Free Essay

Discuss the Consequences of Privation

In: Science

Submitted By amieboo123
Words 298
Pages 2
Discuss the Consequences of Privation. (12 marks)
Privation occurs if a child is deprived the chance of forming an attachment relationship with another person. The consequences of this can be detrimental to the child’s wellbeing and ability to develop.
One consequence of privation is that it could lead to affectionless psychopathy, delinquency and low IQ, as suggested by Bowlby (1946). Bowlby conducted an experiment where he interviewed 44 juvenile thieves, asking them about themselves, their behaviour and childhood experiences. The results showed 14 of the individuals as showing signs of being an affectionless psychopath, of which 12 had been separated from their mothers for a long period of time during the first 2 years of their life. Bowlby concluded from this that delinquency is linked to childhood maternal deprivation, as the delinquents were more likely than the average population to have been deprived in their childhood. However, Schaffer and Emerson found that children develop more than one strong attachment, which contradicts the suggestion that an absent mother is the cause of delinquency. As well as this, Rutter argued that the there is no simple cause and effect relationship between delinquency and maternal deprivation. He suggested that there were other important variable that need to be considered, like the reason of separation from the mother and how the separation was handled. Another criticism is that Hodges and Tizard’s research would support the idea of a sensitive period, rather than a critical period, as they found that children adopted as late as 7 years old, could establish a strong affectionate relationship.
Another suggested consequence is that it can lead to quasi-autistic behaviour, as proposed by Rutter’s study of Romanian orphans.
Short-term deprivation is also could also lead to anger problems, despair and detachment according to Robertson (1952)…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Culture's Consequences

...Journal of International Business Studies (2006) 37, 285–320 & 2006 Academy of International Business All rights reserved 0047-2506 $30.00 PERSPECTIVE A quarter century of Culture’s Consequences: a review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s cultural values framework Bradley L. Kirkman1, Kevin B. Lowe2 and Cristina B. Gibson3 1 Department of Management, Mays Business School, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 2Department of Business Administration, Joseph M. Bryan School of Business and Economics, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA; 3Graduate School of Management, University of California, Irvine, California, USA Abstract Since Geert Hofstede’s Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in WorkRelated Values (Sage, 1980) was published, researchers have utilized Hofstede’s cultural values framework in a wide variety of empirical studies. We review 180 studies published in 40 business and psychology journals and two international annual volumes between 1980 and June 2002 to consolidate what is empirically verifiable about Hofstede’s cultural values framework. We discuss limitations in the Hofstede-inspired research and make recommendations for researchers who use Hofstede’s framework in the future. Journal of International Business Studies (2006) 37, 285–320. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400202 Keywords: Hofstede; cultural values; cross-cultural management Correspondence:......

Words: 28011 - Pages: 113

Premium Essay

The Drivers, Impediments, and Consequences of Employees’ Job Satisfaction and Well-Being. Discuss and Evaluate with Examples.

...1 Introduction 1.1 Concept of Job Satisfaction and Literature Review Human recourse is the most precious asset of any company and organization. The ability of a firm to mange their “people” would directly make impact on its functioning and future. The concept of job satisfaction, to some extent, acts as a toolkit for managers to evaluate their workforce and may help to make improvement according to the results. This can be defined as “ the degree to which people like their jobs and different aspects of their jobs.” (Paul E.Spector, 1997). People who achieve high job satisfaction would enjoy their work and see it as their main part of life. On the other hand, some people do their jobs only because they have to. The cause and consequence of employee’s job satisfaction is one of major domain in many social science studies, especially within organizational behavior field. Researches and investigations have paid high attention to employee’s job satisfactions to see whether it affects workers’ performance and productiveness. It is also very common for many companies to implement assessment, where employers are concerned with employee’s physical and psychological well-being. Literature on job satisfaction can be chased back to the beginning of 1930s, where systematic studies about the nature and drivers of job satisfaction were carried out (Manisera, 2005). Numerous studies have been conducted to determine which is the most important factor to make people happy with their jobs....

Words: 3218 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay


...Privation is defined as the lack of necessities of life, and in the context of attachment it is referred to as the lack of emotional care, such that no attachments are formed. A case study that represents privation in the form of attachment is one about a 13year old girl called Genie. From an early age she was strapped to a potty in a bare room. Her history was one of isolation, severe neglect and physical restraint, and she was punished if she made any sound. When she was discovered she was described as ‘unsocialised, primitive and hardly human’. She made no sounds and was hardly able to walk. Even after being put into a foster care, she never achieved good social adjustment or language. Another case study into privation is one on the Czech twins. The tins’ mother died during their birth and they then spent 11 months with their aunt. They then went to move with their father and stepmother, and from then they were never allowed out of the house and were kept in either a small, unheated closet or in a cellar. When they were discovered at the age of 7, the children could barely walk, were very fearful and their speech was very poor. After being put in hospital and then a foster home, excellent gains were made. The children are now adults and appear well adjusted and cognitively able. The Czech twins study supports Bowlby’s theory of attachment. This is because he stated there as a critical period for attachments, and in the twins’ case, they were in foster care and with......

Words: 455 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Consequences of Modernity!

...To analyse how this has come to be the case, it is not sufficient merely to invent new terms, like post-modernity and the rest. Instead, we have to look again at the nature of modernity itself which, for certain fairly specific reasons, has been poorly grasped in the social sciences hitherto. Rather than entering a period of post-modernity, we are moving into one in which the consequences of modernity are becoming more radicalised and universalised than before. Beyond modernity, I shall claim, we can perceive the contours of a new and different order, which is "post-modern"; but this is quite distinct from what is at the moment called by many "post-modernity." The views I shall develop have their point of origin in what I have elsewhere called a "discontinuist" interpretation of modern social development. 3 By this I mean that modern social institutions are in some respects unique-- distinct in form from all types of traditional order. Capturing the nature of the discontinuities involved, I shall argue, is a necessary preliminary to analysing what modernity actually is, as well as diagnosing its consequences for us in the present day. My approach also demands a brief critical discussion of some of the dominant standpoints in sociology, as the discipline most integrally involved with the study of modern social life. Given their cultural and epistemological orientation, the debates about modernity and post-modernity for the most part have not confronted the shortcomings in......

Words: 40503 - Pages: 163

Free Essay

Discuss the Causes and Consequences of Separatist Conflicts

...resulted in the concept to pass over to other countries such as Ukraine. This is the destabilization from one separatist movement giving rise to others. The consequences of separatist conflicts largely vary depending on the situation and can result in serious implications such as political, economic and social. Many separatist conflicts have resulted in violent outbreaks and political problems leading to impacts on societies. Economic consequences of separatism are some of the most important in terms of the financial welfare of the country itself. The concept of the separating of countries can result in the loss of vast sums of money, damaging the economy. The Scotland separation concept would have had large financial impacts on the UK as about 90% of Britain’s oil and gas, providing up to €10-15 billion annually in tax revenues. On Scotland’s half it would be able to cover their budget deficit, which resulted in Scotland’s nationalists seizing this opportunity. However Scotland has minimal exports other than oil which reached peak oil in 1999. This means if Scotland became independent, problems would start to arise in the future once the North Sea oil runs out, in which there only 40% of the original supply is left. This combined with rising unemployment rates in Scotland would have had resulted in negative consequences for both the UK and Scotland if they decided to separate after the referendum. Separatist conflicts often result in violence and terrorist attacks in......

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Outline and Evaluate Research Into Privation.

...Outline and evaluate research into Privation Privation is the failure to form an attachment, this may be due to extremely poor parenting or prolonged stays away from a potential attachment figure, e.g. whilst in hospital. One famous study on extreme privation is the case study of Genie: Genie was locked in a room by her father until she was thirteen and a half years old and never fully recovered and proceeded to lack social responsiveness. Her lack of recovery may be due to the fact that she was found beyond the sensitive period or because of the physical deprivation she experienced. Additionally, another well-known case study on privation is the Czech twins whom spent the first seven years of their life locked up by their stepmother and were unable to talk. Once they were found they were then cared for by two sisters and by the age of fourteen they were socially and intellectually stable and had no problems with relationships and intelligence. The two studies both demonstrate privation; however, they both differ in terms of recovery from the privation. The negative effects of privation were more easily reversed with the Czech twins than Genie; this could have been due to the fact they went to a stable loving home which gave them sufficient emotional care. They were also younger when discovered; this may also contribute to the ease of recovery. The Czech twins were together; this means they could recover better socially as they were not alone, unlike Genie who was secluded......

Words: 363 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Discuss Research Into Privation

...Privation of attachment means failure to form an attachment. Privation usually occurs when children have been kept in extreme isolation and therefoe have never had the opppurtunity to form an attachment. There are 3 main types of evidence regarding privation and those are longitudinal studies of children in instituational care; case studies of children raised in extreme isolation; and studies of reactive attachment disorder which is a category of mental disorder attributed to a lack of early attachments. A longiudinal study of ex-institutional children was done by Hodges and Tizard in 1989, to investigate the effects of privation by following the same children over a long period of time to collect reliable information linking early experiences to later outcomes for the same individual. The participants were 65 children who had been placed in an instituation when they were less than 4 months old. There was an explicit policy in the institution against caregivers forming attachments with the children. This would suggest the children experienced early privation. By the age of 4, 24 of the institutionalized children had been adopted, 15 had returned to their natural homes and the rest remained in the institution. Assessment at the age of 8 and 16 years old involved interviewing those children who were adopted and those who had returned to their original homes. Their parents, their teachers and their peers were also interviewed. Data was also collected from a control group...

Words: 1673 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Consequence of Guilt

...van Eeghen 1 Petra van Eeghen 23 October 2014 The Consequence of Guilt Repressed guilt will unavoidably destroy a man. This was surely the case in Fifth Business, by Robertson Davies, a novel that demonstrates how guilt can easily corrupt someone’s life. Three main characters that battle through the emotion of guilt are Paul Dempster, Percy Boyd Staunton and Dunstan Ramsay. Paul does not confront his guilt, Percy pushes away his guilt and Dunny allows himself to be absorbed by guilt and feel sorry for everyone around him. The ways these characters deal with guilt greatly impact their lives. Davies uses the theme of guilt to shape the characters lives. Paul Dempster grows to become immune to the feeling of guilt due to the situations he is put through at a young age. As a child Paul is guilty about his mother Mary Dempster. He blames himself for his mother becoming simple-minded. He has been told by many people in the town of Deptford that it is his fault and they stay away from him, “Paul was not a village favorite, and the dislike so many people felt for his mother-dislike for the queer and persistently unfortunate-they attached to the unoffending son” (Davies 32). Paul was always frowned upon based on his mother’s van Eeghen 2 actions such as her having sex with a tramp. He felt as though every poor decision his mother made was a consequence to her having pre-mature labor to him. Rude jokes were made about Mary Dempster but Paul’s father, Amasa Dempster, told...

Words: 1256 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Plagiarism and Its Consequences

...Plagiarism and Its Consequences Paula. J. Butler National American University The topic of plagiarism is mentioned often. But how much do you actually know about plagiarism? Do you know exactly what it is? What the consequences of it are? Or The different kinds? What about how to avoid it? This paper is going to help clear up any questions you may have about plagiarism. Plagiarism is “the act of using another person's words or ideas without giving credit to that person : the act of plagiarizing something” ("Plagiarism." Merriam-Webster, n.d. Web. 5 May 2015. Many people do not understand that using someone else’s words is an act of theft that has real life consequences. There is not only the chance of destroying your student, academic or professional reputation but a chance of legal repercussions as well. While an author always has the right to sue a person for plagiarism; some plagiarism can even be considered a criminal offense with the possibility of a prison sentence. There are many different types of plagiarism. The most common would be “clone”. “Clone is when you submit another’s work, word for word as your own. Remix is another kind of plagiarism when you paraphrase from multiple sources, making them fit together. A hybrid combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without citation. Mixes of copied material from multiple sources is called a mashup”......

Words: 406 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...• Privation is the failure to form an attachment, this may be due to extremely poor parenting or prolonged stays away from a potential attachment figure. Possible consequences of privation are intellectual retardation, anti-social behaviour in later life an inability to form relationships and lack of guilt. • Rutter investigated the progress of 111 Romanian Orphans who were brought to Britain for adoption. The children were raised in poor institutions. The Romanian children were tested for general cognitive levels till the age of 4. A control group of British children were also tested to see whether it was the separation from the mother or the poor conditions of the institution which led to the negative effects. The results were that after four years the two groups of children showed no significant differences in intellectual or physical development. Those who were in Britain before the age of 6 months were said to have developed greater than those who arrived • However there is a problem with this study as we cannot assume that each of the children had the exact same treatment and amount of care meaning we need to take into account mediating factors. Therefore those who recovered at a better rate, such as the ones who arrived in Britain before the age of 6 months may have received less abuse than the ones who arrived later. Thus it may have been easier for them to recover and the age in which they discovered did not have an impact, which limits to the reliability of the......

Words: 298 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Consequence of Taxes

...Name Professor’s Name The Course Number 5 November 2015 Consequences of Taxes: The Whiskey Rebellion According to (Ricardo, 817), the tax is a financial charge imposed on taxpayers. Avoidance or evasion of tax is punishable by law. Taxes can either be indirect taxes or direct taxes. It is worth noting that a few countries in the Middle East impose no taxation. Examples of Direct taxes include income tax, corporate tax, and any tax imposed on property. Indirect taxes, on the other hand, include, value added tax, sales tax, per unit tax and excise tax. In this paper, I will discuss excise taxes and also the impact of taxation. According to (Kaplow, 512), excise taxes are paid when certain goods such as gasoline are purchased. Excised taxes are put in the price of the product. Excise taxes are also imposed because of wagering and also to trucks when they use major highways. In the video, various issues surrounding excise tax have been highlighted. One of these issues includes the principle of taxation that is fairness, and the other issue is tax incidence. A). Benefits Principle According to (Dubin, 234), this principle outlines that imposition of tax should depend on the benefits received. This policy argues that those who should pay high taxes are those who receive greatest benefits. This principle of taxation is applied to usage of public goods such as libraries, highways, national parks, colleges, forests, etc. The principle of fairness explains that tax......

Words: 635 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Discuss Consequences of and Solutions to Obesity (15)

...Discuss consequences of and solutions to obesity (15) Obesity is the state of being overweight, where the accumulation of body fat has reached 20% of more over an individual’s ideal body weight, to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. One of the consequences of obesity is the reduced mobility. Larger size and body weight to carry around makes travel difficult and movement requires a lot more effort and energy than it would otherwise. The extra weight makes walking difficult, as when walking it is as if you are carrying your weight with you. This also happens because obesity can cause breathlessness or fatigue. This reduces a person’s quality of life as they cannot easily leave the home, to walk to the shops for groceries and other necessities, or to visit others, especially as increased size makes it difficult to take a car or public transport. Mobility scooters are a short-term solution to this, although they give the user no exercise and therefore encourage the condition to remain/continue. It is far more beneficial for an obese patient to seek exercise whenever they can, as this could solve the issue itself. Exercise programmes are accessible across the UK and US designed especially for the obese or overweight, many available through the NHS. The NHS exercise schemes promote easy exercise, such as walking and ‘home exercise’ (short cardio, sit ups, etc.). Other exercise programmes...

Words: 1009 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

‘Considering Consequences Is More Important Than Following Rules.’ Discuss.

...‘Considering consequences is more important than following rules.’ Discuss. When humans are deciding on the right course of action, they usually think of the consequences of what they are about to do. This is because it is intrinsic in all humans to logically deduce the consequences of their actions and it allows us to go beyond our personal thoughts, and to think beyond the effects that could not only happen to us, but to consider the consequences of our actions on others. A consequentialist would say that considering consequences is more important than following rules because their decisions are based on possible outcomes, which would bring more fulfilment than strictly following rules. For instance, a boy is faced with a moral dilemma- does he go and visit his sick Grandma out of duty, knowing that she wouldn’t even recognise him because of her feeble mind, or does he go to his friend’s party, where he knows he will enjoy himself immensely? A consequentialist will say that the boy should go for the party after considering the fact that he would be happier going for the party; as opposed to visiting his grandma and feeling sad that she is sick and that he’s also missing an opportunity to have fun. Also, a consequentialist would argue that if following rules strictly does not give pleasure to humans, and continually leaves them dull and unsatisfied with life, then what is the final purpose of being moral if there are no consequences to look forward to?...

Words: 254 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Duties & Consequences

...Duties and Consequences Tenesha Williams Capella University November, 2015 Author Note This paper was written for Philosophy - Ethics, taught by Instructor Mulberry. Duties and Consequences The motion picture Casablanca from 1942, is a romantic drama movie that portrays people and scenarios in the midst of World War II background in Casablanca, Morocco. The lead protagonist, an American expatriate Rick Blaine, owns a nightclub Café Americian in Casablanca and in the movie must choose between his love interest or helping his love interest’s husband, a renowned leader of Czech Resistance movement, in fighting against the Nazi occupation in the Czech Republic. While Rick appears politically neutral, he is shown in the movie as having helped Ethiopians fight against fascist Italia hence his neutrality is only a cover. The thematic concepts that run through the course of the movie show that Rick must choose between his own individual happiness of reuniting with his love interest who is now married to the Resistance leader, or helping her and her husband in their fight for a greater common good that is the liberation of Czech Republic from the horrors of the Nazi regime that is taking over Europe. This paper examines the ideas that intersect between the characters and scenarios from the motion picture Casablanca, and philosopher Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative, as well as how the motion picture supports the claims of Immanuel Kant and of philosopher John Stuart......

Words: 1359 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Consequences of an Older Population SOC304 Social Gerontology Instructor Mandee Rowley April 16, 2012 With each passing day the age of the Baby Boomers will affect our lives on many social levels. This growing segment of our society will soon become the largest aspect of the American society carrying with it the majority of our aging population. The other age groups will be smaller, younger and yet will have to endure the cost of Healthcare for the Boomers that will be living longer requiring more resources than any of their predecessors. The Boomers will take with them into their Golden years a large grouping of income producers and leaving the balance of society to manage growing social costs. The political face of Medicaid, Medicare, Disability, and SSI will more than likely have several court battles ahead of them to ensure government cuts will not strip away the program essentials that will be needed by our aging populations. Healthcare Today we await the Supreme Courts Justices to make their ruling as to whether President Obama’s national health care plan (The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) is unconstitutional. The issue at hand is a Governmental mandate that everyone must purchase health insurance. The concern is making this a government decree and not something each state has the oversight and implementation process in. The Affordable Care Act became law in March 2010. With its signing by President Obama came expanded coverage for young......

Words: 1747 - Pages: 7