Ethnic

In: Other Topics

Submitted By manmar
Words 2475
Pages 10
Evaluating the role of ethnic identity in explaining the occurrence of contemporary civil conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa.

High hopes for many newly independent states of Africa became diminished as the 1990s saw over a quarter of the continent's states facing armed insurgencies within their borders (Young, 2002: 534). Commentators often point to pathological, deep-seated hatreds in an African tribal mosaic as the bases of such conflict. The fact is, however, that the continent is awash with political grudges, ethnically-framed and otherwise, but civil wars rarely break out. Thus this essay seeks to take a more nuanced approach to understand the analytical challenge posed by such disorder. Starting out by countering the centrality of ethnic identity, it firstly seeks to demonstrate that ethnic identities do not exist primordially, but that they are constructed on weak foundations. Secondly it endeavours to show that where cleavages do exist along lines of cultural difference, simple heterogeneity is insufficient to account for the outbreak of conflict. Next, it moves to underline the fact that more important in explaining civil conflict is whether such conflict is feasible. This is understood both in terms of the perceived capacity of the state and in terms of the viability of insurgency for would-be rebels. A final conclusion will then be expounded that ethnicity is not a central factor, but that it is simply one of a number of strategies under which conflict may be framed in the rare but ultimately requisite circumstances where rebellion is actually feasible.

Ethnic identity is not a central factor, firstly, because primordial ethnic differences, per se, are not fixed. Where ethnic identity is defined as “a community of people who have the conviction that they have a common identity and common fate based on issues of origin, kinship ties, traditions,…...

Similar Documents

Ethnic Conflict

...From Ethnic Conflict to Genocide Individuals are mostly identified by their religion, culture, race and most importantly, their ethnicity. They would be labeled by what country or race they represent. Over the past decades, many ethnic conflicts have occurred and are still occurring in the world today due to political reasoning. When there are at least two ethnic communities called multiethnic or multisectarian, who realize they cannot form their own independent countries, they would change their geographical locations. But there is no guarantee that both ethnic groups will solve their conflicts by moving in different parts of the region. Each ethnic group competes for power, authority, resources and political independence, which lead up to deep conflicts between ethnic groups and even dehumanization. Each ethnic conflict is associated with deep emotions such as hatred, bitterness, resentment, anger and aggression. Political leaders play a significant role in identifying ethnicities. Such leaders commit violent acts for the sake of their group and victimize their followers. There are also political extremists who are only self-concerned and tend to disregard others’ lives through horrific actions. According to political psychologists, extremists have a variety of personal characteristics. They are not mentally sick. They are insane and are capable of evil behavior because they do not have any empathy for anybody. In Milgram’s experiment on power of authority,......

Words: 1727 - Pages: 7

Ethnic Entrepreneuship

...| MN3030C | | Hewlett-Packard | [ETHNIC ENTREPRENEUSHIP] | [Tapez le résumé du document ici. Il s’agit généralement d’une courte synthèse du document. Tapez le résumé du document ici. Il s’agit généralement d’une courte synthèse du document.] | TABLE OF CONTENT I. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………Page 2-3 II. ETHNIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEFINITION………..Page 4 III. THE CONCEPT…………………………………………………………Page 5-6 IV. ENTREPRENEURIAL THEORY………………………….……Page 7-8-9 V. ETHNIC NICHE…………………………………………………….…..Page 10 VI. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………..…….Page 11 VII. REFERENCES……………………………………………………..…..Page 12-13-14 VIII. APPENDICE…………………………………………………………..Page 15 I. ------------------------------------------------- INTRODUCTION The recent growth of new ethnic populations in Western societies raised lots of issues. In fact, the ethnic activity is not any more a question of historic interest; nor is it the concern of the company. Because new ethnic populations grew at the same time as Western economies, they are in a phase of slow growth and are facing the massive technological challenge; the ethnic adaptation and the mobility are central questions. (Waldinger 1990). In Europe, the activities managed by persons of minority ethnic groups were always present, but changeable historic circumstances increased jutting out to them and visibility during the last decades. First of all, the important immigration of former colonies...

Words: 3753 - Pages: 16

Ethnic Studies

...Name: Course: Institution: Date: Ethnic Studies. Humans have since time immemorial always had a deeply rooted psychological and social need to belong or identify with a community or group that provides interaction with fellow humans, protection from external dangers and gives each member a sense of belonging. Ethnicity can be defined as a group of people who see themselves as unique or distinct from others due to imagined or real mutual history, values and traditions. These things set them apart or distinguish them from their neighbouring ethnicities. Ethnicity also entails the sharing of specific ethnic traits, backgrounds, associations, allegiances or affiliations. There are therefore innumerable ethnicities all over the world which are composed of groups of people bound together by a common factor among them all, which could be racial, cultural, religion, tribal, national, ideological or linguistic. With so many differences between the various ethnicities in their cultures, values, traditions and beliefs, conflict between them is ultimately inevitable. Ethnic groups are almost always never socially homogenous nor are they ever united politically. (Cornell, 39) Several divisive factors are always present within such groups e.g. differences in ideology, social status, class, and religion. When differences between ethnicities fail to spark conflict among them, a particularly dominant ethnicity may attempt to establish hegemony in an area. When the minority ethnicities get......

Words: 1682 - Pages: 7

Ethnic 125 Religions and Ethnic Group

...Associate Program Material Religious and Ethnic Groups Paper Instructions Part I Select at least 1 religious and 1 ethnic/racial group not your own from the list below. • Religious groups (based on http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/affiliations-all-traditions.pdf) o Christianity • Evangelical Protestant • Mainline Protestant • Historically Black Churches • Roman Catholic • Latter-Day Saints (Mormons) • Jehovah’s Witnesses • Orthodox (Greek, Eastern) o Judaism (Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform) o Buddhism (Theravada or Mahayana) o Islam (Sunni, Shia, Sufism) o Hinduism Religious Group selected: _____________________ • Racial/ethnic groups (based on divisions in U.S. Census Bureau documents) o Asian (Asian descent) o Black (African descent) o Hispanic and Latino (South or Central American descent) o Pacific Islander (Polynesian descent) o White (European descent) Racial/ethnic Group selected: _____________________ Part II Write a 750- to 1,400-word paper in which you consider the following regarding the religious group and racial/ethnic group you selected: Religious group: • How does your selected religious group differ from other religious groups (such as in their beliefs, worship practices, or values)? What has been the experience of your selected religious group with others that do not share its beliefs or......

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Ethnic Themes

...Ethnic Themes Skylar Bandalan September 25, 2013 Instructor Solomon One point to remember when writing a comparative paper is that you have to know the material of whatever it is that is being paralleled. The theme I chose to write about is Race and Ethnicity. I am familiar with the theme and I also feel strongly about it which leads me to believe that I can do the topics justice. I chose What It’s Like to Be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith and Child of The Americas written by Aurora Levin Morales. These two authors may not share the same ethnicity; Smith being African American and Morales being Puerto Rican but they have experienced similar internal fights; cultural and personal identity struggles coupled with the need for social acceptance in their worlds. I also felt a personal connection with it seeing as how I am a mix of ethnicities, from Hawaiian, to Filipino, to Caucasian. In this comparative paper, I will discuss the similarities that both authors wrote about as well as the differences. When looking into the theme these two poems share, we can expand our understanding and in some way, reflect on it personally as I have. Both Smith and Morales explain so beautifully in their poems how difficult it was to grow up as young women who were not of Caucasian descent. They both lived completely different lives yet their struggles were comparable because they both suffered racial discrimination and in their writing explained how hard it was to live with what was......

Words: 2759 - Pages: 12

Ethnics

...brought involuntarily and in bondage” (Schaefer, 2012) The black population hails from Africa, however, there are many different cultures throughout the continent that contributed to slave trade and the immigration of blacks to America. Hispanics have been in the United Staes longer than it has been a country, having travelled north from the Aztec and Myan civilizations. Duing the time of exploration and conoliztion”the Spaniards conqurered the land and merged with the Native Americans to form the Mexican people” (Schaefer, 2012) http://www.antiessays.com What are some of the larger racial minorities in U.S. history? The United States has a racially and ethnically diverse population. The census officially recognizes six ethnic and racial categories: White American, Native American and Alaska Native, Asian American, African American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races; a race called "Some other race" is also used in the census and other surveys, but is not official. The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as a racially diverse ethnicity that composes the largest minority group in the nation....

Words: 382 - Pages: 2

Religious and Ethnic

...Religious and Ethnic Groups Paper Religious and Ethnic Groups Paper Researching Reform Judaism and Asian decent I was able to learn about their hardships, contributions and beliefs. Reform Judaism beliefs * The Carrol (2010-2012) website defined: Reform Judaism began in the 19th century as a movement designed to bring Judaism into line with the ideas of the western European enlightenment. Reform Jews reject outright what they see as the dogmatic, outdated practices of Orthodox Jews and focus on the ethical dimensions of the faith instead of the traditional rituals, commandments and practices. Reform Jews moved the Sabbath from Saturday to Sundays, often read scriptures in the vernacular language instead of Hebrew, set aside the kosher dietary codes and the distinctive ways of dress, and often discarded circumcision as well. The guiding sensibility here is that in order for the religion to be relevant and authentic, it must be reformed and reinvigorated from time to time, which sometimes means changing the fundamental ways in which the religion is practiced. Reform Judaism is the largest form of Judaism in the United States. * Reform Judaism contribution to American culture * * In the field of medicine alone, Jewish contributions are staggering and continue to be so. It was a Jew who created the first polio vaccine, who discovered insulin, who discovered that aspirin dealt with pain, who discovered chloral hydrate for convulsions, who......

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

Ethnic Conflicts

...academic work. Ethnic groups are defined as a community of people who share cultural and linguistic characteristics including history, tradition, myth, and origin. Scholars have been trying to develop a theoretical approach to ethnicity and ethnic conflict for a long time. Some, like Donald Horowitz, Ted Gurr, Donald Rothschild and Edward Azar, agree that the ethnic conflicts experienced today-- especially in Africa -- are deep rooted. These conflicts over race, religion, language and identity have become so complex that they are difficult to resolve or manage. Ethnicity has a strong influence on one's status in a community. Ethnic conflicts are therefore often caused by an attempt to secure more power or access more resources. The opinion of this study is that conflict in Africa is synonymous with inequality . Using Nigeria and South Africa as case studies, it compares the management of ethnic conflicts in both countries and shows the difficulties in managing deep-rooted and complex conflicts. The governments of Nigeria and South Africa have taken bold constitutional steps to reduce tension, but the continuing ethnic and religious conflicts raise questions about the effectiveness of these mechanisms. This study proposes, among other things, that ethnic conflict has been at the heart of both countries' development problems. Politicized ethnicity has been detrimental to national unity and socio-economic well-being. It is important to note that most of these ethnic......

Words: 2077 - Pages: 9

Ethnic

...Ethnic Groups and Discrimination I have to decide to this paper on my Canadian French because my grandparents where Canadian French and I want to know what they went threw when they came to the states. The research I have done is from both the internet, University library and from my family. Here is some of the background that I found on the internet. Between 1830 and 1840 there was roughly 900,000 French Canadian left Canada in immigrant to the United States. According to the American Census in 1980 13.6 million American claimed to have French ancestors. Canadian historians have more or less ignored this phenomenon, largely because it was far more diffused, did not affect their society as much as Quebec was affected as it was more used to migration than French-speaking Quebec where "la survivance" was always a major concern, and, lastly, did not leave the enduring traces that French-Canadian emigration did. Simply put, English Canadians were less noticeable and assimilated far more rapidly into American society than did French-speaking. There were two important points’ needs to be established: the first one is that there are costs associated to emigrations. These costs are economical, emotional, and cultural. The economical costs are fairly easy to estimate as they quantifiable. When they leave then the assets was liquidated or even loss. Many of the material items were left behind. Then there was the cost of transportation to their destination and the cost of their......

Words: 261 - Pages: 2

Ethnic Diversity

...Exploring the Ethnic Diversity in Shakira’s Song ( Objection) Literary studies in English Dr. Shanthini Pillai Feras Ismail Ali P61421 Review: Over the ages, humans migrated from place to place. Between 1700s to 1800s have been substantial migrations among the world. One of these migrations was the Latin Americans to United State of America. By the time the number of Latin Americans increased to reach 30 million with different ancestral, cultural background and traditions, those immigrants establish their own heritage, customs, traditions and values to build their own identity. This raises the concept of panethnicity. Panethnicity is a collection of different small identities which form a community. The different ethnicities in panethnic community have similarities in their customs, values, language and music. ( Andrea Bedoya, 2007, P1). Shakira and her family was one of the families who migrate to USA, when she became a famous singer all over the world, she tries to maintain her origins and culture through her lyrics and symbols in her songs. These movements of different origins and parts created diasporas who have to maintain their roots with their origin land, looking for their ancestral land and culture although they have to cope with the new land and culture, Shakira in her song presented these feelings clearly through the music, lyrics, setting, clothes, instruments and dancing. She tries to save her culture through singing. Karim (1998, P2) argued that......

Words: 2287 - Pages: 10

Ethnic

...identity of each group. 2.0 ETHNIC RELATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES ( Farikin & Khawlah) 2.2 The settlement segregation/physical separation: (Farikin) * lives in different area/job, difficulty in physical contacts * Differ in religion, education, social clubs, newspaper, political influence 2.2 Socio-economic difference/gap (Farikin) based on “divide and rule policy” a. Islamic Economic b. Conventional Economic 2.3 Variation in Educational System (Khawlah) * no national schools, only Malays, Chinese, Indian, English vernacular schools * Different educational philosophy and objective, syllabus, textbooks, teachers and curriculum * Malay schools: basic knowledge such as reading, writing, calculating, gardening, carpentry (no fund from the British) * Chinese schools: education system imported from the China mainland, knowledge about their country only 3.0 TOWARDS INTEGRATED SOCIETY: ROLE OF ORGANISATIONS 3.1 GOVERNMENT (Yuhan) * Many policies, plans, campaigns towards national integration * Set up Ministry of Arts, Culture, Heritage & National Unity, National Unity and Integrity Department 3.2 EDUCATION (Safica) * VISION SCHOOL * Primary School with different discipline in the same area * Strategy to create really integrated society. * Comprise of number of primary schools. * The concept is learning together in same location regardless of ethnic and religion......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Ethnic Diversity

...” By accomplishing this in the classroom you can avoid child unawareness and actually enlighten them about other things that go on around them with people they may be friends with or know. Another factor in a less diverse student population is bullying. Students who are different are often targets for bullying. Often when people lack knowledge of things that they are not accustomed to they are quick to judge or stereotype and make ignorant decisions. “Diversity is a positive thing, not something to fear. The different aspects of diversity are very important. From so small to something bigger, diversity plays a major role everywhere every day. In some colleges diversity has been around for many years regardless of what social, racial and ethnic differences there were. “Children exposed to diverse cultures in the classroom learn to understand different points of view, which is an important part of education” This can sum up why diversity in the classroom is such an important part of a child’s development, by the child being exposed to diverse cultures the child can get a better understanding of why the child dresses this way, acts that way or can’t eat this or that. “The result is that children will question their own beliefs and understand how their own culture influences the way they see the world”. Diversity can create curiosity. By being exposed to different people and cultures, a student may want to learn more about a particular group which can give them insight into how......

Words: 1260 - Pages: 6

Ethnic Groups

...Ethnic Groups and Discrimination Thomas J. Miller III ETH125 August 23, 2010 Maria Kithcart Ethnic Groups and Discrimination Most African Americans are descendants of Africans that were enslaved by Europeans and American slave traders. Slave markets used in Africa to sell prisoners of war by African states. The Europeans used these slave markets to exploit and expand the shipment of slaves to the New World or America. Some ancestors immigrated to the United States from the Caribbean. The first group of African slaves was brought to the United States in 1619 (Slavery, 2003). These slaves were labeled indentured servants, which are workers under contract to an employer in exchange for their lodging, food, and clothes. Most of the colonists used the Blacks on plantations because other groups did not want to work on them and the Blacks were easier to control. All colonies eventually legalized slavery passing laws that would keep the slaves and their children for life. During the Revolutionary War, slaves and free slaves were allowed to fight against the British. After the Americans, won their independence from British tyranny, the Declaration of Independence was signed July 4, 1776 (Slavery, 2003) declaring, “All men are created equal.” Many people in the northern states influenced by the Revolutionary War and began abolishing slavery in the North. The southern states wanted to keep slavery to fuel the South economy through the production from the cotton fields...

Words: 855 - Pages: 4

Ethnic Groups

...Ethnic Groups and Discrimination Jerilyn Burns ETH/125 1/08/2012 I can identify with more than one ethnic group. The ethnic group that I have chosen to discuss for the assignment is the Italians. I have just a small amount of Italian in me and I know very little about my Italian ethnicity. I thought by me choosing the Italian ethnicity I would be able to learn more about the Italians and have a better understanding of how they came to America and the struggles they had to face while being here. The Italians started to migrate to the united states for a few different reasons in between the mid 1800’s and the mid 1900’s. These reasons were due to poverty, over population, and even natural disasters that had caused them to decide to migrate to the United States. Some of these natural disasters were scarcity of cultivatable land, soil erosion and deforestation. The Italians also had a lack of coal and iron ore which were needed by their industry. Many of the Italians that migrated to the United States didn’t plan to stay here permanently. The Italians wanted to come to America to build their money up so that they could better take care of their families that were still in Italy. Most of the Italians that had migrated to the United States during this time were men starting at the age of eighteen and up. There were some women who migrated to the United States as well but most of them were men. Most of the Italians that migrated to the United States were from rural......

Words: 830 - Pages: 4

Ethnic Group

...Ethnic Group Conflict Paper Deonte Jones PSY/450 July 5, 2012 Professor Eugene Schimmel Ethnic Group Conflict Paper Social cognition and social perception can be altered through external forces. As evidenced by the exploits of colonialism in Rwanda, the Hutus and Tutsis, two people from the same region in Africa with shared language and customs became the target of such exaggerated and contrived differences. Accordingly, the colonizers effectively constructed ethnic divides, constructed and reinforced differences in social cognition and social perception through repressive means. Even as they did so for the purpose of colonizing the nation and ultimately the minority the Tutsis, these efforts in cognitive reconstruction inspired tragedy. In fact, it led to unintended nevertheless grave consequences, which extended for decades. The Ethnic group conflict that caused problems was the problem in Rwanda East Africa between the Hutus and the Tutsis. According to Langford (2002), in 1994 the Rwandan genocide took place with more than 800,000 people slaughtered. Over the course of 100 days there were a half of a million people killed which is 20 percent of the country’s population. It was a long hold ethnic competition with the minority Tutsi, who had power and control over the country for centuries and the majority Hutu people who became rebellious in the early 1960’s. Discuss the concept of conformity and how it relates to your selected ethnic......

Words: 1169 - Pages: 5