Evolution of Man

In: Science

Submitted By nicola1991
Words 979
Pages 4
Within this essay it will be going back four million years to the present day, into the evolution of man. It was once believed that all species on earth were the creation of God. But in 1858 Charles Darwin published his findings into the theories of the evolutionary process (Human Biology, 2008). He suggested closely related species evolved from one ancestor. Man and ape evolved from a common ancestor. Natural selection was the mechanism for evolutionary change. Over time the characteristics of the fittest species gradually changed over time through generations to survive the environment around them.

Humans evolved in Africa and shared a common ancestor with chimps and apes which lived millions of years ago. This common ancestor diverged over time which formed different types of species of hominid. Homo sapiens make up today’s society, the other species of hominids became extinct.
The know how of some of our early relatives is known because of fossil evidence, and our understanding of our family tree grows as new fossils are revealed. These fossils show that modern humans are part of a large human evolutionary family. Some distinctive features of H. sapiens the modern human have large brains, adapted to walk on two feet, a small or absent brow ridge and a small chin on the lower chin. Some of the hominids found that are believed to be our ancestors are Australopithecus afarensis, Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo floresiensis.

Australopithecus afarensis is one of the oldest early human relative that was bipedalism which shared characteristics with H. sapiens, this is known because of where the spinal cord sits under the skull. It’s thought to have lived between four and three million two hundred thousand years ago in Eastern Africa. ‘Lucy’ was an A. afarensis discovered in 1974. They discovered that Lucy was like a chimpanzee…...

Similar Documents


...The theory of evolution, formalized by Charles Darwin, is as much theory as is the theory of gravity, or the theory of relativity. Unlike theories of physics, biological theories, and especially evolution, have been argued long and hard in socio-political arenas. Even today, evolution is not often taught in primary schools. However, evolution is the binding force of all biological research. It is the unifying theme. In paleontology, evolution gives workers a powerful way to organize the remains of past life and better understand the one history of life. The history of thought about evolution in general and paleontological contributions specifically are often useful to the workers of today. Science, like any iterative process, draws heavily from its history. It is a FACT that the earth with liquid water, is more than 3.6 billion years old. It is a FACT that cellular life has been around for at least half of that period and that organized multicellular life is at least 800 million years old. It is a FACT that major life forms now on earth were not at all represented in the past. There were no birds or mammals 250 million years ago. It is a FACT that major life forms of the past are no longer living. There used to be dinosaurs and Pithecanthropus, and there are none now. It is a FACT that all living forms come from previous living forms. Therefore, all present forms of life arose from ancestral forms that were different. Birds arose from nonbirds and humans from nonhumans. No......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Evolution of Man

...Evolution Of Man We all live in a weird and wonderful place and many of us all have our own opinions as to how we became to be. There are many different living species on Earth but a lot of confusion to how they began. Some are of the belief that it is all down to religious thinking and others a more scientific thinking. Learning about Evolution can transform us in a deep way, It can give us the true account of our origins, replacing myths that satisfied us for thousands of years. How did we get here? Where did we come from? Who made us what we are today? These are questions that are still asked today and conflict over what is the truth. We shall be looking at the characteristics that have shaped who we are today and how these have changed in our genetic DNA. Is it all down to science or are the religious believers right? For many years there has been a lot of dispute as to how we are here. Some believe the ‘Great Creator’ is the reason, others believe the scientific theory. There is a lot more evidence to support the scientific theory. The start of this evidence is from when the first Australopithecus afarensis bones were discovered in 1974 by Archaeologists Don Johnson and Tom Gray. They looked at the structure of the bones and could see they were of a female sex from how wide the pelvic area was. They named her ‘Lucy’. They looked at the layer of silt and sands these bones were found in to determine the age of these bones and discovered there were around Three......

Words: 1123 - Pages: 5

Evolution of Man

...Jade Finnecy 4th October 2012 The Evolution of Man In his 1871 book entitled The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, Charles Darwin speculated that fossils of the earliest humans and their immediate progenitors ultimately would be found somewhere in Africa.  He based this on the fact that the natural range of our nearest living relatives, chimpanzees and gorillas, is limited to Africa.  He concluded that we ultimately must have shared a now extinct common ancestor with those apes in Africa.  This view was mostly rejected by the scientific world of the time (http://anthro.palomar.edu/hominid/australo_1.htm). It would be some 50 years and the unearthing of Australopithicus africanus in 1924, before advances would be made in understanding our ancestors. In 1974 an exciting discovery was made in the finding of ‘Lucy’ (Australopithecus afarensis) by Professor Johanson and his student Gray in northern Ethiopia. We discovered the most complete specimen of A afarensis ever found (Boyle and Senior 2008). They are one of the first of our ancestors to stand and walk upright on two legs, this is referred to as ‘bipedalism’. It is believed that A aferensis would not have walked straight legged as we do, though are more likely to have walked with bent knees and hips, not unlike chimps. Diagram sourced from http://humanorigins.si.edu Diagram sourced from http://humanorigins.si...

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5


...Search for Evolutionary Proof Arjumand Parham Sci 115 7/24/12 Dr. Freeman Search for Evolutionary Proof “Our ability to grasp, to build, and make out thoughts real lie inside this complex system of bones, nerves and vessels.” –Neil Shubin These things would only be possible through evolution. Evolution is any process of formation or growth and development, without it we wouldn’t be here today. Evolution though only an theory has an massive backing within the science community; many fossils, scientist and scientific studies have all but proved evolution indefinitely. The proof for evolution is massive and profound; fossils and carbon dating are absolute proof that creatures very similar to us not only lived but were evolving and walking around. African hominids such as the bipedal Australopithecus afarensis or “Lucy” are some of the most profound examples of evolutionary history. Unlike a common monkey Lucy was a bipedal specimen which meant she walked upright much like an human. What makes her such an amazing discovery is the fact that she was about three-million to almost four-million years old. Scientist from every side of the spectrum have gathered to try to make this theory fact. Neil Shubin paleontologist and archeologist said” We were not designed rationally, but are products of a convoluted history”. The history of the human body is convoluted in every sense of the word; there are approximately three-billion-five-hundred-million years of history in the......

Words: 447 - Pages: 2


...The beginning of the earth has been a mystery, boggling the minds of the erudite and the simple minded alike for years. The topic of creation vs. evolution has become increasingly controversial. In biology, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution is a change in the genetic material of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. Though changes produced in any one generation are normally small, differences accumulate with each generation and can, over time, become substantial changes in the population. Such similarities among species suggest that all known species are descended from a common ancestor (or ancestral gene pools process of gradual divergence). Evolution is supported in many different ways, but one major category pointing to its validity is fossils. Through fossil dating, hominoid fossils, and, evolution has become the theory accepted by the majority of those in the scientific forefront. Evolution is supported through fossil records. The study of the sequence of occurrence in rocks reveals the relative time in which organisms lived. This technique shows that one layer of rock is older or younger than another. Later through the discovery of radioactivity, scientists were given the opportunity to learn the age of fossils and rocks . Through these records, a vague timeline is illustrated of the evolutionary change that has been occurring over the past four billion years. This proves that the earth is much older then creationist would like to argue. A popular......

Words: 651 - Pages: 3


...The Transformation of Hip-Hop African American playwrights are writing about difficult topics that affect the hip-hop generation. In this paper, I will focus on the transformation of hip –hop through theatre in the work of Robert Alexander, A Preface to the Alien Garden, and the work of Kamilla Forbes, A Rhyme Deferred. These playwrights reflect the evolution and different elements of the hip-hop culture. There are many similarities and differences between them regarding themes, intent, definition of hip hop generation and black theatre, the impact each play has on the hip-hop generation, and the historical context of each play. Both playwrights do an amazing reflecting an accurate depiction of the hip-hop generation, which embodies gangster rap, regular hip-hop music, dance, and music. Kamilla Forbes is an actress, director, and playwright who wrote and directed Rhyme Deferred. She is the Founding Artistic Director of the Hip Hop Theatre Junction where she focuses on producing and creating works reflecting the hip-hop generation. Her thoughts and passion for hip hop and theatre and the idea that the new hip hop generation was not reflected through theatre, sparked her to began her story and write the play Rhyme Deferred. This highly energetic play engages the audience through dance and breaking down the “third wall” between the actors and the audience. Rhyme Deferred is the story of two brothers, both rappers. The older brother, Kain, is a mainstream rapper and becomes......

Words: 2640 - Pages: 11


...Menneskets evolution Beskriv nedenstående figur: (stamtræet) Dette stamtræ visser menneskets udvikling igennem flere millioner af år. Den viser for 18 millioner af år siden skete der en mutation og en art har udviklet sig i forskellige retninger. Stamtræet viser den evolutionære udvikling en monofyletisk gruppe, der består af mennesket og de tre store menneskeaber. Disse arter tilhører gruppen primater, der er en del af hvirveldyrene og herunder de placentale pattedyr. Som det ses på figuren har alle fire grupper en fælles stamform for ca. 18 mio. år siden. Herfra har orangutangen udviklet sig forskelligt fra mennesket, chimpansen og gorillaen. For ca. 6,1 mio. år siden udviklede gorillaen sig evolutionært i en anden retning end mennesket og chimpansen. Chimpansen er den tættest nulevende relaterede art til mennesket. Herudover ses det at australopithecus afarensis deler stamfar med mennesket, men uddør for omkring 2,5 mio. år siden. Figur 1. figur 2. Figur 3. Forklar princippet i DNA-DNA hybridisering – Brug herunder de tre ovenstående figurer. (Husk at være klare og præcise i sproget) DNA- DNA hybridisering er en analyse af slægtskabet mellem to arter fx mennesket og menneskeaberne. Hydriseringer sker uanset om DNA strengene er af forskellig oprindelse, men jo de to DNA strenge hybridiserer, jo tættere beslægtet er de to arter. For at DNA’et kan blive til et enkeltstrenget DNA opvarmes det, hvorefter det blandes sammen, blandingen afkøles og nogle af......

Words: 766 - Pages: 4


...Evolution within the field of Physical Anthropology is the Idea that “species change over time and have a common ancestry”(Park 2009, p36). With this in mind, the field of Physical Anthropology, also known as Biological Anthropology, can be used to explore and investigate the evidence of the human evolution. Within Biological Anthropology, evolution is observed as the change of humans and human ancestors over time. These changes that occur do not take place over night, nor do they happen over a decade. It takes thousands of years to produce changes in an organism to the effect that it would be classified as evolution. Physical Anthropologists study the remains of Hominins and other ancestors of humans to discover the link that connects us all. They also study other creatures to compare them to humans in an effort to understand where humans come from and what makes us human (Gonder, 2013). One way that Physical Anthropologists have found links of evolution from early Humans and Neanderthals is through dental evidence found and investigated by Professor Alan Mann. He concluded that modern humans did in fact evolve from Neanderthals by finding links in the dental history of each species. Though his evidence is disputed by some, like any other scientific evidence, there have been some that support him and have come to the same conclusion of the relationship between Humans and Neanderthals. One piece of evidence that supports his theory is from a group of researchers from......

Words: 1061 - Pages: 5


...Evolution Abstract One paragraph… The discussion on the origin and fate of the universe continues to revolve around creationists and evolutionary ideas, though creationism positions arise mainly of religion and philosophy, while the evolution is postulated mainly from science. One wonders if possible convergence in these fields in the discussion, that is, if you can address both creationism and evolutionism from science, philosophy and religion. Theory of Evolution In science the theory of evolution explains the huge variety of life arising by postulating a process of transformation through changes in genes that lead to new adaptations to the environment. By studying the genetic structure of living beings is a verifiable fact that they are related to each other and, therefore, aims to have a common origin as the emergence of new species due to the accumulation of changes that do diverge and take different paths to adaptation to the environment. In the scientific world, biological evolution represents the interpretative key of the living world. Life began about 3500 makes 4000 million years in the form of single-celled organisms without nuclei and took about two billion years to produce the first eukaryotes (unicellular organisms with nuclei), so the start was given very slowly. However, in evolutionary history there are times with a high evolutionary rate as the Cambrian period (540 to 520 million years, they were many forms of multicellular life). They also......

Words: 2014 - Pages: 9

The Man

...short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism and An Essay on Man). While brevity usually defines an essay, voluminous works like John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Thomas Malthus's An Essay on the Principle of Population are counterexamples. In some countries (e.g., the United States and Canada), essays have become a major part of formal education. Secondary students are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and admission essays are often used by universities in selecting applicants and, in the humanities and social sciences, as a way of assessing the performance of students during final exams. The concept of an "essay" has been extended to other mediums beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates documentary film making styles and which focuses more on the evolution of a theme or an idea. A photographic essay is an attempt to cover a topic with a linked series of photographs; it may or may not have an accompanying text or captions. An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse".[1] It is difficult to......

Words: 679 - Pages: 3


...being taught in schools. Although we are known as a Christian country, religious ideas in public places are frowned upon or replaced. Now, scientific theories- evolution and the big bang- are being taught as fact to students across the nation. This is a growing problem because evolution is not a fact, only a weak theory based on misinterpreted evidence. There are two types of evolution being taught. One type, also known as natural selection or species adaptation, is when specific changes occur in one species. According to Roger Patterson, author of Evolution Exposed, natural selection is how a species changes, or evolves, in short periods of time. For example, one breed of dog evolved slightly to create the many different breeds of dogs we have now. This makes sense. Why? All dogs are similar to each other. You could say the same for birds, fish, cats, or any other animal. However, the theory of evolution says every living thing on the earth- plants, humans, animals and microscopic organisms- originated from only one organism. This is unrealistic. Natural selection can be tested and observed. On the other hand, the theory of evolution should not be taught as logical, evident factual information because it has not been scientifically proven as most of the non-Christian scientific world would tell you. Along with evolution, a theory for the origin of life, we have the Big Bang Theory, a theory for the origin of our universe. According to Dr. Jason Lisle, author of The......

Words: 671 - Pages: 3


...Evolution is what has allowed humans beings to become the complex organisms that we are today. This long and interesting process has taken millions of years to occur. There is a significant amount of evidence found in living and non living species that the first human ancestors lived approximately 6 million years ago. There is still a few holes in the theory of evolution that can’t quite be explained yet, but scientist have a pretty clear understanding of where, why and how humans evolved. The family Hominidae or hominids, is defined as including humans and the great apes. Scientists further split up this family into two sub-families, one of which is the hominins, which includes humans and their ancestors since the time of divergence from the common ancestors of humans, chimpanzees, and bonobos. The oldest known human ancestor is A. tchadensis. The first evidence of this species was named Toumai and was found in Chad, Africa. It is believed that A. tchadensis inhabited the part of Africa that we now call Chad about seven to six million years ago. Based on Toumai’s cranial characteristics it is believed that this species was bipedal. Fossils have also been found from a different species in Ethiopia. According to the fossil records this species called A. ramidus lived about 4.4 million years ago and were definitely bipedal. The famous fossil of “Lucy” unveiled yet another species that is a common ancestor of humans called A. afarensis. A. afarensis live approximately 3.3......

Words: 720 - Pages: 3


...*Q: What is Evolution? - Descent from modification * Macro Evolution (Large Scale Evolution) * Common Ancestor - descent of different species over many generations * OVER LARGER TIMESCALE (ex. Speciation) * Micro Evolution (Small Scale Evolution) * Changes in gene (allele) frequency in population from one generation to the next * May be over shorter time period (generations) * BOTH OF THESE IMPLY: * 1. Common Ancestry * 2. Changes through time *Natural selection occurs when 3 conditions are met; results in evolution * 1. There is variation in a trait * (Ex. Beetle color) * 2. The trait is heritable * (Ex. Brown beetles tends to have brown babies) * 3. There is differential reproductive success, and not all individuals reproduce to their full potential * (Ex. Green beetles are selected against by natural and Brown beetles are selected for- so they reproduce more) *Adaption: A trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce compared with individuals without the trait Adaption in an evolutionary context: An inherited trait that makes an organism more fit in its abiotic and biotic environment, and that has arisen as a result of the direct action of natural selection for its primary function. Ex. Mimicry of the non-toxic king snake to evade predators Natural selection leads to Adaptions * Adjustments or changes In behavior,......

Words: 4620 - Pages: 19


...ION * PART A. Examine the mechanisms of evolution. * Evolution is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient ancestors (Evolution, N.D.) The four mechanisms that allow evolution to take place are genetic drift, gene flow, mutations, and natural selection. All of these mechanisms happen naturally and are necessary for evolution to take place. Genetic drift is the random change in gene or allele frequency with which an allele variation occurs in a small population. Genetic drift is simple change. Two different genetic drifts that can change the size of a population are the bottleneck effect and the founder effect (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). The bottleneck effect occurs during drastic changes in an alleles population causing the population to have some alleles that may be underrepresented or eliminated completely (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Chance may affect the alleles population for generations until the population will become large enough to allow sampling errors to be considered insignificant (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Genetic drift in a new colony is called the founder effect (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). It is likely to occur when a few individuals colonize an isolated area (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). When a colony migrates away from a larger population its gene pool becomes least representative of the larger colony it migrated from (Campbell, Reece and Simon, 2004). Gene flow is the genetic exchange of......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3


...desirable traits that were once only prevalent in a few individual animals became common traits for entire species (Winston, 2009). There are countless amounts of evidence that suggest that humans owe their existence to evolution, however, many people are skeptical as to whether or not it is still occurring, and whether or not it is happening in the same way. Some scientists hold that the human race has reached “its biological pinnacle and is no longer capable of changing” (McKie, 2005, ¶1). Alternatively, some experts believe that humans are evolving faster than ever (Sample, 2007), and others believe it is still happening, just on different terms. There has not been any deciding evidence as to whether or not humans are still evolving, however, saying it isn’t happening is a very difficult position to defend. Gene mutations happen at random so saying that humans will never undergo any more evolutionary changes seems very unlikely (Douglas, 2006). Many scientists and evolutionists believe that the complexion of modern society is changing the means by which natural selection and, consequentially, evolution is occurring. The evolutionary trait of an advanced brain is what defines us as humans; ironically that same brain is what is allowing us to change the rules of evolution. As a result of a number of medical advancements, doctors are able to sustain life that would not have lasted back in Darwin’s time. This means that humans with genetic advantages are not the only ones......

Words: 3572 - Pages: 15