Cities

In: Other Topics

Submitted By tomieoladeji
Words 555
Pages 3
Name: Oladeji Oluwatomisin
Student number: 999929323
Course code: GGR 207
Instructor: Dr. Jason Cooke
September 29th 2014
Topic: What is a City?

There are various ways to define a city either it be from a historical, contemporary, administrative or economic viewpoint. For the purpose of this analysis, a city is defined as a large permanent settlement, which is usually dense and highly populated relative to rural villages and towns, and they are made up of heterogeneous people. As recently as a hundred years ago, only 2 in 10 people lived in cities, but now we have 54% of the world population living in cities or urban areas. The history of cities date back to the time hunter-gatherers roamed the earth. After a few years, this led to semi permanent settlements, and with the invention of irrigation, this led to specialization of other areas and the development of cities as settlements became permanent. As more jobs and opportunities became available in cities, people from the villages moved to the cities, and this accounts for the dense characteristic of most cities.
The first cities are thought to have started around 3500BC in lower Mesopotamia after the Neolithic revolution or the agricultural revolution, as agriculture is believed to be a pre requisite for city development. Urbanism can be described as the way cities grow or develop. There are various characteristics of a city; some include population size and density, social stratification, economic production and consumption, diversity of people, urban areas, center of administration, social networks and it is central to modern life.
A major characteristic used to describe a city is the population size. Population size sets the distinction between what is classified as a big city or a small one. The developed world had the bulk of the biggest cities in the past, but now most cities in the…...

Similar Documents

City Council

...What if Texas appointed students to city councils? What qualifications should a student have in order to be appointed to a city council? If a city has a youth commission, should the city council select only from a list of candidates approved by the commission when appointing a student to the council? If the youth commission and the student appointed to serve of the city council disagree on a proposed ordinance, which perspective should the city council weigh more heavily? If Texas appointed students to city council, there should be things taken into consideration, the biggest concern would be that this recommended choice may simply be the student who was able to win the popularity contest. The city council should consider the recommended candidate but should also ensure that the new appointee has the appropriate oral and written communication skills, as well as the minimum necessary education that would provide a fundamental understanding of city government and how a city operates. A student would need to be responsible, intelligent, logical, willing to make decisions that are good for the entire city's residents, and he/she must be able to withstand long meetings. The Youth Commission should have some effect on who is appointed to the Council to represent the youth, it would also make sense to limit the student to a term of office, after which the youth commission could select another one or renew their term. It might also be wise to allow the Youth Commission to recall a......

Words: 330 - Pages: 2

Small City of Big City

...With the increased standard of living, people pay more attention their quality of living. Some people believe that living in a big city has more advantages than living in the country side while others think differently. For me, I prefer living in a big city. Living in a quiet country side has several advantages. People benefit from clear air, tranquil atmosphere, less traffic and beautiful scene. In addition, people who live in small towns look out each other. This makes them feel secure. Moreover, crime rates are much less than big cities. People are comfortable leaving their doors unlocked. However, living in a metropolitan city has many more advantages. Firstly, many job opportunities are available as there are many companies, banks, offices and international companies. Secondly, there are many facilities and amenities for individuals. Publics amenities will provide services such as sports, arts and computer lessons with very low fee due to government supported programs. In addition, medical facilities and emergency systems are easily assessable when individuals live in big cities. Thirdly, people can have more choices when they buy necessities because there are numerous malls around their neighbourhood. They often buy the same material at a lower price due to bargain sales going on. Fourthly, transportation is extremely important in the modern society, but there are no public transportation systems in small towns, so individuals always use their own......

Words: 346 - Pages: 2

Image of the City

...IMAGE OF THE CITY KEVIN LYNCH Lynch influenced the field of city planning through his work on the theory of city form, and studies relating to human perceptions of the city y y , g p p y on the perception of the city environment and its consequences for city design. Lynch says "Looking at cities can give a special pleasure, however y y g g p p , commonplace the sight may be. Like a piece of architecture, the city is a construction in space, but of a vast scale, . . . perceived only in the course of long spans of time . . . At every instant, there is more than the eye can see, more than the ear can hear, a setting or view waiting to be explored. , , g g p Nothing is experienced by itself, but always in relation to its surroundings, the sequences of events leading up to it, the memory of past experiences . . . Every citizen has had long associations with some part of his city, and his image is soaked in memories and meanings . . . “ g g Theory of Kevin L h K i Lynch IMAGE OF THE CITY KEVIN LYNCH Image of the city 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Image of the Environment Three cities The city Image and Its elements City Form A new Scale Book contents Appendices 1. 1 Some references to orientation 2. The Use of the methodology 3. Two examples of analysis IMAGE OF THE CITY KEVIN LYNCH Methodology of working: Make visual plan Analyze the existing form and public image of the area. Understand the critical problems, opportunities and image elements and use......

Words: 1627 - Pages: 7

The City of Antipolo

...THE CITY OF ANTIPOLO (Informative) The city of Antipolo is located in the province of Rizal, Philippines. It is the largest city in the CALABARZON Region. It is also the seventh most populous city in the country consist of sixteen barangays with a population of 677,741 in 2010. The city was named to a tree typically named tipolo tree. Antipolo is landlocked, bounded to the north by San Mateo and Rodriguez, to the east by Tanay, to the south by Angono, Taytay and Teresa, and to the west by Cainta and Marikina City in Metro Manila. The city was known as the "Pilgrimage Capital of the Philippines.” The Old Boso-boso church is one of the historical church that was built by the Franciscan Missionaries and the Antipolo church that was one of the most popular among tourists. The image now known as the Virgin of Antipolo was brought a following of devotees. Devotees from Manila and nearby towns and provinces are trekking going to its shrine on the eves of Good Friday and May 1. Some devotees would begin the trek from Quiapo Church in Downtown Manila following the procession of the image. There is also an existing custom to have new cars blessed at the church in the belief that this will ensure the safety of the car and its passengers. Its higher elevation than that of Metro Manila affords it a scenic view of the metropolis, especially at night. Its locally grown mangoes and cashews are popular among tourists, as well as suman. The Hinulugang Taktak National Park, which......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

Shadow Cities

...anything one might desire. However, in Robert Neuwirth's book "Shadow Cities" readers are introduced to multiple people groups, more commonly known as "squatters", who's lifestyles and beliefs challenge what many might consider the good life as generally accepted by members of Western civilization. As Neuwirth takes us from Rocinha, Rio De Janeiro to Istanbul the reader is continuously faced with the same three issues plaguing our world: the fact that the worlds population is steadily increasing at an alarming rate, that everyone must have a place to live and that housing costs and must be lowered in order to provide the amount of houses necessary to sustain our world's growing population (Neuwirth xiii). In this paper I will seek to summarize Neuwirth's book, "Shadow Cities", beginning with a brief history of the squatter community. When comparing past and present examples of squatter communities Neuwirth begins by noting that, "very little has changed since the Middle Ages. The barracks of Rocinha, the mud huts of Kibera, the wooden shanties of Behrampada, or the original Gecekondu houses in Sarigazi are not far removed the dwellings that were common centuries ago in Europe and North America." With very little difference between communities of the past and present it becomes apparent that squatters have existed since the beginning of civilization. Neuwirth argues this point by pointing out that, "the history of cities teaches that squatters have always been around, that......

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

City of Kelsey

...* Sheldon Rowland * Profile of Kelsey * The city of Kelsey prides itself on history, controlled growth and being aesthetically pleasing. City managers have contracted what they describe as “top builders” to erect commercial and residential properties. Kelsey’s founders witnessed and preserved the rolling hill views, nearby pristine lake, and fields for agriculture. As the population swells to over 600,000, city planners work to preserve the old fashioned, small town feel of Kelsey. People living in Kelsey can appreciate the agriculture history and preservation manifested by the organic gardens throughout the city. Agriculture also serves as a symbol for work ethic and self-sustainability which is a community value. Business thrives throughout the city as residents work in a similar fashion to their city forefathers. Support and services are offered throughout the city, however each unit is budgeted and strictly monitored to avoid deficits and long term debt. City employees, such as policeman and firefighters, recently increased their contributions to their healthcare and retirement benefits to help the city remain financially strong (2013). Each resident is equally responsible for funding the city via a consumption or sales tax. Kelsey has also preserved a portion of the downtown area, and labeled it “historic.” Although population has risen, the city and residents value the small town attractiveness of Kelsey. A benefit of residents working to preserve the...

Words: 457 - Pages: 2

City

...World War II, the land became valuable to developers who wanted to build homes. To meet this pressure, the City of Dairy Valley was incorporated in 1956. Dairy Valley later became the city of Cerritos. The demand for land became so great that the dairymen sold their dairies and moved their operations to the east in Chino and to Central California.”("The official artesia," ) “The Artesia Water Tower, the familiar inactive water storage tank located on Clarkdale Avenue just south of 183rd Street, has been a familiar site for citizens of Artesia for many years. However, little is known of its active past or when it was actually constructed. In an attempt to declare the Tower a Historical Landmark the City is asking citizens who may have information to share about its past, or have dated pictures of the tower to come forward. The Tower, which can store up to 50,000 gallons of water, was once owned by the Southern California Water Company, and was sold to the City of Artesia as an inactive water storage facility in 1988. The tower was purchased by the City to be used only as a point of historical interest, and to provide a special identity to the community. When the City of Artesia purchased the tower, the then green tower was quickly painted to its current color with the addition of the name Artesia painted on two sides.” ("The official artesia," ) “Every two months the City of Artesia publishes a community newsletter called the  Artesian. In each issue page 4 is reserved......

Words: 796 - Pages: 4

Cities

...signature store in Brooklyn, NY. I believe that hydroponic farming can be the key to creating a city with a natural eco-system that produces food for local consumption while conserving energy and water, recycling waste and reducing carbon footprint. The chart on the left side displays the difference between a terminal market and a farmers market in terms of how far food travels. And as can be seen, farmers market sources its food locally, while terminal market uses the conventional supply chain. The difference is almost ten folds. Meaning local food requires 10x less energy, less fossil fuel consumption and less human capital. Source: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture. Data: U.S. Department of Agriculture As all the research points out to, the population increase will majorly happen in large cities. On this basis, the leaders of the world must start to act upon this awaited population change. The way we supply our food is damaging the environment and our future on earth; and it needs to change. It is vital that we start shifting medium to large scale cities into sustainable cities. The opportunities are endless. Cities must start incorporating solar PV, thermal solar and passive solar systems for electricity generation, water heating and HVAC heating respectively. Incorporating urban farms into the food supply chain, educating the under privileged demographics of cities to be employed in these farms will help solve demographical problems as well as help......

Words: 874 - Pages: 4

Is the City of Guatemala a City?

...un resultado reciente, es una asociación de personas libres que dan identidad (a través del tiempo) y funcionamiento colectivo para que sus habitantes vivan, ofertando bienes y servicios. La ciudad se convirtió en un centro de aglomeración humana y dinámica en donde las ideas, el trabajo y el libre mercado, accionan a cada individuo a actuar. Por lo tanto, se hace un especial énfasis en que este espacio es un invento del hombre libre, no una organización impuesta. Donde se entiende como organización impuesta, el gobierno y que la libertad y derecho a la propiedad privada son factores fundamentales para suplir las necesidades de los habitantes. Además, factores importantes como lo menciona Edward Glaeser en su libro “Triumph of the City’’, capital humano sobre las estructuras, interacción humana, innovación, creatividad y educación hacen que una ciudad sea prospera, para que sus habitantes tengan una “buena vida”. Las ciudades en su principio no fueron planificadas. Estas surgieron y evolucionaron por la necesidad del hombre de convivir en sociedad y de hacer uso del conocimiento de los demás sin siquiera saberlo. Es por esto que se puede afirmar que en una ciudad existe un verdadero orden natural; en lucha constante para existir y ser servido: oferta y demanda. Es importante aclarar que el orden espontáneo de una ciudad no se refiera a dejar que la ciudad trabaje por sí sola. Significa que para que la ciudad funcione, la liberta debe existir y que cada......

Words: 2256 - Pages: 10

City Doc

...Seabreeze is a fictional, midsize city in southern California. Once prosperous due to its enviable location on the coastline, the city has undergone a change in fortune. The city has experienced several consecutive years of decreasing revenues. The once-burgeoning real estate market in Seabreeze has contracted significantly, resulting in a decline in property tax revenues for the city. The disappearance of most people’s discretionary spending income has resulted in less retail and tourism activity, which translates into less sales tax revenue. On top of these direct hits to the bottom line, the California Legislature has passed a bill requiring cities to transfer 20% of their gross property tax revenues to the state to offset a very large budget deficit. Because of these drastic reductions in revenue, the city is now looking for opportunities to cut costs in all operational segments. You are the IT director for the city of Seabreeze. The city manager asked you to identify where the elimination, replacement, or addition of technology would result in a cost savings to the city. After investigating a number of potential options, you have determined that the initiative with the greatest savings would be the virtualization of the city’s physical server environment, which consists of 72 servers; the storage environment, which consists solely of direct-attached storage (DAS); and the desktop computer environment, which consists of 350 end-user computers. You now face several......

Words: 1322 - Pages: 6

City of Poway

...…………………………………….…………………3 City of Poway- Overview………..……………………………………………...4 Part 1- Budget Analysis…………..………………………………………….....5 Budget Analysis-General Fund...………………………………………….……8 Budget Analysis- Community Services Department……..………….………...10 Part 2- CAFR Analysis……………………………………………………........13 CAFR & Budget Comparison………………………………………………….16 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………..20 References……………………………………………………………………..21 Introduction In a season of major economic crisis, the municipal sector is facing financial pressures similar to that of large corporations. Many cash-strapped cities have fallen victim to the raging economic downturn. As a result, an instinctive recourse has become one of survival. As budgetary spending is put to the knife, the priority becomes: safeguard cash, cut spending, and minimize costs as much as possible. The municipal sector will collectively face a $56 billion to $83 billion budget gap through 2012, due to declining tax revenues, cuts in state services, and increased service demands, according to the National League of Cities [this is a great intro, putting the city in context; would be good to have a citation here and include the source in the references]. State and local governments face serious trouble because of the recession. A renewed focus will need to be placed towards value optimization even in the face of budgetary restrictions. The city should ask,” How......

Words: 3726 - Pages: 15

City

...Jerran K. McClenton November 2015 AJS/514 City Demographics and Crime Profile Social learning theory considers the formation of an individual’s identity to be a learned response to what a person has been raised around or adapted to. In Memphis, Tennessee, many people within this state are influenced to criminal behavior at a very young age. According to WREG Memphis Channel 3 news, Memphis was only just ranked below Detroit and Oakland, California, but the Chair of the Crime Commission Ben Adams said he isn't sure how accurate the rankings are. Cordarro Vaughn's a lifelong Memphian, and he was anything but surprised when he heard the FBI labeled Memphis the third most dangerous city in the country (Rufener,Katie, 2015). When we talk about events or attitudes to a explanation of beliefs people reside in Memphis, Tennessee would accept for explaining criminal behavior, it points out the general connection of socialization opposed to the individual mindset. The social learning theory believes that an individual’s identity is not the product of the unconscious, but instead is the result of modeling oneself in response to the expectations of others. Behaviors and attitudes develop in response to reinforcement and give hope to the people around them. While social learning theorists acknowledge that childhood experience is important, they also believe that the identity people is formed by the behaviors and attitudes of others. Another factor that contributes to Memphis......

Words: 788 - Pages: 4

Cities

...complex ones in cities. However, cities are where the action is. Therefore, new subfield of anthropology emerged, urban anthropology, emphasizing issues of the cities in undeveloped and industrialized countries. This might be due to the reason that anthropology aspires to study universals and wider perspective of human condition. And also cities represent a ‘gateway; to fieldwork which mainly takes place in towns, peasants villages, rural areas etc. Gateway, not just in a physical sense of airports, train & bus stations, but also in sense of communication, expertise (universities, academics etc.), government etc. Although, to interpret issues of cities, the slums, & shanty towns can be done only in terms of forces which lead people to migrate from the countryside. 1. There are a lot of questions studied by both anthropologists and sociologists related to comparative studies of cities and understanding human ways. These phenomena are those of comparison of urban experience in underdeveloped countries. For instance, issues like kinship ties and stresses of urban life and its effects of crowding on aggression and frustration. Thus Anderson argues, on this topic, that due to cultural ways of dealing with crowding the pathological effects on urban Chinese living in Hong Kong are minimized. More importantly, Gideon Sjoberg, created so-called idealized model of the preindustrial cities, in other words, cities of antiquity. One can say that ancient’s city was of......

Words: 832 - Pages: 4

Smart City

... Five ICT Essentials for Smart Cities A Whitepaper for Business Executive Summary More than half of the population of the Earth now live in urban areas (United Nations, 2012). Modern cities face many challenges and opportunities because of this. The challenges range from providing a good quality of life for citizens to ensuring appropriate socio-economic development year on year, while the opportunities can be seen in businesses becoming more efficient and innovative, to the reduction of crime through the use of ICTs in policing. The concept of making cities “smart” has grown out of the need for cities to meet these challenges and opportunities. Based on an analysis of the literature on Smart Cities1, Future Internet2 and Open Living Labs3, this paper examines, from the perspective of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) usage, what the essential components are for making a city “smart”. It outlines five essential ICT elements that cities need to acquire or develop on their path to becoming smarter. The paper then comments on the non-material essentials that also make up a good ICT strategy for smart cities. It argues that along with the five ICT essentials outlined in this paper, cities must develop sustainable partnerships and cooperation strategies among main stakeholders to ensure the effective sharing of common city resources among citizens and businesses. If this is achieved, urban and regional innovation ecosystems can develop, in turn,......

Words: 4212 - Pages: 17

Resilient City

...Elizabeth Kiem Resilient Cities What makes a city resilient? When the word resilience comes to mind I think of ones ability to bounce back. In the case of matching resilient up with a city I wasn’t quite sure what exactly goes into a city being qualified to earn that adjective. After navigating around the Building Resilient Regions Website and viewing what they do and how they do it, I found myself looking at their resilience capacity index. This index ranks over 300 U.S. cities on how it recovers from stress. Ultimately a cities stress is a mixture of how well it can handle natural disasters, economic decline, and rapid growth. It can be summarized as a cities ability to adapt and transform. When looking at the index the top ranked cities was not what I expected. I decided to see just how resilient one of my favorite cities to go to is; Seattle, Washington. I picked Seattle because I love to visit there. Being from Arizona I love the change of scenery. Cool, rainy, and gray is a nice getaway from scorching and dry. I also have family there so it’s a city close to my heart. I have never thought about its resiliency so after I learn more the next time I go there I can see first hand what needs to be done or what it already doing. Seattle is the largest city in Washington and located between Lake Washington and an inlet of the Pacific Ocean called the Puget Sound. Seattle’s population is over 600,000 people. Seattle is hilly and has wet winters and dry summers. In......

Words: 1059 - Pages: 5