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Conflict Resolution

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By kcharris4
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A typical society will comprise individuals with diverse social or cultural needs. The members of the society will not always have common interests. Usually, people have different interests. The individual differences in interests and demands result in conflicts, which has been defined as a lack of agreement where the parties involved recognize a threat to their wants, safeties, and disquiets (Mayer, n.d). Conflict will occur due to some misunderstanding among the involved parties, and it is quite unavoidable in organizations as well as institutions such as schools. There are different types of conflict that may be witnessed in the society. An individual may be in conflict with another man, with the society, or with other aspects of nature. One can also have inner conflicts; this occurs when the individual has divided thoughts and is not able to make a decision on a given issue. In an organizational setup, conflicts may arise due to many reasons including, but not limited to, irreconcilable objectives and goals, mismatched personalities and scarcity of shared resources (Jung, 2003, p. 3). Similarly, an individual may be in conflict with the values, beliefs or practices imposed by the society on its people.
There are mixed consequences of such conflicts. Organizational conflicts can be both beneficial and harmful to the successful operations and ultimate productivity of the organization. While conflicts may impede the production pace of an organization, they may also lead to the development of strong organizational cultures to promote future organizational management. Conflict resolution refers to all the activities that are applied to trim down the degree of violence in conflict and develop some level of agreement and common understanding among the conflicting parties (Department of Labor, 2008). Different approaches can be applied in the management of conflicts, and the choice is heavily determined by the kind of conflict and the conditions surrounding its occurrence. It has to be noted that the conflict resolution approaches do not intend to eliminate or control conflicts. This paper explains the types of conflicts, their effects on the societal development and organizational productivity, and the effective resolution approaches that may be applied to reduce the harmful effects of such conflicts.
Problem Statement
Conflict is almost completely inevitable in any society that comprises individuals. In fact, conflict does take place even within an individual. People have different needs, interests, beliefs, or values and will always want their position to be addressed. Proper development within a society may not occur when the members of that society are at odds with each other or when some individuals feel as though they are outcasts in the society. Individuals may not make appropriate life decisions when they are overwhelmed with various internal conflicts. Similarly, effective teamwork, which is very essential for the successful operations of different profit and non-profit institutions will not be possible when there are constant conflicts among the members of such institutions. Consequently, conflict resolution becomes essential to promote social as well as other aspects of development in the society. Such a necessity guided the development of this paper in which the author evaluates the effectiveness of various conflict resolution approaches used by organizations.
The Study Approach This paper has been developed from purely secondary research work. In order to address the research problems, the researcher performed extensive literature search and reviews. Various articles, journals, books and other online materials touching on the concepts of conflict, its causes, and the possible consequences were considered. The initial focus was on the different types of conflicts (internal and external) that can occur in the society. The researcher also reviewed the different approaches that are available for conflict resolutions in communities, organizations or institutions. Considerable focus was given to the conflict resolution approaches that have been applied successfully in managing conflicts and restoring peace among individuals in a given organization. The researcher sought to understand how the conflict resolution approaches such as mediation can be effectively applied to help develop the culture of a given organization. Based on the cases encountered, the researcher then provides what suffice to be the appropriate approach or combination of approaches to conflict resolution among members of an organization or institution.
Literature Review
What Constitutes a Conflict?
In a society, the needs, interests, or social concerns will vary from one individual to the other. The needs, views, and concerns of students in a school are often divergent. Organizations have employees who are drawn from diverse cultures with different cultural perspectives. Departments or units within an organization or institution may disagree on the mechanisms or plans to distribute the available scarce resources (Jung, 2003). Similarly, an individual may be faced with a complex situation, whereby two or more ideas or thoughts are not in harmony. All these individual differences will give rise to some level of conflict. Conflict will arise when each of the parties involved has a strong feeling that their interest or concern is or will be threatened by a given action (Mayer, n.d.). The occurrence of conflict indicates that the two involved parties have opposing positions. Conflict is not necessarily harmful to an organization, and neither does it portray negative inaptness of the characters within that organization. Rather, conflict is a regular course, whereby communally cherished differences index themselves for the enhancement of all involved (Treslan, 1993). It is also necessary to emphasize that conflict is not just a disagreement between parties. It involves perceived physical, emotional, or social threats to the well being of the involved parties (Mayer, n.d). These perceived threats are not necessarily true threats to the parties, but their influences on the lives of the parties necessitate effective resolution mechanisms. The parties in question will respond to the situation depending on the supposed degree of threats.
Types of Conflicts
Conflict is part of daily life. Conflict is an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals (Wilmot & Hocker, 2011, p. 11). It has been mentioned that conflict will arise due to some level of misunderstanding between the involved parties or a disagreement in different thoughts within an individual. In this perspective, conflict can occur in five different ways. Firstly, there is individual versus individual conflict or interpersonal conflict. This is the most common type of conflict, and it arises when there is some misunderstanding, argument, or disagreement between an individual and another individual (Hipel, n.d). This type of conflict follows the individual differences in the interests, beliefs, or perceptions of the individuals, and when the two are not able to reconcile the differences. The discussions in the subsequent sections refer to these interpersonal conflicts. Apart from relationship conflicts other conflicts in organizations include; interest, value, data, and structure. One of the main conflicts that have a great impact on productivity is conflict of interest. Conflict of interest arises when a person or an organization has a number of interests to achieve, and there is a possibility of one interest interfering with achievement of the rest. In this case, an individual or an organization needs to identify what their primary goals are, and separate them from others. Conflict in an organization arises when an individual trusted to perform his duties seeks to fulfill his own interests at the expense of the organization (Stark & Michael, 2001). Although this conflict causes harm to both individuals and organizations, there are several ways to resolve them. First, disclosure of finances and property by government officials has been efficient in resolving conflict of interest. In other cases, individuals can take the initiative, and abstain from practicing activities that may result to this conflict. In addition to these, evaluation by an outside party or person is also considered and effective strategy of resolving conflict of interest. Value conflict is also another type of conflict common in a situation where, an alternative decision made is considered less attractive than another available option. This conflict mainly arises in public management, and strategy formulation, and implementation where value conflicts vary from one organization to another. In most cases, the most outstanding value conflicts in are how an organization responds to politics, while maintaining a neutral position as a professional body and secondly, diligence or due process against how the flexibility of an organization (Stewart, 2008). The decision to select an alternative in this case is driven by an individual’s principles, beliefs, and ethics. In addition to value and interests conflicts, organizations also experience conflict as a result of the organizational structure. Structural conflict in an organization implies that there is the need to redesign the structure to avoid conflicting roles of individuals or departments. Possible solutions to this conflict include; rewarding employees for contributing towards the achievement of the set strategic goals, introducing a flatter structure that will reduce bureaucracy and rigidity, frequent reviewing of existing organizational structures, and fostering cooperation and team work rather that competition among the departments, and personnel (Larson, 2013). Relationship conflicts at the place of work arise due to individuals having different perspectives and approaches in relation to how they work, communicate, and their different personalities. This conflict is called interpersonal conflict where employees feel opposed to each other. However, the diversity of employees does not necessarily result into negative outcomes, a manager can help employees work through this differences successfully which will help them to better understand one another (Graham, 2013). Another type of conflict is data conflict; this is as a result of mismatching information. As a result, people are misinformed and fail to have enough information due to different information gathering, and communication techniques. In an organization, this conflict may lead to poor performance and therefore, to resolve this conflict, there has to be a clear line of communication and feedback not only among employees, but also between employees, and the manager. There are other types of conflicts not covered in this discussion they include, conflict between an individual and the society. Such a conflict occurs when an individual finds it difficult to conform to some of the values, laws, or beliefs and practices that a society imposes on people (Hipel, n.d). Individuals may have a feeling that such practices are threats to their rights or freedom or that the practices have been overtaken by events. Another category of conflict is individual-nature conflict, which emerges when an individual is at odds with other aspects of nature like poor weather conditions (drought, earthquakes, and floods) or animals (wild animals, destructive birds, and insects) (Hipel, n.d). It involves struggle with worldly forces. There is also the conflict between an individual and destiny or fate. There are certain concepts in life that are beyond human understanding and reasoning, yet they remain a reality or truths in the society. The understanding of God, a supernatural being, and cases of superstition are some examples. A person-destiny conflict will occur when individuals encounter these forces beyond their understanding and control (Hipel, n.d). Finally, there is a person versus self-conflict also known as intrapersonal conflict. Such a conflict arises when an individual has different thoughts with regard to a given issue, and is not able to reconcile the struggling ideas (Hipel, n.d). Person-self conflict may arise due to any of the other conflicts mentioned above.
Conflict Resolution Approaches in Organizations
Given the negative consequences that may follow conflicts with institutions and business organizations, it is necessary that the management adopted appropriate strategies to restrain and resolve these conflicts. The management should be in a position to foresee conflict even before it occurs, and detect the misunderstandings that may not be open. For efficient controlling of conflict, the organization’s leadership has to identify the origin or cause of the conflict, the parties involved in the conflict, and the nature of relationship between them (Treslan, 1993). Such an understanding will help in identifying the most effective resolution approach. Conflicts will have key dimensions that need to be considered: substantive, procedural, and psychological (Mayer, n.d). It is important to identify these dimensions in a given conflict in order to understand the threats perceived by the struggling parties. Conflict resolution does not involve efforts to control the conflicts; it comes when already there is a conflict. It is only started based on the fact that some solution exists to handle the situation (Department of Labor, 2008). Resolution and management of conflict is not a new undertaking. Mary Parker Follett provided guidance on conflict management in the 1930s (Treslan, 1993). Follett identified three approaches that individuals often applied in handling conflicts: domination (win-lose), compromise (lose-lose) and integration (win-win). She strongly advocated for integration where each party would benefit and discouraged the application of domination. Follett noted that the organization’s management could find it very easy to dominate the employees, but the ultimate consequences are detrimental to the organization (Treslan, 1993). Owen, Howard, and Waldron further emphasize the important role that effective communication and social interaction can play in resolving conflicts between warring communities (2000). Thomas (cited in Treslan, 1993) developed another model for conflict management that considered two more management approaches (1976). This model includes avoidance, compromise, competition (domination or forcing), accommodation, and collaboration or integration (Whetten and Cameron, 2002; Treslan, 1993). Each of these approaches has the associated benefits as well as challenges and may apply for different cases.
Avoidance. This is an approach in which there is some misunderstanding, but each of the party chooses to ignore it with the assumption that it will finally wither away. Those involved may have a feeling that they are not a party to that conflict or that the effects are very negligible (Whetten and Cameron, 2002). The interpersonal conflicts remain unresolved leading to more conflicts in the organization. Thomas (cited in Treslan, 1993) identified some of the situations in which this approach could be effectively applied to manage conflicts in an organization (1976). Firstly, it was noted that avoidance can be very appropriate if it can be established that the issue is really insignificant (Treslan, 1993). There may be a small conflict between two parties that has insignificant impacts on the future relationship between the parties. Secondly, avoidance may be appropriate when the costs of making a resolution are much heavier than the anticipated benefits of such a resolution (Treslan, 1993). It then becomes economically meaningless to pursue other resolution approaches. Similarly, avoidance is appropriate when one can establish that the conflicts have far-fetched roots and can be solved effectively by other parties (Treslan, 1993).
Compromising. This occurs when the conflicting parties opt to make a quick agreement. In an organizational setup, compromising is guided by the fact that continued conflicts will bar individuals from effective execution of their duties at work (Whetten and Cameron, 2002). The style involves tradeoffs of individual priorities, and each of the parties to the conflict will have to surrender some of the demands or interests. This style has the drawback that it only yields a temporary but not necessarily an effective solution (Whetten and Cameron, 2002, p.361). In compromising, there is an understanding that the issue is significant, but that the application of a more forceful approach has negative consequences that outweigh the benefits. Developing a compromise is also necessary when there is need to make a quick resolution to the issue to avoid delay in other activities (Treslan, 1993). It may act as a transitory solution that will be replaced by a more permanent solution to the problem. Similarly, this management style may apply when competition and collaboration have proved ineffective or impractical.
Competing. This is an approach in which one of the parties to the conflict struggle to dominate and suppress the needs of the other. In this case, one party disregards the interests or needs of other parties and controls the negotiation process (Mayer, n.d). Each of the parties only fights for their interests with a fear that losing control would imply that their demands will not be satisfied. Competing parties have a position that they are on the right side and should not be challenged (Whetten and Cameron, 2002). The kind of humiliation that the weaker party will feel weakens this approach. Competition (domination or forcing) is appropriate when a very quick decision is to be made especially in response to some emergency or when the issue to be resolved does not require the action of many people (Treslan, 1993). Organization’s management may understand that some actions are just appropriate for their welfare and impose such actions forcefully.
Accommodation. This is the reverse of competing, and each party attempts to contain their individual differences. In this style, one party may opt to yield to the needs of the majority group with the key objective of maintaining the sound relationship between the parties (Mayer, n,d). Parties that apply this approach have a concern for the needs of others in that they priorities on the good relationship between them (Whetten and Cameron, 2002). In this regard, accommodation is appropriate when the parties recognize the necessity of harmony and stability within their organizations. It enables the parties to develop good will in order to address other important issues (Treslan, 2002).
Although there are multiple work-related conflict experiences, the paper exemplifies the case of a disagreement between Johnny and Scott, two members who are employees of the same organization. Johnny is of the opinion that Scott is repeatedly discriminatory against him since he is African American. He contends that Scott, as the team leader, consistently assigns him the most menial tasks within the group; hence, Johnny not only is known to be resentful towards his leader but also has exhibited open dissatisfaction and even, at times, outright verbal conflict with his team leader. Scott, on the other hand, challenges this viewpoint, noting that he has no personal prejudices towards Johnny but that he is incompetent, and as the team leader, he has to see to it that all the team expectations are meant. This intragroup conflict scenario needs to be addressed since the incompatibility between the two members is seriously causing tension and division within the rest of the group.
De Wit and Greer (2012) document that intragroup conflicts are a reality that results from perceived differences or incompatibilities between or among group members. Consequently, there are three types of intragroup conflicts, which include relationship, task-oriented, and process conflicts. Relationship conflicts are a result of a disagreement between or among group members due to arising personal issues such as differences in opinions, norms or values, personality differences, or even diversity in their ethnicity. Process conflicts, on the other hand, result from disagreements between different group members on how or when a given task should be accomplished and on the various roles each member should play towards the completion of the task. A task conflict, on the other hand, results from disagreements between or among group members on the expectations, content, and outcome of the specific task to be performed. The case presented above is evidently a relationship conflict that is having a negative effect on the performance of the group. There are clear disagreements on personal issues between the two group members that have heightened anxiety and can be seen as representing ego threats that have strong self-concept bases (De Wit and Greer 2012). There is also open hostility between the two group members, which makes the management of the conflict situation quite intricate. Besides, it has the potential to progress and negatively affect other group members. According to De Wit and Greer (2012), relationship conflicts in organizations have been found to have far-reaching, adverse effects on distal group outcomes such as a group’s collaborative problem-solving ability, creativity, and performance. Nonetheless, Rahim (2002) documents that, at times, attaining and maintaining a moderate amount of substantive conflict may be healthy for the organization as it may lead to better decision-making. There are disparities between different categories of intergroup conflicts; hence, a comprehensive analysis of the conflict types may make reducing or even reversing such conflicting scenarios easy. While relationship conflicts are closely related to negative emotions, task and process conflicts are rather less closely associated with personal connotations and a group member’s emotional well-being. Besides, compared to process and relationship conflicts, tasks conflicts are the least likely to have far-reaching negative group outcomes. Imperatively, by critically understanding the various conflict types and defining their content and relationship issues, effective resolution is necessitated. This is because different types of conflicts tend to co-occur; for example, relationship conflicts may have a direct negative effect on task outcomes, thereby resulting in task conflicts (De Wit and Greer 2012). Louis, Taylor, and Tyson (2004) also identify different mediation models with the parallel model that identifies group interest and carries out individual rational analysis to define behavior being more relevant to the case presented above.
Finally, collaboration or integration occurs when each of the parties agree to solve the problem together, given that each one holds an important position. This becomes the most appropriate conflict resolution technique that needs to be applied in organizations and institutions. In collaboration, the parties each put forward their position in order to arrive at the best solution (Whetten and Cameron, 2002). Integration leads to a resolution that treats all the parties fairly. Accordingly, this approach is effective when the concerns raised by each of the parties are equally important, and compromising provides insufficient solution (Treslan, 1993). Integration will bring together the different views of the parties. The approach comes in handy when the parties intend to develop long-term commitment to each other, which is necessary in an organization.
Mediation as a Conflict Resolution Approach
The conflict management and resolution techniques that were discussed in the preceding section only involved discussion and, in some instances, irrational solution among the conflicting parties. There are other approaches some of which a third party can come (or be brought) in to help resolve the conflict. One such approach is mediation. Mediation is a conflict resolution technique in which a third party (intermediary) intervenes between conflicting parties to help the latter come to some common understanding (Ridley-duff & Bennett, 2010). This approach is useful in a situation characterized by confrontation or accusations and counteraccusations between the parties. Mediation differs from arbitration where the intermediary decides on how to end the conflict irrespective of the position of the participants. The mediator merely assists the parties to reduce the problem into negotiable terms with each party expressing their concern (Ridley-duff & Bennett, 2010). The mediator then provides a step-by-step guidance to the parties on the probable negative and positive consequences of the possible actions that can be taken. Mediation Planning
Mediation planning not only helps mediators become more professional but also ensures more positive outcomes in the mediation process. By having background information on the problem at hand, the mediator is able to develop a framework within which the problem will be solved. Additionally, the mediator has the capacity to identify goals and develop a strategy through which the preset goals will be achieved. Understanding the problem will also enable the mediator to develop an intervention based on the strategy beforehand. For example, in the case of Scott and Johnny, if the mediator concludes that the key problem is racial in nature, he/she may consider options such as transferring Scott to another group or initiating friendship between them, motivating them to discuss the issue, and creating an environment and giving the best opportunity to come into an agreement.
Secondly, by establishing data on the problem, his/her schedule, and the parties involved, the mediator is able to prepare for a session. This will be achieved by discussing the matter with all the parties involved, setting up a meeting center convenient and comfortable to all the parties involved, agreeing on the number of sessions necessary, and coming up with the terms of the scheduled discussions. The background information will also be critical in helping the mediator set an environment where clients are assured of impartiality and boundaries are established. The background information will also help the mediator know their customers and also anticipate any ethnic, socio-economic, cultural, or racial differences. In the case of Scott and Johnny, for example, race is certainly a contentious issue; hence, this knowledge will enable the mediator to establish the two conflicting individuals' experiences, the states in which they were born, their social-economic class and even lifestyles, and political leanings, which tend to be strongly correlated with the racial issue. By gaining data on the existing options and linkages and anticipating beforehand offers and counteroffers, the mediator is also able to come up with realistic, achievable, and objective goals for the negotiation process. This will guide the negotiation process, promoting more openness and willingness to communicate between the different conflicting parties. The preliminary data will also help the mediator determine the extent of the conflict, thereby considering the best negotiating style relevant to the conflicting situation. Besides, the issues will help the mediator anticipate contentious issues, making it easy to come up with a lasting solution. Exemplifying the case of Johnny and Scott, by having data on the two employees’ ethnic backgrounds, the mediator is able to anticipate the likely diversity issues responsible for the conflict, making it possible to help the to two abandon their preconceived notions about each other.
The success of a mediation process may be dependent on certain factors. Firstly, it has been mentioned that the mediator provides guidance to the parties in conflict. Mediators then need to be very skilled and knowledgeable especially in that specific area of conflict (Ridley-duff & Bennett, 2010). They should have had some considerable experience in managing similar cases, which are also known to the participants. Secondly, the mediators should remain neutral and not be party to the negotiation process (Department of Labor, 2008; Ridley-duff & Bennett, 2010). The conflicting parties may have faith in mediators if they have no relation with either of the parties and will not benefit in any way from the outcomes of the mediation process.
Mediation is effective in conflict resolution in various contexts. The approach has proved effective in handling domestic issues such as divorce and child abuse in the United States (Ridley-duff & Bennett, 2010). The technique can help resolve disputes among employees in a workplace, students in school, individuals within a community, or even conflicts between communities. Mediation may also resolve international conflicts (Ridley-duff & Bennett, 2010). However, the approach can still fail so that the parties resort to other harsh resolution approaches such as court cases, or war in extreme cases. Some studies have indicated that mediation is often less effective in managing international conflicts (Ridley-duff & Bennett, 2010).
Conclusion and Recommendations
Individual differences make conflict a common occurrence in organizations, institutions, and communities, and the leadership should not consider this to be abnormal. Conflict has mixed consequences to the involved parties and society. On one hand, it can give rise to a positive organizational change with a culture that accommodates the diversity in the workforce. On the other hand, conflict can lead to the total fall of an organization. The consequences of conflict then consist in the resolution techniques that are adopted by the involved parties. Several approaches can be used within an organization or institution to resolve conflicts and include integration, avoidance, compromise, competition, and accommodation. Each of these approaches will be appropriate for selected situations. Conflicts may also be resolved through mediation where a third party helps the conflicting parties to develop some common ground.
Even though each of the above conflict management approaches may be appropriate in selected cases, integration tends to develop a better organizational culture that considers the interests of all the stakeholders. The leadership in the organizations should develop effective communication strategies within the organization to allow easy and timely identification of conflicts. The management should mediate in resolving conflicts between the co-workers.

References
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Department of Labor. (2008). Current trends, process and practice in mediation and alternative dispute resolution: A review of literature. Retrieved from http://www.dol.govt.nz/PDFs/mediation-resolution.pdf De Wit, F. R. C. and Greer, L. L. (2012). The paradox of intragroup conflict: a metaanalysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(2): 360-390.
Graham, K. M. (2013, February 11). Conflict management at work - it needn't be so hard.
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... Conflict Resolution Angela Baines, Barrie Milam, Markesha Smith, Nekia Coleman, Reju Kumar, Samantha Banker LDR 531 December 8, 2014 Timothy De Long Introduction There are various types of communication like face-face communication, written communication, electronic communication, and nonverbal communication. Certain circumstances require that we use specific communication channel to relay the correct information. This will ensure that the messages are not lost or misinterpreted. Conflict is “a process that begins when one party perceives another party has, or is about to negatively affect, something the first party cares about” (Robbins & Judge, 2013). In Week three, the members of team B took part in three different storybook workshops that simulated the different communication management scenarios and conflict resolution. In this paper, Team B will analyze the different communication barriers and conflict resolution from the storybooks and share similar personal experiences. Filtering After reviewing the first Storybook, we realized filtering can be a destructive communication barrier when attempting to resolve a problem. When a team member is being vague and trying to spin bad news to sound more positive, as a group, we remind them to be honest and direct with the information, and that admitting to a problem is the first step to solving it. This scenario reminded one of our team members of their first staff meeting in the Cardiothoracic ICU. During this meeting...

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... Mechelle Harrison Bethel University Masters of Art in Conflict Resolution Susan Wells First, this student wants to comment on how she enjoyed being a cohort in the Master of Conflict Resolution (M.A.C.R.) program at Bethel University. The instructors were educated in their fields, patient, and kind. I am proud to say I earned this degree at Bethel University, and I know it will take my in the direction I am aiming for. I have different outlook on life, I am more confident, and satisfied with my decision. The fundamental principle of mediation is “Self Determination” and I plan to abide by this for the rest of my life. We learned how to deal with conflicts in the home, school, field, workplace, etc. We learned the five styles of conflict, “Collaboration”, both parties agree, “Accommodation”, make someone happy, “Competition”, power struggle, “Avoidance”, don’t deal with it, and “Compromise”, each side makes a concession. While studying these styles of conflict in class I reflected on my pass and present conflicts and understood the difference in how they were handled, not knowing there was a word for styles of conflict management at that time. We also learned the roles of in conflict management. You have the “negotiator” gets involved in creating a deal, “decision maker”, assist families in making vital decisions and keeping the channels of......

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...Running head: CONFLICT RESOLUTION Conflict Resolution XXXXXXX University of Phoenix Social Psychology 400 XXXXX February 11, 2015 Conflict Resolution According to Merriam-Webster, conflict is defined as “a difference that prevents agreement: disagreement between ideas, feelings, etc.” (“Conflict“, n.d., definition 3). At one point or another everyone will experience conflict, and for some people it is more common than for others. It is very common for people to have a difficult time trying to find a reasonable resolution to conflicts that people face. Developing a good conflict resolution strategy can be much easier if one understands how to really find a solution. What this means is that if a person has a strong understanding of the basic steps to conflict resolution he or she is likely to reach a solution to any type of problem rather than letting the problem lead to an increasingly bad situation or environment. However, most societies do not have a standard way of teaching adults or children about conflict and peacemaking in relevance to societal dissimilarities (Rossi, 2003). In his article Teaching about International conflict and Peacemaking at the Grassroots Level, John Allan Rossi (2003) points out that choosing to teach the nation’s youth based upon not only individual identity, but also social identities in international environments, can help produce a better understanding through societies as well as teach peacemaking skills based on a national......

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...Conflict Resolution and Peacemaking A conflict can arise at any time when two or more individuals have a difference of opinion. Whether or not the conflict escalates depends on the peacemaking skills of each individual involved in the conflict or the skills of outside interveners. This paper will review an article pertaining to a conflict and analyze the elements of conflict and peacemaking involved in the situation. While knowledge in peacemaking skills and negotiation tactics can lead to successful conflict resolution, the result lies strictly in the hands and mental capabilities of the conflict instigator. The Conflict According to CBSNews.com (2010), a conflict arose when a former police officer believed he was unjustly accused of a crime and lost his badge. The incident occurred in 2008, but the former police officer did not take action until yesterday. The former police officer entered a tourist bus in Manila and held the passengers and drivers hostage. The former police officer believed this action would achieve his reinstatement as a police officer and refused to end the siege until he was given back his badge. CBSNews.com further informs the negotiations were successful in the beginning as a few of the hostages were released without harm. However, police made several failed attempts to enter the bus and end the situation. The police also had opportunity to remove the former officer physically from the bus, but hesitated. The longer the situation went......

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