Classical and Operant Conditioning

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By jojolen64
Words 816
Pages 4
Classical and Operant Conditioning
Barbara Moyer
Lori Eyres

Classical conditioning occurs when one learns to associate two different stimuli. Operant conditioning is when a response occurs when one responds to what is presented in their environment and learns from the consequences of actions. The distinction between classical and operant conditioning is with classical there is an association between stimuli and responses. It is based on involuntary reflexive behaviors. With operant, it conditions behavior through reinforcement. It is based on voluntary behavior (p.136). Phobias can be developed through classical conditioning. Phobias are defined as irrational fears and one could come to an understanding of why they may be scared of certain things. If a person has a fear of spiders and encounters one, there may not be anything scary or dangerous about the spider itself as only a small number of spiders are poisonous and really huge ones are usually found in jungles. The fear of the spider may have come from an unfounded fear. For example, as a child the person may have seen a movie about giant dangerous spiders and it scared them. As inaccurate of a depiction as it was, they would still associate spiders with danger whether the spider is dangerous or not. This is how classical conditioning can lead to a phobia. It is said that most common phobias are developed around the age of 10. As well as being triggered by life events, phobias can be influenced by culture and parenting style. Addictions can occur through operant conditioning because this type of learning occurs due to the cause and effect relationship between a behavior and its consequences. If a substance or activity is initially pleasurable or enjoyable, this is when it becomes addictive. Addiction is a learned behavior because the initial pleasure or enjoyment was…...

Similar Documents

Classical Conditioning.

...Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are forms of associative learning. Classical conditioning is defined as a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. In classical conditioning the stimulus triggers the response of an organism. There are four concepts created by Pavlov that give classical conditioning a better understanding. The unconditioned stimulus triggers the unconditioned response. This means that without learning a stimulus can produce any reflex. The Neutral stimulus is a stimulus that does not affect the unconditioned response. The unconditioned stimulus is then paired with the neutral stimulus and presented to the organism. This transforms into a conditioned stimulus. This means that the previous neutral stimulus is presented to the organism it causes an unconditioned response. Whereas operant conditioning is a form of associative learning in which the consequences of a behavior change the probability of the behaviors occurrence. In operant conditioning there is positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement that are both used to increase good behavior. There are also negative reinforcers and negative punishment to decrease bad behavior. These types of learning are part of our everyday lives and many times we fail to notice. Here are some of the examples of classical and operant conditioning that are used in the media. Many ads and commercials......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Operant Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is a type of learning which can explain how we develop fears, phobias and other emotional reactions, and food aversions. Ian Pavlov (1849 – 1936) was the first to study it formally. Pavlov was studying dogs digestive processes. Dogs automatically salivate when food arrives in their mouths, but after being in the experimental situation for a while, they would salivate in anticipation of the food arriving, as if they had learned to recognise the signs that the food was on its way. Pavlov took control of these signs and showed that dogs could be trained to salivate to bells, lights, and cardboard shapes instead of food. The classical conditioning process works like this: There must first of all be an innate reflex action, an automatic involuntary response to a stimulus. E.g. blinking, salivation, startle, these are the areas that are under the control of the autonomic nervous system. Such reflexes consist of an unconditional stimulus (UCS) which brings about an unconditional response.(UCR) The experimenter presents a neutral stimulus just before or along with the UCS. The new stimulus is called a conditioned stimulus (CS), Conditional means dependent upon learning. The UCR occurs as before. After several pairings of the CS and UCS the CS alone will be enough to bring about the UCR. The animal now has a new conditioned reflex. The model gives us an explanation for all kinds of learned behaviour. Watson and Rayner (1920)......

Words: 4775 - Pages: 20

Investigating the Affect of Classical and Operant Conditioning on the Behaviour of a Sample of Rats

...INVESTIGATING THE AFFECT OF CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF A SAMPLE OF RATS ABSTRACT This study investigated how different training sessions affected the behaviour of the common lab rat. It was hypothesised that the training, held within an operant chamber using classical and operant conditioning, would result in an observed change in behaviour of the rats. Results showed that the frequency of certain behaviours changed in direct response to the different training sessions conducted. These results supported the hypothesis. INTRODUCTION Humans live in close proximity to animals and depend on a wide range of species for work, research, food and fibre, entertainment, sport or as companions. By understanding how they learn and respond to reinforcement enables us to train them for desirable behaviour e.g. customs dogs trained to detect drugs, research animals trained to co-operate with handling or house-training a pet dog. Learning can be brought about in various ways, including classical and operant conditioning. The formation of an association between two stimuli is referred to as classical conditioning, a theory discovered in 1891 by the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov (Staddon and Cerutti 2003). Classical conditioning has been successful in a wide range of species and response systems and is thought to be an adaptive trait in the natural environment (Domjan 2005). In contrast, operant conditioning, a theory conceived by B. F. Skinner in 1937,...

Words: 1883 - Pages: 8

Classical Conditioning

...In order to fully comprehend classical and operant conditioning , first we need to understand what exactly behaviourism is and what it focuses on. This essay will outline behaviourism and look at the explanations for how we learn, these include classical and operant conditioning. Both learning methods have several practical applications used to treat people, these will also be discussed. Behaviourist’s believe that when you are born your mind is blank and behaviorism focuses on learning based on the concept that all actions are acquired through conditioning processes. John Watson who was considered “the father of behavioursim”, argued that conditioning occurred through interaction with the environment and our responses to the environmental stimuli shape our behaviours. Conditioning can be separated into two types, classical and operant. Classical Conditioning is defined as the conditioning of reflexes so that they occur in response to new situations. It was first discovered by Ivan Pavlov when he was working on dogs, studying their digestive systems. He noted that the dogs produced saliva when a bell(auditory stimulus) and food (unconditioned stimulus) were presented together. Eventually the bell alone(conditioned stimulus) would come to evoke the salivating response(conditioned response) . The link between the saliva and the bell is defined as conditioned stimulus and response because the dogs were conditioned to associate the bell with receiving the food. However if......

Words: 706 - Pages: 3

Classical Conditioning

...Running Head: CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Generalisation & Discrimination Are Characteristics of Classical Conditioning- An Evolutionary Perspective [Name of the Student] [Name of the Institution] Generalisation & Discrimination Are Characteristics of Classical Conditioning- An Evolutionary Perspective Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning also called respondent conditioning; packaging type I or Pavlovian conditioning is a concept of behaviourism proposed by Ivan Pavlov in the early twentieth century. This theory focuses on the learning achievements due to the association between stimuli of the environment and automatic reactions in the body. This notion of involuntary reaction is the main point that differentiates the operant conditioning. It is a learning theory that states that a natural, mostly innate, unconditioned reflex can be added by learning a new conditioned reflex. The assumptions and techniques of classical conditioning can also be used to treat anxiety, compulsive behaviours or anxiety-like symptoms. From the classical conditioning, the concerns triggered behaviours that are instrumental and operant; conditioning to distinguish that affect spontaneous behaviour (Clark & Squire, 2008, pp. 77-81). Phenomena Associated With Classical Conditioning ← Generalization: The conditional response (CR) is not only obtained with a specific stimulus, but with elements that have some resemblance to the conditioned stimulus (CS). The......

Words: 1402 - Pages: 6

Operant and Classical Conditioning

...maintenance of anxiety than do genes (Eley, 2001). The principles of operant conditioning have taught us to recognize how certain coping techniques can reward, and therefore continue anxiety disorders. Two similar coping strategies for dealing with anxiety symptoms are called avoidance and escape. For more information about coping strategies, please review this section. As the name implies, avoidance refers to behaviors that attempt to prevent exposure to a fear-provoking stimulus. Escape means to quickly exit a fear-provoking situation. These coping strategies are considered maladaptive because they ultimately serve to maintain the disorder and decrease functioning. Operant conditioning enables us to understand the powerful impact of these two coping strategies. Both coping strategies are highly reinforcing because they remove or diminish the unpleasant symptoms. Unfortunately, they do nothing to prevent the symptoms from re-occurring again and again in the future. In 1947, O. Hobart Mowrer proposed his two-factor theory of avoidance learning to explain the development and maintenance of phobias. Mowrer's two-factor theory combined the learning principles of classical and operant conditioning. Based upon the principles of classical conditioning, it was assumed that phobias develop as a result of a paired association between a neutral stimulus and feared stimulus. However, classical learning theory could not explain the continuation of avoidance and......

Words: 1987 - Pages: 8

Operant Conditioning

...The Principles of Operant Conditioning and Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Operant conditioning involves operant behavior-responses that an organism makes to produce an effect on the environment. The concept of operant conditioning was introduced in 1938 by B.F. Skinner. The principles of operant conditioning can be used to modify an existing behavior, either an undesirable behavior that you would like to eliminate or a desirable behavior that you would like to strengthen. The desirable behavior that I have decided to strengthen is the regularity of which I exercise. I will generate a plausible explanation for why the problem exists, describe one reason why I want to change the behavior, and provide one benefit that the change will bring. To conclude part A of my assignment, I will provide a carefully designed program for strengthening the behavior, making sure to include all relevant conditioning principles incorporated within my plan; which will include the use of positive and negative re-enforcers, and shaping. In part B, I will design a series of test items that would indicate the difference intelligences according to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences. I will provide one original of how you would test each of the eight differences. Howard Gardner developed a theory of multiple intelligences in (1983, 2004) according to Gardner there are eight different types of intelligence. Each of the eight intelligence......

Words: 1076 - Pages: 5

Classical and Operant Conditioning

...Classical and Operant Conditioning BEH/225 Ah’Nonda Bates March 28, 2014 Classical and Operant Conditioning Two behavior modification techniques important to behavioral psychology are classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both types of learning processes, but each with different focuses. Classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov. Ivan Pavlov contributed to the world of psychology through his study of behaviorism. His development of classical conditioning began through his experiments known as Pavlov’s Dogs. In these experiments, Pavlov studied classical conditioning, learning through association between environmental stimulus and natural occurring stimulus. Classical conditioning included four main principles: the unconditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response. An example of this type of learning process would be a person’s reaction to a cold medicine. The subject drinks the cold medicine and immediately becomes sick to their stomach and vomits due to having the flu. Over time, the subject becomes nauseated just at the sight of the cold medicine. The flu is the unconditioned stimulus, vomiting is the unconditioned response, the cold medicine is the controlled stimulus, and the nausea is the controlled response. Operant conditioning is a learning process that was developed by B.F. Skinner. B.F. Skinner also contributed......

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

Operant Conditioning

...Operant Conditioning Paper Operant conditioning is very common in society today. Most people are unaware that they are using it throughout their everyday encounters. There are many different ways to enforce operant conditioning. In this paper we will describe the theory of operant conditioning, compare and contrast positive and negative reinforcement, determine which form of reinforcement is most effective and why, select a scenario where you could apply operant conditioning to shape behavior, and create a reinforcement schedule for the selected behavior. Many people go throughout their lifetime applying psychological concepts such as operant conditioning and they are completely unaware of it. Operant conditioning is simply a method used to enforce punishment and reward to achieve a certain behavior. B.F Skinner was the famous behaviorist that believed this form of conditioning was the most successful. If you ever had a dog from the beginning stages of its life you know that training a puppy is a lot of work. In order to do so successfully, you would need to shape the puppies behavior using a punishment or reward method in order to housebreak the puppy. If you wanted the puppy to never jump on the couch, every time the puppy did you could enforce a reward or punishment to achieve that wanted behavior. By doing this, you would be using operant conditioning (Cherry, 2014). When applying operant conditioning, you have a choice of using positive or negative reinforcement.......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Classical and Operant Conditioning

...relationship between classical and operant conditioning. Explain their elements and how they differ from one another. Additionally, provide an example for how learning can occur through each mode of conditioning. Explain how Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner contributed to the study of learning and conditioning. Classical and operant conditioning are important concepts to behavior psychology. While both result in learning, the processes are different. The elements of classical condition are neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, and conditioned response, while the elements of operant conditioning are reinforcement and punishment. Reinforcement following a behavior will cause the behavior to increase, but if behavior is followed by punishment the behavior will decrease. Ivan Pavlov was a Russian physiologist who was interested in behavior. Pavlov theorized what is called classical conditioning. The most prominent figure in the development and study of Operant Conditioning was B. F. Skinner. Skinner theorized what is called operant conditioning. One of the simplest ways to remember the differences between classical and operant conditioning is to focus on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary. Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence. In operant......

Words: 560 - Pages: 3

Compare and Constrast Classical and Operant Conditioning

...Compare and contrast classical and operant conditioning, their theories, terminology, famous psychologists and applications of the theory for teaching. Classical and operant conditioning are two important concepts central to behavioral psychology. While both result in learning, the processes are quite different. In order to understand how each of these behavior modification techniques can be used, it is also essential to understand how classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ from one another. Both classical and operant learning are psychological processes that lead to learning. Here learning refers to the process by which changes in behavior, including actions, emotions, thoughts, and the responses of muscles and glands, results from experience or practice. Classical conditioning was first described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist. Classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior via the process of association. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. Pavlov famous experiment was with dogs. Ivan Pavlov noticed dogs began to salivate in response to a tone after the sound had been repeatedly paired with the presentation of food. Pavlov quickly realized that this was a learned response and set out to further investigate the conditioning process. Classical conditioning involves placing a neutral stimulus before a reflex (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus...

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Operant Conditioning

...Operant conditioning is defined in our text book as “behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli (Myers, 275). Vina smokes cigarettes to help reduce her feelings of tension and anxiety; her feelings of tension and anxiety were most likely her negative stimuli causing her to want to get rid of them. Smoking which for her, causes those unwanted feeling to disappear was her negative reinforcer. Although Vina may know that smoking has a negative effect on her health, it may not be enough to make her discontinue the bad habit. Vina’s reinforcement to her habit is most likely conditioned. Assuming that she tried other things to help lessen her anxiety and tension, after trying cigarettes for the first time she realized that almost instantly her negative stimuli seemed to have disappeared; causing her to want to continue the behavior that removed her negative emotions. As long as she continues to smoke she won’t feel tension or anxiety. This also explains how her addiction to cigarettes is negative reinforcement. Tension and anxiety are the stimuli that trigger her need or want for a cigarette, once she finally smokes those feelings are removed. In continuation to operant conditioning, her reinforcement can also be explained as immediate. The feeling of tension and anxiety can be intense for some people, although it is not explained to what extent Vina’s feelings of tension and anxiety are it is safe to say that she does not like feeling......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2

Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning

...have to learn. One form of learning is known as conditioning. Conditioning emphasizes the relationship between stimuli and responses. The two types of conditioning found are Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning. Learning may occur in different ways. Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another, previously a neutral stimulus (Franzoi, 2010). However, reflexes must be manipulated. The term "unconditioned" simply means that the stimulus and the response are naturally connected and produces an emotional response already present before changes have been made (Franzoi, 2010). Operant conditioning is a learning method in which behavior is increased or decreased by the use of reinforcement or punishment. Operant conditioning deals with more cognitive thought process. There are two types of reinforcements: positive reinforcements and negative reinforcements. There are four components of classical conditioning. They are unconditional stimulus – stimulus that naturally elicit the target response (the meat powder in Pavlov’s experiment); conditioned stimulus – stimulus that comes to elicit the target response (the tone in Pavlov’s experiment); unconditioned response – occurs as a result of the unconditioned stimulus and conditioned response – occurs in response to the conditional stimulus (Hall, 1998). The components of operant conditioning are reinforcement (positive and negative)......

Words: 656 - Pages: 3

Classical Conditioning

...Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning, created by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, is a theory based on experiments performed on dogs. Classical conditioning is a way to explain how some of a person’s behavior is learned. This theory also offers the possibility to change a previously learned behavior and modify that behavior. Classical conditioning also teaches new behaviors such as training a dog new tricks or potty training toddlers. Classical conditioning changed how science viewed behavior and that any behavior can be changed or modified. Classical Conditioning Theory Pavlov theory of classical conditioning began when he was studying the condition of reflex at the age of fifty (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009). During Pavlov’s reflex experements, he discovered that the dogs would begin salivating at the sight of food. Pavlov named this occurance the “psychic” relfex (Olson & Hergenhahn 2009). By using the dog’s response of salivating to the presentation of food, Pavlov created the classical conditioning theory. He noticed that when it was time for the dog to eat, he would begin salivating. Pavlov began a new experiment by introducing the sound of a bell before the dog was given his food. After some time, the dog began to salivate at the sound of the bell and not the sight or smell of the food. A conditioned response was formed when the dog began salivating at the sound of the bell. Before the conditioning, the dog would only salivate at the sight of food. The......

Words: 1167 - Pages: 5

Classical Conditioning

...Identifying classical conditioning in life situations and biblical situations Chrystal Walker Liberty University Classical conditioning in life and biblical situations Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events (David Myers, comp Psychology 10th. Holland, Michigan: worth publishers, 2010.p268). Classical conditioning brings me to a time when my dad got me to take my cold medicine for a cold that I acquired from playing in the rain. Our normal family doctor was away on vacation, so my aunt suggested her children’s doctor. The doctor asked me what flavor of medicine I wanted; his options were bubble gum, cherry, and licorice. At that time and age I had no idea what licorice was, so I chose it.The doctor came back in with the medicine he gave it to my father and told him to give it to me every four to eight hours, and he could give me some right now as well. As the spoon got closer to my face I could smell the stench of rotten eggs. I guess my dad saw the look on my face and quickly shoved the spoon into my mouth.My eyes watered a lot and then came the vomit all over the place.From that day on licorice was not my friend. Comparing my experience with Ivan Pavlov’s experiments, I now know that my experience was a common case of classical conditioning. The neutral stimulus or (NS) was the doctor that my aunt suggested, because I had no......

Words: 414 - Pages: 2