Chem Lab Report

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By sarasaraf
Words 758
Pages 4
SARA SARAFZADEH MS. RASSIAN
IB

EXPERIMENT
DETERMINATION OF CALCIUM CARBONATE CONTENT IN AN EGGSHELL

INTRODUCTION Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world, and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime, and is created when Ca ions in hard water react with carbonate ions creating lime scale. It is commonly used medicinally as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous. To avoid the breakage of eggs before reaching market, the eggshells needs to be as strong as possible. The strength of eggshells is mainly determined by the percentage of calcium carbonate in it. In order to monitor the quality of eggshells, the following experiment has to be done to determine the percentage of calcium carbonate in eggshells. In this experiment, back titration is used. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the percentage by mass of calcium carbonate in eggshells.

OBJECTIVES To determine the calcium carbonate content in an eggshell. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS Pipet, buret, Erlenmeyer flask, graduated cylinder, hot plate.
Reagents: Hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and phenolphthalein.

PROCEDURE The weighed eggshell was placed into a beaker and 30mL of previously standardized HCl was added into it. The mixture was warmed for 25 minutes using hot plate until all the bubbles was…...

Similar Documents

Chem Lab

...I want to be able to support my family the best as possible, yet I also want to see myself loving what I do everyday and not get tired of it. In Lab #1 it was a recap of math skills that are crucial for the basis of general Chemistry. This particular lab we touched base on the rules of significant figures in calculating different formulas. Also, rounding numbers plays an important role in your calculations as well. In a certain situation not rounding correctly could easily lead you to an error in accuracy. Therefore, these calculation skills are, and will be, the rock of my foundation pertaining to my degree. In Lab #2, we strived to develop the proper techniques for making accurate measurements with the equipment. As the lab progresses we become more familiar with the equipment we used. Another portion of this lab was to calculate the density of the given values of mass and volume, which means you have to apply significant figures as well as rounding. Lab #2 is beneficial in many different ways. For example, if you wanted to transfer a substance of 10mL there are several equipment pieces you could use, such as a pipet or a graduated cylinder. For this reason, you need to be aware of the type of measuring devices you will need because this can impact the accuracy and precision of the outcome of the data taken. In Lab #6 we established the relative reactivity of a set of common metals and to set up oxidation-reduction reactions. The metals we used can be ranked......

Words: 1320 - Pages: 6

Chem Lab

...Abstract In this lab, we synthesize three types of polymers including the Nylon 6,10. During the process, observations of the physical characteristics and appearance are taken. Subsequently, these properties are discussed and related to the structure of the reactants used, and the products formed. Lab 1 Report Condensation polymers are the type of polymers formed through condensation reactions, in which molecules join together with the release of small products such as water and methanol. Condensation polymerization plays an important role in our lives since many of the products we use and rely on are prepared through these reactions. Our choice of polymer-based products in our lives depends on the properties of the polymers and the way we want to utilize them. Therefore, it became necessary to have the techniques and the knowledge of how to produce polymers with the specific properties needed for ultimate performance. In this lab, we prepare a variety of polymers and observe their properties. After that, a discussion is made of the reasons behind the differences in their characteristics. We began the procedure by choosing between reacting either ethylene glycol or glycerin with phthalic anhydride. Our group had the choice of glycerin. We added 1.00 g of phthalic anhydride into a test tube. 50 mg of sodium acetate was added to the tube as a catalyst. Then we added 0.4 ml of glycerin to the mixture to start the reaction. The test tube was heated using an......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Chem Lab

...Chemistry Lab 12/10/11 PURPOSE The purpose of this lab is to see the physical and chemical properties of gases and to be able to use these properties to identify these gases. PROCEDURE To start I diluted 6M HCl by pouring 6ml of distilled water in a graduated cylinder. I added drop by drop 3ml of HCl directly from the bottle. The mixture was mixed well and the diluted 9ml solution was added to the test tube. Hydrogen: I placed a place of Zn metal in the test tube with the diluted solution. I then capped the test tube with a rubber stopper with a short, straight plastic gas delivery tube through the center. The test tube was then placed into one of the wells on the well plate. The test tube had to be upright so it was necessary to wrap the tube with a piece of paper towel to hold it into place. Reaction was observed and recorded. A pipette bulb was filled with water and placed on top of the test tube’s gas delivery tube. The well plate with the test tube was placed in the tin while the gas displaced some of the water. When the water in the pipette was completely replaced by the gas I quickly removed it and placed my finger over the opening to prevent any gas from escaping. I lit a match and gently squeezed out some of the gas and observed and recorded the reaction. I then took a marker and marked 3 equal parts on the pipette. The pipette was again filled with water and placed on the gas generation tube like previously. When the bulb was 2/3 filled with...

Words: 1390 - Pages: 6

Chem Lab Report

...Dilute each solution to the mark with deionized water and mix thoroughly. Crush Calcium tablet to powder using mortar and pestle Weigh 0.30 g of Calcium tablet powder into a 100-mL beaker. Dissolve6 M HCl until solution stops fizzing. Add 50 mL of DI water and boil off excess CO2, neutralize, filter into volumetric flask and dilute to the mark. Mix thoroughly. Use a 2.0-mL volumetric pipette to transfer 2.0mL of unknown calcium tablet solution into a 100.0-mL volumetric flask. Add 10.0mL of KCl solution. Then dilute to the mark and mix vigorously. Transfer 60.0 mL of calibration standards and unknown solution to five 100.0 mL beakers. Use Ion-Selective Meter to measure potential in millivolts of each of the five solutions. (See Lab manual for instructions on use) Dispose of waste chemicals in proper containers. Equipment: Glassware: 5 100-mL beaker 7 100-mL volumetric flasks 1 2.0-mL volumetric pipette 1 10.0-mL volumetric pipette 1 500.0-mL waste beaker 1 50.0-mL beaker Chemicals: 2 Calcium tablets 2g of Calcium carbonate 1.0 M KCl 6 M HCl DI Water Materials and Instruments: Kimwipes Ion-selective meter with calcium selective electrodes Mortar and pestle PC with Microsoft EXCEL Safety Considerations: Handle chemicals with care, avoid skin and eye contact. Do not ingest chemicals. Results and Discussion Titration by EDTA The following table shows the volume EDTA used to fully titrate the unknown......

Words: 2675 - Pages: 11

Chem Lab Report

...1.) A scientific theory is a widely accepted and both highly tested and proven explanation based on observable phenomenon that occurs in nature. Scientific theories are supported by a large amount of evidence. On the other hand, a hypothesis is an explanation for a scientific question, but is easily testable and falsifiable. A prediction is a guess of what will happen when conducting an experiment, but a hypothesis establishes a relationship that helps to explain how the conductor of the study came up with his/her prediction. For example, a prediction would be “salt is dissolvable in water”, and a hypothesis would be “the polar water molecules will separate the ionic NaCl compound causing the salt to dissolve.” If the predictions are accurate, the hypothesis is supported. Hypotheses that are useful for explaining the natural world are easily testable, falsifiable, and parsimonious. When proposing an explanation for why something happens in the natural world, the explanation (hypothesis) must not be ambiguous or difficult to test/prove. A hypothesis that would not be useful for explaining the natural world would be “dogs hate cats because cats resemble predators that walked the earth millions of years ago” because it is not falsifiable. There would be no way one could set up a study to either prove or disprove the hypothesis. A hypothesis that would be useful for explaining the natural world would be “tumors are caused by the build-up of certain radioactive......

Words: 1048 - Pages: 5

Lab Report

...Lab 6: How to Write a Lab Report (1) Atta, S., M. Ikbal, A. Kumar, and N. D. Pradeep Singh. 2012. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 111:39-49. --This article shows that sunlight is the key requirement for plant growth. It explains how sunlight helps in releasing plant growth regulators in plants which enhances plant growth. This article is helpful for my lab report because we provided sunlight to our plants which makes their development faster. (2) Ikram-ul-Haq, Z. A., G. M. Taseer, M. U. D. Mukesh, and S. Ali. 2011. Effects of different fruit juices used as carbon source on cucumber seedling under in-virto cultures. African Journal of Biotechnology 10:7404-7408. --This article shows how fruit juices help plants to grow better because of the sugar that fruit juices contain. They used strawberry and apple juices, but they were not as good as orange and grape juices, regarding their effect on plant growth. This article is helpful for my lab report because we used orange juice to measure its effect on the growth of our plants. (3) Einset, J.W. 1978. Citrus tissue culture: stimulation of fruit explants cultures with orange juice. Plant Physiology 62:885-888. --This article shows the effect of orange juice on plant growth. It explains how using high concentrations of citric acid does not enhance the plant growth, but using...

Words: 299 - Pages: 2

Chem Lab

...Precipitation Reactions from the list of assignments. The lab will open in the Inorganic laboratory. 2. React each of the cations (across the top) with each of the anions (down the left) according to the data table using the following procedures: Data Table | |AgNO3 (Ag+) |Pb(NO3)2 (Pb2+) |Ca(NO3)2 (Ca2+) | |Na2CO3 (CO32-) |A cloudy peach color peach |f. a milky white color |K a milky white color | | |color | | | |Na2S (S2-) |B a cloudy black color |G a cloudy black color |L no reactions | |NaOH (OH-) |C a cloudy bubbly brown color |H no reactions |M a milky white color | |Na2S04 (SO42-) |D no reactions |I turned a milky white color |N no reactions | |NaCl (Cl-) |E a milky white color |J turned a milky white color |O no reaction | a. Drag a test tube from the box and place it on the metal test tube stand. You can then click on the bottle of Ag+ ion solution on the shelf to add it to the test tube. b. Click on the Divide button on the edge of the lab bench four times to make four additional test......

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

Chem Lab #1

...then let it cool. 16. After bending a glass tubing, where is the tube set while letting it cool to room temperature? Hold it for a few seconds then set it aside on the counter 17. When cutting a glass tube, what is the most important safety factor to be aware of? Keep fingers close to the scratch and snap it without much force. 18. When bending a glass tube what is the most important safety factor to be aware of? Make sure that the tube is soft before attempting to bend it. 19. Why is glass tubing fire polished after it is freshly cut? So that when you use it in 20. What causes the flame in a Bunsen burner to be yellow and smoky? The Bunsen burner may not have enough air or could be dirty Conclusion: The objective was achieved, the lab showed the proper way to operate a Bunsen and a Fisher burner as well as how to cut, fire polish, bend and draw a glass tube...

Words: 937 - Pages: 4

Organic Chem Lab 1

...solution was removed and allowed to cool to room temperature. c. The product was then filtered using a Buchner funnel. d. The solid crystals were then washed with cold hexanes. e. The crystals were allowed to dry for a week. Results The lab group collected the solid crystals and allowed it to dry in a clam shell apparatus for approximately one week. After the week had passed, the sample was then weighed out to determine how much was collected. The lab group also obtained the melting point temperatures of the final product using a Mel-Temp Melting Point Apparatus. The results are tabulated below. Final weight of product plus clamshell holding device including product: 10.160 g Clamshell apparatus weight with filter paper and no product: 5.897 g Total weight of product: 10.160 g – 5.897 g = 4.263 g of product Melting points of final product (carried out three times): - Literature value melting point of cis-norbornene-5,6-endo-dicarboxylic anhydride: 165 C * 160 – 164 C * 161 – 163 C * 161 – 163 C Discussion For this lab experiment, a Diels-Alder reaction was carried out in order to obtain cis-norbornene-5,6-endo-dicarboxylic anhydride. The steps entailed in the lab were followed as precisely as possible. After the experiment and once the product was allowed to dry, a total of 4.26 g of cis-norbornene-5,6-endo-dicarboxylic anhydride was obtained. However, our theoretical value that should have been obtained was 5.02......

Words: 641 - Pages: 3

Chem 1 Lab

...Lab #1 Reaction Kinetics in Redox Reactions Procedure: Step 1: Prepare solution of sodium thiosulfate, place 0.25gm (250 mg) of Na2S2O3 in 100ml beaker, add 20 ml of water and mix until dissolved. Step 2: Prepare solution of potassium iodine. Add 10 gm of KI to a 100 ml beaker and add 20 ml of water and mix until dissolved. Step 3: Obtain a 600 ml beaker, add KI and Na2S2O3 solutions, then add 60ml of 1M HCl. Step 4: Finally add 50ml of .1M H2O2, as soon as the H2O2 is added start timing the reaction. Stop timing when the Iodine appears (solution changes color). Record time. Step 5: Varying [H2O2] while holding [I-] constant. (2 more runs) Repeat step 1 Repeat step 2 except with 20 gm and then 40 gm of KI Repeat step 3 Add extra 150 ml and then 450 ml of water to the 600 ml beaker Repeat step 4, record times for 300 ml and 600 ml solutions Step 6: Varying [I-] while holding [H2O2] constant. (3 runs) Repeat step1 Repeat step 2 Repeat step 3 First run add no extra water, second run add 100 ml , third run add 300 ml of water Repeat step 4, first run add 50 ml, second run 100 ml and third run add 200 ml of .1M H2O2 Record times for 150ml, 300 ml and 600 ml solutions Observation: Times (secs): run 1: 48 run 2: 48 run 3: 47 run 4: 48 run 5: 45 run 6: 44 rate = d[H2O2]/dt = (moles of H2O2 consumed) / (Total volume * Reaction Time) moles of H2O2 consumed = .5 * moles S2O3 2- moles S2O3 2- = .25...

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Chem Lab

...Lab Title: Vapor Pressure & Heat of Vaporization Objective(s)/Purpose(s): The objective is to determine both the vapor pressure and the heat of vaporization of water using gas laws. Materials: highlighted Procedure: highlighted Prelab questions: N/A ------------------------------------------------- Qualitative Observations: As the temperature decreased the bubble of air above the water increased in size and was able to be observed. Quantitative Observations:   Table 1: Vapor Pressure and ΔHvap of Water Temperature (in degrees Celsius) | Volume of Gas (mL) | Corrected Volume in mL (-0.2 mL) | 80 | 5.6 | 5.4 | 75 | 5.6 | 5.4 | 70 | 5.4 | 5.2 | 65 | 5.4 | 5.2 | 60 | 5.3 | 5.1 | 55 | 5.2 | 5.0 | 50 | 5.1 | 4.9 | 5 | 4.8 | 4.6 | Calculations:  Any calculations should be included here if they are unrelated to answering questions from the laboratory report. Laboratory questions:   1. Calculate the number of moles of trapped air (using data from temperature < 5 degrees Celsius). nair = Patm * Vfinal / R * Tfinal nair = moles of air trapped (unknown) Patm = barometric pressure Vfinal = volume final R= 0.0821 liter atm / mol K Tfinal = temperature final nair =                 0.96737 atm * 0.0048 L                            = 2.03 x 10-4 moles         0.0821 liter atm / mol K* 278.15 K 2. Calculate the partial pressure of air in the gas-water vapor mixture for each temperature. Pair = nair*R*T / V 80...

Words: 702 - Pages: 3

Lab Report

...Lab Report Using Gravitational Force as a Measurement Tool Answer the following questions about the results of this activity. Record your answers in the boxes. Send your completed lab report to your instructor. Don’t forget to save your lab report to your computer! Activity 1 Record your data from Activity 1 in the boxes below. Enter the data for the sample you used in each trial (5000 rpm, 10000 rpm, etc…) in the appropriate columns and the corresponding g-force, number of layers, and position of layers position results. You will need to use the following formula to assist with your laboratory report: • G-force =0 00001118 x radius of centrifuge arm x (rpm)2 • The radius of the centrifuge arm for this instrument is 10 cm. | | | | | | |Speed |5000 rpm |10000 rpm |15000 rpm |20000 rpm | | |2795 |1180 |2655 |4720 | |G-force | | | | | | | |4 |5 |3 | |Number of......

Words: 436 - Pages: 2

Density Lab Report

...Chem 1A Brown 3 July 2014 Density Lab Report Objective: The purpose of this lab was to experimentally determine the density in three different investigations. Prelab procedure outline: What is the Density of an Egg? 1. Obtain the egg and note any observations. 2. Obtain a 400-ml beaker. 3. Add 200-ml of water into the beaker. Record the volume. 4. Place the raw egg into the water and record the volume and any observations. 5. Add NaCl into the water and stir until dissolved. 6. Stop adding NaCl once the top of the egg reaches the meniscus of the water. 7. Determine the density of the egg and the salt solution. Calculations: Beaker = 137g Beaker + Liquid = 337g Mass liquid = 337g – 137g = 200g Density of NaCl solution = 200g / 137mL = 1.46 g/mL Prelab Analysis Outline 1. Subtract mass of empty beaker from mass of filled beaker to calculate mass of liquid. Mliquid=mbeaker+liquid-mbeaker 2. Divide NaCl liquid mass by NaCl liquid volume to find density. D=mliquid/137mL Procedure, Data and Results Obtain egg. Obtained and cleaned 400mL beaker. Weighed the 400mL beaker. 400mL beaker = 137.4635g Filled beaker with 200mL of water. Weighed on analytical balance. Beaker + water = 337g Placed egg in water and noted observations including water displacement. Added NaCl into the solution until the egg floated. Beaker + NaCl solution = 200g Calculated density of NaCl solution. Density of NaCl solution = 200g / 137mL...

Words: 342 - Pages: 2

Lab Report

...To do Lab Report for Single and Double Replacement reactions : This is a formal lab report. It must be typed or written by hand with blue or black ink. Make sure that you include the following: 1. Title 2. List of Materials 3. Safety that includes MSDS risk assessment for all the materials used ( instructions were given to you already and they are in Moodle) 4. Pre-lab questions 5. Data Tables with the results obtained ( observations and predictions) 6. Post Lab: Part I : Single Replacement Reactions a. For every reaction that took place you must write the balanced chemical equation b. Which metal reacted the most? c. Rank your metals from more to least active Part II: Double replacement Reactions a. For every reaction where you observed precipitate, write the complete balanced molecular equation, the complete ionic equation and the net ionic equation; use the solubility rules to identify the precipitate and the states of matter of each substance participating in the reaction. b. Which cation produced the most number of precipitates? c. Write general rules of solubility that you observed. 7. Final Conclusion and error analysis To do Lab Report for Single and Double Replacement reactions : This is a formal lab report. It must be typed or written with blue or black ink. Make sure that you include the following: 1. Title 2. List of Materials 3. Safety that includes MSDS risk assessment for all the materials used (......

Words: 374 - Pages: 2

Lab Report

...Why do we keep a lab notebook? In the ‘real world’, you will be expected to record what you do and how you do it, with the data clearly identifiable. There are 2 reasons for this: • Any scientific experiment is only considered valid if it can be repeated by someone else using your notebook. • If you develop a new product or process, your notebook becomes a legal document that can be scrutinized in a court of law, especially in cases of patent infringement. In order to meet these requirements, certain conditions must be met: • Notebooks shall have bound pages, loose-leaf and spiral bound are not acceptable. • All pages must be numbered prior to use. This will show if any pages have been removed that contained data that might compromise interpretation of your conclusions. • All data shall be entered chronologically. Do not leave empty pages to insert information later. If you finish with a large expanse of blank page, put a line through it to show that it will not be used. • All notes are to be made in indelible pen – pencil will be penalized. If you make a mistake, just draw a single line through it, not a childish scribble to hide all traces! • All data will be recorded in your lab notebook at the moment it is generated. No notes shall be written on scraps of paper or memorized for later. Other notes about the lab notebook: All pre-lab and experimental work is hand-written in your lab notebook. ......

Words: 1389 - Pages: 6