti sehingga mencapai kesempurnaan. Semua benda mempunyai akar dan cabang. Keadaan manusia memiliki awal dan akhir. Mengetahui apa yang tiba terlebih dahulu dan apa yang datang kemudian bererti sudah mendekati asas pelajaran agung.

Kitab Zhong Yong.

Gambar di atas adalah Si Shu kitab yang keempat dalam salah satu buku iaitu, Zhong Yong. Zhong Yong bermaksud ialah Kitab Tengah Sempurna. Buku Zhong Yong adalah karya tentang teori pendidikan pada zaman purba China. Konfusianisme ini menjelaskan kesederhanaan dan mengemukakan isu pembangunan sifat kemanusiaan dalam karya tersebut. Ia menegaskan bahawa kehidupan manusia tidak dilepaskan daripada pengaruh Zhong Yong. Nilai karya ini terletak pada pembangunan konsep Kesederhanaan dengan pembangunan sifat manusia dan kelakuan. Kitab ini ditulis oleh Zi Si iaitu Kong Ji cucu Nabi Khongcu dan murid Zeng Zi.
Kesederhanaan adalah mengajar manusia membangunkan sifat kemanusiaan, mengawal diri, mendidik diri dan menyempurnakan diri, menjadi orang yang mempunyai personaliti yang ideal. Pendidikan diri diteruskan sepanjang hayat dan berperanan penting dalam kehidupan. Ahli fikir yang terkenal pada zaman purba China ini menjelaskan bahawa asas teori kesederhanaan adalah keharmonian antara manusia dengan alam yang melibatkan ajaran Wu Da Dao dan Jiu Jing. Wu Da Dao bererti menggunakan kesederhanaan untuk mengimbangkan lima jenis hubungan antara individu, iaitu hubungan antara raja dengan pegawai, bapa dengan anaknya, suami dengan isteri, abang dengan adik lelaki, dan hubungan antara kawan-kawan. Jiu Jing bermaksud menggunakan Kesederhanaan untuk melaksanakan 9 acara kerja, iaitu membangunkan sifat kemanusiaan diri, menghormati orang lain, menyayangi akan keluarga dan saudara mara, menghormati pegawai, prihatin terhadap rakyat, menggalakkan pekerja, mengalu-alukan tetamu.

Kitab Lun Yu.
Buku Lun Yu ditulis oleh KongZi. Kong Zi adalah seorang ahli falsafah kemanusiaan. Lun Yu ditaksirkan sebagai selok-belok mengenai segala aspek kehidupan seorang insan, sama ada dari segi adab, emosi, hubungan dan kerjaya. Buku ini mengandungi 20 bab hasil daripada refleksi Confucious mengenai matlamat dan jalan betul bagi seorang insan. Kitab ini dibukakan oleh beberapa murid utama Kong Zi, yang waktu itu berjumlah 3,000 murid, dimana 72 orang diantarannya adalah murid utama. Skop aspek ajaran Nabi Khongcu selaku Mu Duo Genta Rohani umat manusia dapat dicari dalam kitab ini, sehingga selalu menjadi "buku pertama" yang dipakai sebagai rujukan, namun bagi umat Ru ia tetap menjadi sumber acuan ajaran gunaan laku dari Nabi Khongcu sebagai nilai keimanan dan keyakinan yang paling konkrit. Buku LunYu Kong Zi

Kitab Meng Zi.

Buku Meng Zi Tokoh Meng Zi

Dua gambar di atas adalah dari buku Meng Zi dan tokoh Meng Zi. Dalam sejarah di negeri China, Meng Zi adalah seorang yang berilmu tinggi dan merupakan salah seorang daripada sekumpulan ahli fikir China yang memegang teguh pada kepercayaan Konfusianisme. Karya Meng Zi dan para muridnya seperti Wan Zhang dan Gong Sun Chou terdiri dari 7 bab masing-masing mempunyai 2 bahagian dan 35,377 huruf. Kitab ini merupakan “Penegasan” Meng Zi dalam mengalakkan, meluruskan, kemurnian ajaran Nabi Khongcu.

Meng Zi telah mewarisi dan mengembangkan falsafah Confucius sehingga falsafah itu berkembang menjadi sistem ideology yang lengkap. Beliau juga menganjurkan pentadbiran berhemah. Berdasarkan pengalaman sejarah, Meng Zi telah membuat kesimpulan tentang hukum kemakmuran dan kemunduran pelbagai negeri. Selain itu, beliau juga menganggap etika mestilah berkait rapat dengan politik kerana etika merupakan asas bagi mewujudkan kestabilan dan pembangunan sesebuah negara. Menurut pandangan beliau, setiap lapisan masyarakat mempunyai standard etika dan moral masing-masing.
Sekiranya setiap anggota masyarakat menggunakan perkataan dan tindakan masing-masing berdasarkan standard etika dan moral yang ditetapkan untuk lapisan masyarakatnya, maka susunan masyarakat akan menjadi teratur. Meng Zi tidak diakui atau disanjung oleh pihak berkuasa pada zamannya, sebaliknya telah melahirkan pengaruh besar dalam bidang politik, ideologi, kebudayaan dan moral dalam sejarah China selepas itu.

Kesimpulan.
Kesimpulanya, kemunculan falsafah konfusianisme mempengaruhi masyarakat cina dengan mendalam. Prinsip-prinsip konfusianisme menyatakan kita haruslah bersifat mulia dan bersopan santun, menitikberatkan kejujuran dan kebaikan. Selain itu, ajaran utama konfusius termasuk kemanusian, kesusilaan dan ketaatan kepada ibubapa. Disamping itu, hubungan antara raja dan pegawai, hubungan antara suami dan isteri, hubungan antara bapa dan anak, hubungan antara kakak dan adik dan hubugan antara sahabat merupakan lima hubungan sosial yang terkandung dalam ajaran konfusianisme, Wu Lun. Ajaran tersebut mengajar kita tentang kepentingan hubungan manusia dengan manusia serta mengingatkan kita supaya saling menghormati bagi mengelakkan salah faham antara satu sama lain. Seperti yang dikatakan oleh konfusius, "Pria yang dapat mengamalkan lima hal dalam dunia ini dapat dianggap sebagai pria sejati", iaitu kerendahan hati, kemurahan hati, ketulusan hati, kerajinan dan keluwesan.

Rujukan 1. matakin-indonesia.org matakin-indonesia.orgmatakin-indonesi http://www.sabda.org/misi/konfusianisme http://id.advantacell.com/wiki/Konfusianisme http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kong_Fu_Tze matakin-indonesia.org http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wu_Jing

--------------------------------------------
[ 2 ]. Analects, translation by Charles Muller The Analects 479 BCE - 221 BCE, II.2, 4
[ 3 ]. (Richard C. Bush, The Story of Religion in China, Niles, IL: Argus Communication, 1977, hal. 2)
[ 4 ]. (Max Mueller, ed., Sacred Books of the East, Krishna Press, 1879-1910, Vol. III, hal. 448)
[ 5 ]. http:/id.wikipedia.org/wiki/si_shu
[ 6 ]. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/si_shu…...

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