Btec Level 3 H&Sc Unit 5 Major Body Systems

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Submitted By ClaireThompson
Words 6118
Pages 25
Major body systems

The cardiovascular system, also called the circulatory system, pumps blood around the body. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs where oxygen diffuses into the blood, it then returns to the heart where it is pumped around the body. It also allows nutrients, hormones, oxygen and carbon dioxide to be transported around the body.
The heart is made up of three layers: * Pericardium – the outer layer of the heart made of two fibrous sacs with fluid between them. It is there to protect the heart and prevent friction between the different beats as well as preventing distension of the heart. * Myocardium – is a specialist cardiac muscle and does not have control over itself. It contains a network of fibres that transmit the hearts electrical signals causing the heart to contract. The myocardium at its thickest at the apex of the heart and it thins towards the base in accordance to the workload that the heart undertakes. There is fibrous tissue running through it providing support as well as the specialist fibres that conduct the electrical signals. * Endocardium – the endocardium is a smooth epithelial tissue that allows a rapid movement of blood, it extends through all the vessels in the circulatory system.
The heart is made up of four chambers. The septum divides the two sides of the heart and on each side of the heart there is an atrium – where blood goes into – and a ventricle – where blood is pumped out of. The superior vena cava transports blood from the head and the inferior vena cava transports blood from the rest of the body. The pulmonary artery carries blood away from the heart and the pulmonary vein carries blood in to the heart. The tricuspid three flaps and prevents blood from flowing back the wrong way. The tendons that are attached prevents the valve from opening…...

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