Discuss Neural Mechanisms Involved in the Control of Eating Behavior. (8marks+16marks)

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Discuss neural mechanisms involved in the control of eating behavior. (8marks+16marks)

The first idea of neural mechanisms controlling eating behavior is Homestasis. Homestasis is the tendency of an organism to maintain an internal equilibrium by adjusting physiological process e.g. hungry or thirst balance. The body has evolved two homeostatic mechanisms to regulate food intake, both dependent on glucose levels. When the levels of glucose drop will activates Lateral Hypothalamus(LH), which then leads to feeling of hunger. As a result to individuals consume food. Once the food is eaten the level of glucose will increase again this leads to the activation of Ventromedial Hypothalamus(VMH). This will then leads to satiety, which will make us stop eating.

Another idea is Hypothalamus control our eating. There are 2 parts of hypothalamus in our brains control our eating behavior. When VMH is stimulating it will inhibit us from eating but when it is damaged it will cause us to over eat. Another part is LH when it is stimulated it will leads us to eat but when it is damaged it will prevent us to eat. In LH part there is neurotransmitter called Neuropeptide Y(NPY) this increases our appetites. OB Gene & Leptin is also leads us to decrease appetite. Gherlin hormone is also related to our eating as when we are stressed Gherlin hormone will increase to reduce our stresses but the hormone will also increase our appetite.

Miller carried out the study by using a rat. The rat has had the VMH, which is part of the brain removed. After the surgery the rat kept eating food until it was very fat. This shows that the fat rat over eats. Therefore, this demonstrates that the damage in VMH leads to do not stop eating. There are problems with the explanation of VMH. As Gold claimed that the lesion to VMH alone did not produce overeating but has to damage in Paraventricular…...

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