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Composite Materials in Building

In: Science

Submitted By lanceyap
Words 1246
Pages 5
Composite Materials in
Building and Construction
Applications

Presented at:
ACMA’s CORROSION, MINING, INFRASTRUCTURE & ARCHITECTURE CONFERENCE
May 15, 2013 - Denver, CO

Course Description
Composites have been used extensively in industries such as marine and transportation for more than 50 years. Yet in some industries composites are just now becoming a primary material of choice.
The use of composites in the building industry is growing rapidly.
Traditional benefits offered by composites are being recognized and utilized to address design limitations and can be used to reduce life cycle environmental and cost impacts.

Learning Objectives
• Define ‘Composite Materials’ and learn the history of composites in multiple industries and the factors that led the growth of composites in these industries.
• Identify the design and performance attributes of composites used in other industries that are applicable to the building / construction market. • Review case studies that demonstrate how the inherent attributes of composites such as low weight, durability and low thermal conductivity, result in environmental and cost effective material options.
• Explore web based education tools that offer case studies on the use of composites in construction and allow users to connect with composite fabricators that specialize in design, fabrication and installation of composite building materials.

What is a Composite?

Composite
An engineered combination of materials that result in a finished material with better overall properties than the starting constituents.
At a microscopic level, the constituent materials remain distinct within the finished structure.

“Traditional” Composites
Wood is a natural composite of cellulose fibers in a lignin matrix.
Engineered wood is wood fibers, strands or veneers bound using adhesives. Concrete is a composite of aggregate, cement, additives and water. Disc brake pads are composites of hard ceramic particles embedded in soft metal.

Polymer Matrix Composites
Polymer Matrix Composites
A composite made from a polymer and a reinforcing and/or particulate material
The polymer binds the reinforcement & particulate together.
Reinforcement material
 Glass fibers
 Natural fibers
 Carbon fibers

More
Structural

Particulate material
 Sand, talc and other fillers
 Color chips
 Recycled glass
More
Aesthetic

Composites Are Lightweight
Polymer matrix composites are lighter than steel, aluminum, concrete and brick.
500
400
Pounds
per cubic foot

300

112 lb / ft

200

3

100
0
Steel

Aluminum

Concrete

Brick

Composite

Wood

3-D Column 1

Composites Have High Strength to Weight Ratio


Composites are lightweight materials that are strong and stiff.



Composites are much stronger and stiffer than pure polymers.



Relative to wood, composites are stronger and stiffer.



Relative to concrete, composites offer superior strength. •

Composites can have specific strength & specific stiffness similar to steels.

100
Steels
Composites

10
Concrete

Specific
Stiffness
(Modulus/Density)

1
PMMA
PP

0.1

Nylon

Polymers

0.01
1

10

Specific Strength
(Strength / Density)

100

1000

Composites Use in
Other Industries

Marine Applications
• Late 1940’s: First boats constructed of composites
• Durability
• Design Flexibility
• Now: >90% of hulls are composite

• Impact Resistance
• Corrosion Resistance

Automotive
• Early 1950’s: First commercial car bodies
• Design Freedom
• Low Weight
• Now: Significant utilization on unique design models • Part Consolidation
• Corrosion Resistance

Automotive
• Early 1950’s: First commercial car bodies
• Corrosion Resistance
• Low Weight
• Now: Body Panels,
Valve covers, Truck beds • Part Consolidation
• Design Freedom

Heavy Truck
• Late 1960’s saw first use in heavy truck
• Low Weight
• Corrosion Resistance
• Now: 90%+ of heavy trucks are composite body

• High Heat
• Durability

Heavy Truck
• Beyond Body Panels

• Low Weight
• Corrosion Resistance
• Now: Low weight and high heat components • High Heat
• Durability

Aerospace
• Mid-1970’s: Concorde was ~8% Composites
• Low Weight
• High Strength
• Now: Boeing 787
- 80% by volume
- 50% by weight

• Design / Aerodynamics
• Sound Dampening

Wind Energy
• 1980’s
– 15 meter diameter
– 50 kW turbines

• High Strength
• Low Weight
• Today
• 150 meter diameter
• 7.5 MW

• Toughness
• Corrosion Resistance

Industrial
• Storage Tanks
• Electrical Components

• Durability
• Insulating Properties

• Corrosion Resistance

• Extending life of equipment • Facilitate safer handling

What does all this mean for the Building &
Construction Industry?

Benefits of Composites






Extremely Durable
Low Weight
Impact Resistance
Design Flexibility
High Strength to Weight ratio •






Part Consolidation
Corrosion Resistance
Heat Resistance
Toughness
Sound Dampening
Insulation Properties

Applicability to B&C

Design Flexibility

Design Flexibility

Complex Design
Terminal Tower – Cleveland, OH
High & Goodale – Columbus, OH

Historical
Replication

Courtesy: Kreysler & Associates

Composites Offer Flexibility in Design
Process
Cast

Laminate

Infuse

Continuous
Panel
Extrude /
Pultrude
Stamp /
Press Mold

Wood

Concrete

Metals

Composites

Applicability to B&C

Corrosion Resistance

Corrosion Resistance
• Composites offer very good corrosion resistance and find widespread use in corrosive environments.
- Cladding for roofs & walls

- Seawalls, decks & railings

- Duct work and ventilation
- Salt water environments

- Water handling systems
- Underground applications

Courtesy: Kalwall

Courtesy: Creative Pultrusion

Applicability to B&C

Strength to Weight

Strength to Weight
Prototype Investigation
• Replace failing masonry cladding in high rise building
• The low weight composite allows floor space to be added
• Uses existing building structure and foundations

Courtesy: Craft Engineering Studio

Applicability to B&C

Low Thermal & Electrical Conductivity

Thermal Properties
• Composite have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion. •

Not prone to expansion & contraction

• Composites offer low thermal conductivity

Applicability to B&C

Control of Water & Moisture

Water Exposure
Composites perform well in water exposed conditions. • Holds water in or keeps water out!
• Does not rot, swell, rust, or spall

Applicability to B&C

Durability

Durability
Composites have very good environmental durability. • Do not swell, warp, rot
• No rust or spalling
• Resistant to animals and insects

Durability
Composites are Extremely Durable
This attribute is welcome during use
Becomes challenging for end-of-life

How do Composites
Support Sustainable
Building Programs?

Composites & Sustainability
Alternative Energy

Pollution Prevention
Applications

Government Initiatives

Green Building
Programs

Weight Reduction

Life Cycle Impacts

Composites & Green Building
Can’t Build the Same Way & Expect a Better Outcome
• Composites have inherent benefits that are of interest to green builders




Durability; Insulation; Low Weight (transportation); Re-Use
Can incorporate bio & recycle content
Can offer material reduction

Composites & Green Building
Composite fabricators are responding to the demand for more sustainable products

Recycle Content

Renewable Content

Renewable &
Recycle Content

Composites & Green Building
Composites products offer functional applicability to green building programs.
Courtesy: Kalwall

Day Lighting

Courtesy: Xerxes Corp

Storm Water Handling

Renewable Energy

How to Learn More?

• Enable the design/build community to:
– Learn about the benefits of composites
– Find case studies of composites used in construction – Easily connect with composite material fabricators & distributors

Choose a case study
To learn more

Learn about a
Product type

Identify General
Material Attributes

Learn about a
Company’s Offering

Find Regional
Suppliers

Connect to a Supplier

Bill Kreysler is a composite industry veteran with more than 30 years of experience in custom fabrication. His firm focuses on composite products for architecture, artists and industrial applications. Extensive experience in coordinating design, engineering, estimating and fabrication tasks to realize a wide variety of objects made of or through the use of composite materials.

compositesandarchitecture.com
Case studies of composites in architecture

• Enable the architectural community to:
– Be inspired by use of composites in applications around the world
– Understand how composites can be used to address architectural challenges
Site maintained by Kreysler & Associates

Horten Headquarters

Cerresco Airport Cladding

Connecting Our Industries
• Compositebuild.com
– Connect design/build industry to composite products and fabricators

• Compositesandarchitecture.com
– Further innovation and inspiration in the world of architecture, design, digital fabrication and composite technology

• ACMAnet.org
– American Composite Manufacturer’s
Association

• ICPA-hq.org
– International Cast Polymer Association

Composites in Architecture
Design
Flexibility

Corrosion
Resistance

Water
Containment

Strength to
Weight

Durability

Composite Materials in
Building and Construction
Applications
Presented by:

Bob Moffit
Sr. Product Manager
Ashland Performance Materials
Presented at:
ACMA’s CORROSION, MINING, INFRASTRUCTURE & ARCHITECTURE CONFERENCE
May 15, 2013 - Denver, CO…...

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