Computer Retails in China

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第十六屆服務業管理研討會 中華民國九十九年十二月

中國大潤發

洪順慶 國立政治大學企業管理研究所特聘教授

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第十六屆服務業管理研討會 中華民國九十九年十二月

壹、 外資零售企業在中國發展概況

一、初步開放期 1978 年至 1992 年,中國大陸政府禁止外商在中國開辦任何獨資或是合資形 式的零售和批發企業。1992 年開始,北京、上海、天津、廣州、青島等城市和 深圳、珠海、汕頭、廈門、海南 5 個經濟特區開始試點合資零售企業,每個城市 可試辦 1、2 個外資企業,中國零售業開始走向對外開放,但是在此同時仍禁上 外商獨資和控股。1992 年 7 月,隨著日本八佰伴以超市的形式在上海開張,拉開 了外資零售進軍中國大陸市場的序幕。1993 年國內貿易部正式成立後,提出要 把連鎖經營作為流通體制改革的一項重點任務,1994 年召開的全國商品流通工 作會議上,原內貿部提出大力發展連鎖經營的目標,1995 年 10 月批准北京進行 連鎖試點,開始進行有限的批發零售業務。其後法國的家樂福、台灣大潤發、德 國的麥德龍、美國沃爾瑪、羅森、易初蓮花等國際零售巨頭紛紛開始進中國大陸 市場。

二、有限度開放期 1999 年中國頒布「外商投資商業試點辦法」後,開放外商在合資零售企業 的控股權,外資可以進駐的領域逐漸擴大,由北京、上海等大城市擴展到中國其 他各省會城市。中國自 2001 年正式加入 WTO 後,為了促進與世界其他國家貿易 一體化,國外大型零售集團加緊在中國的擴張速度。至 2004 年底,外資主要大 型零售企業中,在中國開設的大型賣場由 2001 年底的 300 多家增加到 2004 年的 405 家。

三、全面開放期 中國自從加入 WTO 後 答應於 2004 年 12 月 11 日以後零售業全面對外開放, ,
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第十六屆服務業管理研討會 中華民國九十九年十二月

按照加入世貿組織的承諾,中國政府對於商業利用外資工作由試點轉為正常開放, 取消對外商投資商業企業在地域、股權、業務和店舖數量等方面的管制與限制。 目前外商投資或外商代理企業要進入中國零售業開設新店舖尚需要進行審批,一 些較小的外商企業原則上可由省級商務部門批准,較大的連鎖企業要進入中國開 店則要通過商務部進行審批。因此除了外資開店行為還需要政府的審議外,外資 零售商在中國的活動幾乎是完全自由,中國取消外資投資商業領域在地域、股權 和數量的限制,外資正式在中國零售業全面開放。 自從 2005 年中國零售市場向外資全面開放之後,外資零售業的成長突飛猛 進。2005 年在中國大陸新批准成立 187 家外資零售企業,其中外資獨資企業達 124 家,比重占 63%,比 2004 年多成長了 5 倍,其中大部分是外商獨資企業, 其經營地區遍及北京、上海、廣州、深圳、珠海、大連、青島、福州、長春、廈 門、成都、武漢、重慶、貴陽、西安、南寧等 40 個沿海與內陸中大城市。企業 的業種和業態明顯增加 在零售業開放前 外資投資主要是以百貨店的形式進入 。 , 。 然而在 2004 年後,除了大賣場,其他業態如百貨店、各式專賣店,特別是國際 知名品牌專賣店也大量湧入,同時一些較小商品也在中國廣佈網點。 零售企業的快速成長主要是採用外延式的擴張,即在各城市大幅度增加門面 數量和營業面積,或是併購的方式,尤其是 2005 年以後出現外資零售集團併購 外資企業或中國當地零售企業的案件,使外資零售集團在短時間內迅速擴大版圖, 產生非常明顯的規模效應。 2007 年由中國商務部批准的外商投資批發及零售企業達 6,338 家,相較 2006 年成長 35.9%,實際使用金額 26.8 億美元,開設分店多達 3,743 家,比 2006 年成 長 49.6%。在營業面積超過 5,000 平方公尺以上的大賣場中,外資企業日益扮演 著舉足輕重的角色,特別是在北京、上海、廣州等城市,外資企業店舖數量達到 該業態總量的三成以上。以上海 2005 年底為例,家樂福、大潤發等 9 家外資量 販店的門面數量占全市量販店總數的 53%,占全市大賣場零售額的 76%。

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第十六屆服務業管理研討會 中華民國九十九年十二月

貳、 大型外資零售集團在中國的擴張
在 2001 年中國加入 WTO 與 2004 年底中國零售行業全面開放之前,外資零 售集團已經大舉進入中國市場,1992 年日本八佰伴集團首先在中國深圳開設商…...

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