Chance in Science

In: Science

Submitted By elizabeth321
Words 433
Pages 2
The Role of Chance in Science

“Chance” in science is a relatively common occurrence. Similar to life, scientists cannot ever be certain on results or outcomes that their experiments may bring. Scientists could be attempting to find specific results and part of the experimental process could actually lead to more answers. The article, “Discovery, Chance and the Scientific Method”, by Fran Slowiczek and Pamela Peters provides several examples that prove the same point. For example, if Luigi Galvani had not have noticed the frog legs jerking when the metals touched, the study of “neurophysiology and clinical neurology” wouldn’t have come to be known in 1791. Even though he did not identify the importance of the two metals, the observations he made eventually led to other discoveries like circuitry. Slowiczek and Peters wrote, “to have meaning, every observation or discovery must fit into a pre-existing pattern of ideas in the observer’s mind. Just as a word means little out of context, a new observation or discovery needs a proper context in which to fit in order to be most meaningful.” So an experiment or experimental mindset is needed to watch for possible “leads.” If you are not thinking about possibilities that occur from different steps in any experiment, you are not likely to make those “chance discoveries.” Your odds of a “chance discovery” also increase when you are well educated on what to look for or something that might be suspicious during an experiment. As stated, the work of multiple scientists over a span of one hundred years, led to the development of penicillin. If Alexander Fleming wasn’t in the correct mindset when performing his experiment he may have missed the important observation he made to successfully discover penicillin. Without multiple observations from several scientists, penicillin would not be the life-saving medicine…...

Similar Documents

Chance Journey

...Chance Journey Counseling Theory Laurie Hartlein Liberty University Abstract Throughout life we will all experience trials, heartaches, and discouragement. At some point in our lives we will strive to change the quality of our lives, build healthier relationships, and improve our communication skills. It is my belief that everyone deserves a second chance to build a strong and meaningful life. The journey through life forces us to deal with our past, present, and future. My theory is one of hope and will provide encouragement to focus on feelings and behaviors. The following research will provide an insight into Adlerian and Reality, Cognitive Behavioral, Solution Focused, Person-Centered, Gestalt, REBT, and Existential therapy. Keywords: journey, chance, encouragement, relationships, communication Philosophical Assumptions At some point in life everyone wants to feel as though they are truly being heard and understood by others. I believe empathy is at the core of understanding and developing a relationship with the client. Elliott, Bohart, Watson, and Greenberg (2011) re-emphasize Carl Rogers’ definition of empathy as “the therapist’s sensitive ability and willingness to understand the client’s thoughts, feelings and struggles from the client’s point of view” (Elliott, Bohart, Watson, and Greenberg, p44, 2011). Once empathy and a trusting relationship are established the ideas and skills for change and acceptance can be introduced. Change is not......

Words: 2674 - Pages: 11

A Second Chance

...the way they live their lives. In Groundhog Day the main character Phil is an arrogant, sarcastic weatherman absorbed in his own discomforts, without hope, and cut off from other people. He is forced to relive the same day, groundhogs day, over and over again. In “The Metamorphosis the main character is Gregor Samsa, a man who spends his time working to pay off a debt for his father. Gregor wakes up to find that he has turned into a beetle. Throughout these two works the main characters try to go back to living their life as before not realizing that this is their second chance at life to make things right. Phil manages to do so only by breaking through and becoming a person of intimacy, creativity and compassion which sets him free from his exile of living in the same day over and over again. As for Gregor, going from someone everyone depends on to something no one wants to care for, he doesn’t get a chance to have everything go back to normal. He dies and his family, for once, is relieved. Groundhog Day lets us experience what it would be like to make a breakthrough like this in our own lives. The movie shows us a character that is like the worst in ourselves. Like us, he finds himself in an inexplicable situation, something like fate. But, unlike us, he gets the luxury of being stuck in the same day until he gets it right. Where most of us go semi-automatically through most of our days, he is forced to stop and treat each day like a world onto itself, and decide how to......

Words: 803 - Pages: 4

Second Chances

...Second Chances Cold blooded murder is cold blooded murder no matter if a 17 year old commits the crime or a 40 year old. When you are holding someone’s’ life in your hands and deciding how long they should serve in prison for their crime, I would imagine it to be a very difficult situation, especially if the person is under 18. But I also believe that the punishment should fit the crime. The Supreme Court ruled that it violates the 8th amendment for a minor to go to prison for life without the chance for parole. I agree with the Supreme Court’s decision because there are many extenuating circumstances that need to be taken into account, no matter if you are dealing with a minor or an adult. First and foremost murder is murder no matter who commits it, but when you are young and you commit such a heinous crime, I believe that you are mentally unstable. I think that these people should be helped psychologically. This does not mean that they shouldn’t go to prison and that they just get a pat on the back and a referral to a psychologist, this means that they should get a chance for parole if they mature and get mentally stable. The character of a juvenile is not as well formed as that of an adult so that person should get a chance to prove that he or she deserves a second chance. Secondly, juveniles are very easily influenced by peer pressure. They are forced into situations in which they don’t really know what to do, which could force them to act out and do something......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

Second Chance

...Second Chance: Plot: A young man contemplating about what led him to the edge of the cliff. Characters: The main character is only known by his nick name Babs. He talks about his family and refers to his dad as Baba, (which is Arabic for dad). Conflict: A man with a conflicting mind contemplates and reflects on the past few years in his life that led him to the edge of the cliff, on his back, covered in blood, overwhelmed with regret, fear, and pain. There’s two ways off the ledge, either way, someone dies. Setting: This story takes place in both Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2014, and in Anchorage, the largest city in Alaska in the summer of 2019. Point of View: The 1st person point of view of Babs. When death is lurking in your veins, your life presents itself to you through your dimming, and regretful eyes, in the way you lived. In life, every couple years or so, you reflect on yourself, seeing what and who you are versus what and who you wanted to be. I’ve never been where I should or wanted to be. I’ve made some mistakes, just like every other human being. What I’ve done in my short twenty four years of life on gods beautiful green earth has led me here. Lying on the edge of this cliff, with my neck and torso over this mountain top, blood slowly flowing up my shoulder and down my neck like a stream of interconnecting rivers; one river ending at my mouth forcing me to swallow my own blood, the others getting in my eyes and going throw my gaping nostrils......

Words: 3233 - Pages: 13

A Second Chance

...Holman 1 Jaycee Holman II Mrs. Gile English 102 Section 15 April 8, 2011 A Second Chance at Life One of the issues plaguing the nation is our youth getting into trouble with the law. Surprisingly, there are many young adults that are starting out in life with the wrong concept. The legal system’s answer to our errant youth was the development of boot camp programs. These camps are designed to make sure the attendees never want to get in trouble again. The young people who are sent to boot camp can look forward to rigorous activities. Our judicial system believes that their hardcore military type punishment will work. Many participants do leave with a new direction in their life. Upon completing the program they come home ready to get a job and earn a honest income. However, once the business find out that they have a criminal record their application is denied. Where are the jobs and educational financing for those who want to attend college? Our government should support those who have successfully completed the program by offering them hope in the form of rehabilitating them back into society. The authors of Youth Justice in America state that these institutions are based on the theory that bad kids need more discipline, physical rigor, and more time outdoors. (Ahranjani 281). According to the National Institute of Justice, boot camps were born in the late 1980s and early......

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Science

... the overall composition of the population changes, and evolution has occurred.” (The Norton Reader, pg 950). Given Darwin’s theory of natural selection, there is no way that Intelligent Design can fit into the equation. As Wilson goes onto explain, “Many who accept the fact of evolution cannot, however, on religious grounds, accept the operation of blind chance and the absence of divine purpose implicit in natural selection.” (The Norton Reader, pg 954). In Jacob Bronowski’s essay The Nature of Scientific Reasoning he states that “No scientific theory is collection of facts. It will not even do to call a theory true or false in the simple sense in which every fact is either so or not.” (The Norton Reader, pg 887). Given Bronowski’s rationale, I think that his reasoning on science being imaginative and creative is very relevant to Dr. Bawazer’s genetic evolution studies. Dr. Bawazer has devoted a great deal of his life to the study and growth of genetic evolution through the research of chemistry, material’s science, and synthetic biology. His life’s work and research embodies some of the highest degree of science by definition, however his drive and commitment undoubtedly began with a vision coupled with the imagination and creativity to try new theories and seek answers. During a 2012 interview with Materials Today magazine, Dr. Bawazer attested to his creative process and inspiration by stating: “…I was really astounded at what biology can do in making ceramic......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

A Chance to Redeem

...A Chance to Redeem It is natural for humans to make mistakes, and everyone has a chance to redeem themselves, because “There is [always] a way to be good again” (2). In The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini there are many examples of guilt and redemption. Amir, the main character in the story, commits many mistakes but he always finds a way to redeem himself and cover his mistakes. In order for Amir to beat the shadows that haunt him, he decides to rescue Sohrab, his best friend and half-brother’s son, and do for him what he did not do for Hassan. Baba also commits many mistakes, but he attempts to make up for them in his everyday life. There is always something people can do to expiate their guilt. Throughout Amir’s childhood, he constantly feels that his father blames him for his mother’s death and that he does not love him. Amir does everything he can to make up for the mistakes he made in the past. “I always felt like baba hated me a little. And why not? After all I had killed his beloved wife,” he says (19). Since Amir feels no love from Baba, he thinks of ways to make things right with him. Amir sees his father as a perfect man because everyone in their neighborhood looks up to him. In order to convince Baba that he is an ‘ideal’ son, Amir decides to sign up for the kite running competition, he sees it as the only opportunity to become closer to his father and prove his worth. Amir tries to redeem himself, so that Baba does not blame him for the death of his mother......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

Science

...Where it was once unusual to read issues and news regarding the topic of genetic engineering, which is no longer the case now. These days, scientists have been trying their best to affirm the nature’s mysterious of human being. If there is any chance for the scientists to make money, some of them will unveil the new facts of genetic engineering without doubt (Green, 2001). Genetic engineering is the use of various methods to make new combinations of DNA to produce a cell, tissue or an organism through the process of a sexual reproduction. Genetic engineering is already a propitious resource of science since the early nineteen centuries. Based on James Watson and Francis Crick, they discovered that DNA is a double helix formed by base pairs aligned to the sugar and phosphate strand. When DNA double helix replicates, it shaped like a twisted ladder. The DNA carries the genetic material that controls the trait and characteristics of the organism. However, Herb Boyer and Stanley Cohen found a solution to cut and recombine the DNA in several ways in 1970s. Soon scientists found that they could alter and take the genes from animals and plants and transfer them into bacteria. Bacteria will then produce large amount of hormones by the transplanted genes (Kafka, 2009). Genetic engineering allows genes to exchange information between unrelated species that would never happen in nature. Genetic engineering nowadays is one of the constructive resources that can be apply in many......

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

The Impact of Poverty on Life Chances

...Abstract This research paper describes how poverty influences the lives of children and adolescents. Poverty is viewed as major environmental influence that impacts the opportunities and life chances of children. Young people growing up in poverty may feel justified in engaging in risky behaviors. The research shows how poverty has an effect on parenting, housing, food, health, mental well being, and education. Despite government programs that help many, the author of this paper views economic inequality as a major cause of the problems facing poverty and our nation. Poverty has a major influence on the day-to-day lives of children. It also places young people at risk for poor outcomes in life. At Risk Youth (McWhirter, McWhirter, McWhirter, & McWhirter, 2013, p. 29-39) discusses the economic trend of poverty as one of the major environmental influences placing young people at risk. When one understands the problems of poverty, one begins to understand the people affected much better. McWhirter et al., (2013) presents several “types” of families that may live in poverty. These include the working poor families, vulnerable and underserved families, young single mother families, and homeless families. One interesting concept that the book discusses is social comparisons. Today poor people are faced with constant reminders of their lack of money. By watching television shows that popularize the lives of “the rich and famous” and by seeing the income......

Words: 3212 - Pages: 13

Clifford Chance

...CLIFFORD CHANCE: REPOTTING THE TREE | OPEOLUWA OSISANYA | EMBA 21 | GROUP 2 | ABP Understanding of the Problem Peter Charleton had a difficult task to:  Convince his fellow managing and senior partners to support his campaign to sway the dozens of other partners of Clifford Chance LLP (one of the most successful law firms in the world) to relocate the London Headquarter offices from the central business district of London to a redeveloped business park at Canary Wharf.  The current lease of the offices in London was due to expire in 4years and the firm was growing fast in clientele and employees exceeding the London office’s capacity hence space constraints. A decision is imminent.  The organization needs to occupy and maintain offices that would portray a premium brand image and provide a conducive working environment for the employees.  The relocation to Canary Wharf is a gamble. However, the Clifford Chance London offices is a historic and traditional corporate location with the best services, prestige and comfort associated with the central business district of London. Most critically, relocation away from Central London would affect proximity to key clients, courthouses, litigation offices all of where the most critical Clifford Chance businesses are conducted. Clifford Chance LLP’s Priorities Peter’s objectives are clearly evident from the problem statement. The firm needed to provide space that:  Offered the highest quality work environment in......

Words: 784 - Pages: 4

Fat Chance

...11 PUBH100: Assessment 2, ‘Fat Chance’ Introduction The Active8 campaign was first introduced into the small Victorian town of Ararat, as a result of the popular television show, ‘The Bigggest Loser’, appointing it the fattest town in Australia (Holwell, 2014). It is an empowering and educational public health obesity prevention campaign that has been implemented in order to change attitudes surrounding nutrition, participation and exercise (Holwell, 2014). The public health program, Active8, is to be deployed in one Local Government Area (LGA) within NSW. The final two candidates in consideration to receive the obesity prevention program are Bankstown LGA and Hornsby LGA. The health and wellbeing of these LGA’s will be compared by assessing available public health data in order to decide in which LGA the Active8 program will be funded and implemented. Table 1 Estimated rate of overweight and obesity in people aged 18+ (2011-2013) Bankstown LGA Hornsby LGA No. Per 100 No. Per 100 Overweight (but not obese) 42,634 34.9 38,092 35.0 Obese 34,396 28.5 21,216 19.3 Note. Reprinted from “Social Health Atlas of Australia: NSW & ACT,” by PHIDU, Adelaide University, 2015, retrieved from: http://www.adelaide.edu.au/phidu/maps-data/graphs/ As can be seen in Table 1, there is almost no difference between the LGA’s in terms of being overweight, however there is a substantial difference in obesity rates, with Bankstown LGA having 13% higher rates than......

Words: 2958 - Pages: 12

Only Chance

...control my anger But I can’t understand Why every time he’s not around I always seek him As if my heart is aiming to see him I’ve never known that I already fall for him. One day, he talked to me And ask if I can go with him I immediately rejected him From that, I realized something For I wanted to be with him This means I’ve fallen for him But this urge to be with him was swallowed by my pride He never asked me again Even talked to me Months passed I feel like my heart is crushing everyday One day, I saw him again I thought he’s alone I was going to approached and talked to him But a girl came running to him My heart was aching A tear came falling But all I can do is cry more For I ruined my one and only chance From that moment I’ve known that all this time I’ve ALWAYS believe in “LOVE” But sadly, for the first time because of it, I’ve been hurt....

Words: 291 - Pages: 2

Another Chance

...Save as Many as You Ruin Every once in a while, people make life-changing mistakes; mistakes that can seem irreversible and absolutely fatal to your life. But in some cases, fate might just reach out and bless them with another chance. These are the cases where the involved can live through a religious experience and have the opportunity to save what they’ve previously ruined. Gerard is a handsome man from New York, who is approximately 40 years old. The turning point in the story is when Gerard meets Laurel coincidently after he sees her through a shop window. Gerard and Laurel are former partners, but the relationship ended when Gerard had to proclaim that he had made another woman pregnant while they were still dating. Gerard has Lucy with Issy, and after Issy moves to Los Angeles to fulfill her dreams about being a Hollywood actress, Gerard takes the responsibility of raising Lucy on his own. Four years after Issy went to Los Angeles she was found dead in a pool, possibly after a suicide as she had taken her time to write Gerard’s name as her next of kin. Gerard lives what could be conceived as a boring and regrettable life, with the exception of his daughter; Lucy. Lucy is Gerard’s light of the day. “Gerard feels a stabbing love for his daughter” [l.18], “She’s wonderful, just wonderful” [l.78], “I love you” [l.165]; in this short story we’re constantly reminded of Gerard’s endless love for his daughter, and it is clear that she is the light of his seemingly else......

Words: 1265 - Pages: 6

Science

...Defense Council (NRDC) surrounding it, Fumento paints a picture wherein the NRDC "did not engage in "real scientific process" or a proper consideration of "the facts", but rather engaged in "one of the slickest, most cynical fear campaigns in recent American history (424)." To back his claim, he reviews the progress of regulatory action on Alar and demonstrates how the NRDC's actions were untenable given the conclusions reached as to Alar's toxicity. A brief time-line of the events begins with the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) recommending that Alar be banned, based on scientific studies from the 1970s and 80s. Shortly after, a Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) met and thoroughly discounted the EPA's decision as based on outdated science employing methods and standards which were no longer scientifically acceptable. Fumento goes on to review scores of independents reviewers who uphold the SAP's decision and denounce the EPA for eventually banning Alar due mainly to pressure from the NRDC and other citizen groups. It is this NRDC pressure, which accepted the initial EPA decision and rejected the SAP recommendation, which Fumento recounts as "a touchdown of terror," based on "'inappropriate data'" and specious reasoning (425, 422, 422). II: "Environmental Hysteria" vs Scientific "Fanatics" If Fumento is correct in the further progression of events after the 1985 meeting of the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs with the SAP, then it is fairly clear that......

Words: 2159 - Pages: 9

Second Chance

...up on any hope for the future and had already fell into a daily routine of depression. I was devastating my family. After 16 years of this I had had enough. I didn't know what to do or how to stop but I couldn't live my life like this anymore. I was embarrassed to acknowledge how bad I had gotten, so I ended up living in pure misery for almost another year. It took a hospital stay for me to finally let go of my deep dark secret and scream out for help. My horrible secret was that I was addicted to alcohol and pot, and for the last year meth. Finally, the truth was out and I felt so much relief! I felt like I could finally breath again after almost being suffocated to death. Maybe now I could get better; maybe I could get another chance at this thing called life. I had been given a gift of treatment and was going to have better life, but it was going to take a lot of hard work. I was going to have to change everything about my life and learn a new way. This meant picking up books again and I was ready. Once I started reading and learning a different way I couldn't stop. I felt like I'd been starving myself of knowledge and I just couldn't get enough. The fog I had been living in for so many years was lifting and I could finally see again. The first thing I picked up was an N.A. book and I read it from cover to cover in two days. The next thing I knew I had to read that was imperative to my life was the Bible. This was the beginning of a love I couldn't......

Words: 1079 - Pages: 5