Deductive & Inductive Process

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Inductive process works from specific observations to a broader generalizations and theories and related with qualitative method. It is sometimes being recognized as “bottom up” approach and based on learning from experience. Patterns, regularities and resemblances in experience is vital. Generally speaking, it starts with detailed observation, then developed into pattern, from pattern it will be abstractly generalized into tentative hypothesis, empirical generalizations will developed time by time and will end up with generation of theory which evolved as a result of the observations. For example, in Chicago last month, a nine-year-old boy died of an asthma attack while waiting for emergency aid. After their ambulance was pelted by rocks in an earlier incident, city paramedics wouldn’t risk entering the Dearborn Homes Project (where the boy lived) without a police escort. Thus, based on this example, one could inductively reason that the nine- year-old boy died as a result of having to wait for emergency treatment.
Deduction is the process by which we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a known fact. For instance it works from more general to the more specific. The deductive approach is also recognized as “top-down” approach. A researcher who use deductive reasoning in his works will usually narrow down his topic into more specific area which can be tested. For example a research was conducted on the topic classroom learning environments and the mental health of first grade children. This research was conducted to study the effects of different classroom environments on first graders’ mental health. Based on a prior study and theory the researcher hypothesized that negative classroom features, such as a lack of basic supplies and even heat, would be associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children. The researchers found…...

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