Premium Essay

Assesment of Free Health Care Provision System

In: Other Topics

Submitted By kaleab
Words 5010
Pages 21
INTRODUCTION
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Equity may be defined as the requirement that individuals of unequal ability to pay make different payment (Vertical equity) or those of the same ability to pay make the similar contribution (Horizontal equity) (1). Preserving equitable access to health services under a system of user fees can be accomplished in three steps. First, the poor population to receive preferential treatment with respect to user fees must be identified. Second, a protection mechanism must be selected and implemented. Third, to ensure that the protection policy is working adequately, an evaluation of its performance is required (9).

A waiver is used to reduce or eliminate fees for the poor based on an assessment of their inability to pay. Exemptions are used to describe when services are automatically provided free because the patient has the characteristic being targeted (2).

Targeting is a welfare concept and a strategy for identifying any group(s) of Persons in a population who are eligible for an intervention or assistance. Two errors often arise in targeting;1, Error of exclusion: excluding those Intended to benefit from a program and 2. Error of inclusion: including those not intended to benefit from a program (3).

There are various administrative issues on achieving equity under cost recovery through direct targeting these range from identification of responsibilities for certifying and verifying eligibility, designing the means for assessing eligibility and the period of validity of these means to measuring the effectiveness and costs of the waivers granted. The literature on the subject in the developing countries suggests that much more work is needed to simply describe existing targeting mean testing and exemption mechanisms and establishing how effective they are (4).

.

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

There is a need to…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Vietnam Health Care System

...Vietnam’s health care policy Vu Thi Hoang Lan [pic] COUNTRY OVERVIEW Viet Nam is one of the poorest of developing countries. Its state of comparative under-development is largely attributable to a history of war going back over 40 years, at first with French and subsequently with the American, which resulted in devastation of the country (Pract, 341:1). Official figures claim that the population of Vietnam is more than 87 million in 2009. This makes the country the 18th most populated in the world. Vietnam has a rapid population growth, the average growth rate of Vietnam's population is 2.23 %. Owing to its rapid population growth many fear that it has started becoming an obstacle in the development of the country. From 2001- 2006, in order to reduce the risk of population growth overcoming the food production, Viet Nam implemented the two- child policy, a similar program to the ongoing one-child policy of China (Asian room,1). Families are encouraged to have no more than two children. This program has taken effect and slowed down the growth rate of population significantly. Vietnamese average life expectancy has increased from 42 years old in 1960 to 74.6 years old in 2009. This data indicates population living condition and health care improved significantly (World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2011:1) HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The development of Vietnam’s national health system can be divided into three periods: 1945-1954; 1954-1975 and 1975 onwards. The......

Words: 3872 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Views of the Health Care System

...Views of the Health Care System According to the text, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion in 2006, a huge amount of money to be spending in health care every year in the United States. The video “Sick around the World” shows how the health care system works in different countries. In order to compare the health care system in the United States, I would like to use Japan’s health care system as an example. It manages to provide some form of universal health coverage to its populations. American health care system is with high costs, multiple gatekeepers and fails to provide insurance for much of the population. Japan’s health care system, Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice and cannot be denied coverage. The clinics and hospitals in Japan may not be as spacious and well buffed as those in American suburbs. But the actual consumers of care show rates of satisfaction that should make American providers blush. Doctors, hospitals, and insurers are for the most part private in Japan. The services are provided either through regional to national public hospitals, or through private hospitals to clinics, and patients have universal access to any facility. There is no combat between insurers and insured. And it’s with no fear on the part of doctors and hospitals that they won’t be paid. The patient is accepting responsibility for 30% of these costs while the government pays the remaining 70%. This system has dramatically lower......

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Health Care System

...country has a different health-care system, which sometimes is productive (good) or unproductive (bad). This fact depends on many different factors such as the money that government appropriates for the health system every year, and the educational and economic situation that has developed over thousands of years in each country. I want to compare the health care systems in two different countries, Ukraine and the United States of America, because I have some experience in both of them. I used to live in Ukraine until 2 years ago and now, I have lived in America for two years. So, I know some information about this issue and I want to share it with you. First, these two completely different countries have different health-care systems. Ukraine is much poorer than America and the government doesn’t have enough money to keep the health-care system in good condition. Despite this fact, we have a free health-care system for all our citizens and long term residents who become ill. In USA, the health-care sector is very expensive and people pay hundreds of dollars every month to buy health insurance that helps to cover bills from medical offices or hospitals, where people get medical service. Not only do people pay for insurance by themselves, but also some families or persons who have a low income and couldn’t offer this very expensive insurance ask for help from the government and can receive free health insurance. In this country, people pay a lot for health care services,......

Words: 818 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Health Care System

...States Health Care Delivery system A healthcare system is the organization of people, institutions, and resources to deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations (free encyclopedia). America is the leading country in medical and scientific advances and yet without a universal heath care system. The U.S health care system is the subject of many controversy debates. At one extreme, one can argue that Americans have the best health care system in the world mainly due to the widely available medical technology and the state-of-art facilities that have become so highly of the system, yet others would debate the American system as being inefficient, given the fact America spends way more on health care than any other country in the world, and yet still suffers from massive uninsurance and uneven quality ( Michael Moore, “SiCKO” documentary). The United States has the most expensive health care system in the world, based on health expenditure per capita and on total expenditures as a percentage of gross domestic products (Hellender, 2001). The reason for the high costs is the number of uninsured people in the U.S. who require treatment of diseases and illnesses that can be treated inexpensively in the early stages, then later on when the diseases have progressed, and with no health insurance. The United States healthcare system has many different sources of funding. For many Americans, health......

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Health Care Information Systems

...Health Care Information Systems Abstract The U.S. government plays a large role in all areas of the health care delivery system, from financing to organizing, overseeing and providing care. Because of the large scale of the integration of the health care delivery system, government should lead the way and model the rest of the nation after two health care systems run by the government, which provide quality care and are up to date with information technology systems. Health Care Information Systems The United States health care delivery system is not meeting the needs of the American population. With the advancements in medical science and technology, Americans are living longer, and we are seeing an increase in chronic conditions that need coordinated and integrated care. As the cost of health care in the United States escalate, attempts to control those costs also increase. Controlling costs and access and quality improvements to the health care system are the issues pushing the Information Technology policies. Studies are consistently showing that the adoption of Information Technology is one answer to alleviating the rising costs to both patients and health care organizations and providing evidenced based health care management and organizational changes, providing and protecting consumers confidential and private health care information, ensuring the reduction of medical errors and waste. The Institute of Medicine’s, Crossing the Quality Chasm......

Words: 2141 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Health Society and Care Provision

...HEALTH SOCIETY & CARE PROVISION BY JACQUELINE WALKER HEALTH, SOCIETY & SOCIAL CARE INTRODUCTION The purpose of this essay is to write a patient case study surrounding the care of an in- patient at the local hospital where I was on placement. It should allow the reader to focus, on the appraisal of the nursing model used in practice during the patients care. The social and cultural components of care that demonstrate the authors’ knowledge, and awareness of the patients needs and beliefs, any health promoting activities and patient education opportunities undertaken. Inter/ Multidisciplinary teams approach to care provision and access to specific services and facilities will also be included. I would like to take this opportunity to state that confidentiality will be maintained throughout this work. All true names and clinical settings changed, in order to protect the patients’ identity in line with the NMC (2004) guidelines on confidentiality, which states, “that we must protect confidential information”. Therefore, the patient will be referred to as “Rick”, his wife Shelia, the clinical setting as “the ward” and the geographical environment as “the local hospital”. In addition to this, I would also like to say that whilst asking for permission, I explained to the patient what my study would be about, that all confidentiality would be maintained, and that he would not, in any way be able to be recognised by any other persons...

Words: 3409 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Health Care Free

...The government should pay for people's education and health care. to waht extent do you agree or disagree? Healthy and well educated citizens are the backbone of a strong society. I strongly agree that governments should take the responsibility of providing free education and health care to people. However, private education and medical service, to some extent, can be provided as a supplementary. First of all, education and medical treatment are largely considered as a basic right, without them a country will face severe social problems. Imaging the chaos that would be ensue if people do not understand how to read, write, and calculate; imaging what will happen if patients can not afford medical fee. Further, education infulence public’s awareness of health care. It is interesting to note that bad habits such as prostitution, substance abuse, alcoholism, smoking etc are often find in those individuals who were inadequately educated. Yet, perhaps the strongest argument in favor of governments providing free education and health care is that of taxes. Remembering, it is the entire nation that paying taxes. Therefore, it is by no means for education and medical care exclude form any other services. Admittedly, public service cannot meet all the demands. E.g. some students wish to attend private schools or some patients want to purchase high level medical service. Then, I think private profit-making companies should be encouraged to private these services to public. On......

Words: 311 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Japan’s Health Care System

...Japan has a system that costs half as much and usually achieves better medical outcomes than the American Healthcare System. After extensive research it seems certain government regulations work in favor of Japans Healthcare System. Japan has a tight grip on its system by banning insurance company profits, limiting doctor fees and accepting shortcomings in care that many Americans would find intolerable. National health insurance in Japan is the result of a gradual process that can be traced back to 1905 when companies began providing limited benefits for its employees. In the years afterward more and more corporations began offering benefits through mutual aid societies. A health insurance law was developed in 1922 that was inspired by the German system established by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in 1883. The law was implemented in 1927, mandating coverage by enterprises and it created an important role for the government as far as provisioning health insurance to those not covered by employers. In 1938, health insurance was extended to those who were self-employed such as farmers, fishermen, foresters and other groups not covered by the 1922 law. By 1938 the law was revised to include the remaining 30 percent of the population who had not previously been covered. This revision was the first step in extending health insurance to occupational groups. Every government jurisdiction was required to provide health insurance to every uncovered resident by 1961. Since 1961 all......

Words: 2926 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Health Care System

...subsidiary of Baylor Health Care System. We are a large network of close to 800 providers serving patients in almost 200 care sites throughout North Texas and Fort Worth who are dedicated to providing you with outstanding quality and service when it comes to caring for your medical needs. Having your healthcare needs overseen by a HealthTexas physician means that your care is coordinated across our network and the Baylor Health Care System. As long as you are seeing a HealthTexas primary or specialty care physician, we will have your completed registration packet and medical record securely stored in our Electronic Health Record system giving any HealthTexas physician access to the information they need to provide you and your family with the best care possible. Benefits of Belonging to HealthTexas Provider Network: • One Time Form Completion The registration forms you are filling out today will only have to be filled out once. (Some additional patient information may need to be updated annually) • Electronic Health Record (EHR) system The EHR stores your medical records (including any medications, allergies or health issues you may have) and allows physicians easy access to referrals, consultations, and patient education materials. • Improved Coordinated Care Our primary care sites are recognized by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) as Physician Connections-Patient-Centered Medical Homes (PPC-PCMH) allowing our physicians to coordinate your care......

Words: 5016 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Free Market : Vip Health Care

...of Nations". It was used to explain what a free market is. A free market is a market system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between sellers and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority. Within the healthcare market, a heavily regulated market, there was an opening for VIP care for those that could afford it. It is unregulated and should not be due the fact that the outcome of money paid for the services, pay for bettering the hospital. The Benefactor Society A free-market economy is an economy where all markets within it are unregulated by any parties other than those players in the market. In its purest form the government plays a neutral role in its administration and legislation of economic activity, neither limiting it nor actively promoting it (Meiners, Ringleb, & Edwards, 2011). Within this economy the healthcare market is heavily regulated which causes prices to be high and as well as needs and wants from consumers. The upper class consumers expect a certain level of attention and care. Because of these expectations there was an opening for a new market, VIP patient care. A term used by Adam Smith to describe the natural force that guides free market capitalism through competition for scarce resources is called the invisible hand. According to Adam Smith, in a free market each participant will try to......

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Health Care in the Us-a System or Not

...Health care in the US-a system or not Angela Stafford University of Phoenix Health care organizations and delivery systems HCS/531 Russell Arenz III November 08, 2010 Health care in the US-a system or not A system is defined by Mosby's medical dictionary as "a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent elements forming a complex whole" (Mosby's 2009). Health care system is defined as "the complete network of agencies, facilities, and all providers of health care in a specified geographic area" (Ginsbury, Doherty, Ralston, & Senkeeto, 2008, p. 55). To make a system complete there has to be parts that bring it together. This paper will explore some of the components of a health care system, fundamental goals of a system and whether or not these components and goals interact with each other to form a whole. How medical treatment is arranged, financed and delivered are components of a healthcare system. Treatment is organized by the providers that offer the treatment and whether the providers are practicing in private practice, in small or large groups, or in corporate associations. Financing treatment includes any entity involved in payment of treatment services including the individual who requires the service or any type of insurance agency. Treatment delivery refers to the place treatment is provided, for example, rural or urban locations and inpatient or outpatient settings. Three fundamental objectives of a health care system include...

Words: 932 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Structurres of Health and Social Care Provision

...The Structures of Health and Social Care Provision- Introduction to Essay- During this essay I will be discussing the overall structure of social care provision in England. I will outline the different types of care provided by social services and what barriers may occur to prevent one from being able to use them. I will be analysing the structure of both the new and old social care provision, and discussing the changes which have been put in place. Lastly, I will concentrate on primary and secondary care, and looking at different types of regulation methods to ensure that social services are up to the government’s standards. The Structure of Social Care Provision- The Office of the Director is the central office at NIH (National Institutes of Health). It is responsible for setting policies, managing, planning and coordinating all of the activities for all of the NIH components. The Office of the Director is directly in charge of the Children’s Division, the Family Support Division, the MO HealthNet Division, the Division of Youth Services and the Information Technology Services Division. However, it holds responsible for all Divisions. The Children’s Division looks after children and young people; it includes services such as adoption services, foster care, abuse and neglect investigations and the child welfare manual. The Family Support Division helps to ensure that families achieve an appropriate level of self-support and care through......

Words: 3414 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Health Care System

...The Health care system within the past decade has experience significant changes. The changes with the health care system not only effects how health care is being delivered but also changes the cost of health care. The focus of this paper is to explain how health care has changed in the past ten years, the biggest change that will take place in the next ten years, and the role I will serve in the industry and how my skill will evolve. The paper will also explain how my perception of health care has changed, the role technology plays, and financial and economic issues that will affect the health care industry. How Health Care Has Changed The changes within health care are now having an effect on consumers and health care providers. The most significant change that has taken place within the health care system is the advancement of new technology. The new technology such as diagnostic, screening techniques, medical interventions, surgical techniques, and techniques for drug delivery has helped health care providers to adequately serve and diagnosis patients. The computer system is also a new technology that has not only helped entities to communicate efficiently but it has also changed the way health care providers perform his or her job duties. However, not all of the new technology will successfully emerge into the health care system because it is very costly to implement. Consumerism and patient empowerment is also a change that has taken place and......

Words: 1087 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Health Care System Evolution

...Health Care System Evolution From the Medicare/Medicaid focus, I will attempt to break this down from the evolution of the old to the influence of the current or present systems.  I would further consider the old concepts of supply and demand.  Health care is no different.  In early health care delivery, there was not much demand because there was not much known.  In many instances, patients weren't as educated about healthcare and illnesses to know where to go to seek care.  This is evident by the people using home remedies and other alternatives that prevented them from going to the doctor.  Research was not available as much to the average patients or their families to educate them about the risk of not receiving treatment for certain conditions.  When looking at doctors, they use to be just local folks who happened to be doctors, and they treated many conditions in their local offices without needing to file on Medicare/Medicaid.  The people were their neighbors and the doctor and patients knew each other personally.  Cost was not associated with this type of care.  It was like doing a favor for neighbors and friends.  Tools and supplies doctors used back then were less expensive.  To make a long story short, there was not much patient care demand nor was there much cost.  So there was not as much for Medicare/Medicaid to pay for.  Finally, the people running Medicare and Medicaid trusted doctors more.  If the doctor it stated it was needed, neither Medicare nor......

Words: 1162 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Us Health Care System

...The US Health Care System Danny Gomez HCS/531 February 7, 2012 The healthcare system in the United States is very complex. Both its inherent composition and the external factors that shape it include a multitude of elements that add to its complexity. This paper will present a definition of the health care system in the US, describe the implications of beliefs and values on this system, and offer examples of the various health care delivery models that comprise it. A health care system can be defined, as a grouping of organizations, institutions, and resources functioning with the intention to fulfill the health care needs of communities and/or populations. Such a system includes components that cover four major functions – financing, insurance, delivery, and payment. In a functioning system one would expected to find its components carefully coordinated and interrelated. However, the US this system is comprised of independent components that work simultaneously but not always collaboratively to deliver and fulfill the requirements of health care. The reality of the US health care system is that its components function independently, in a loosely connected fashion, and without a single central agency governing and regulating it. This characteristic is contrasting to systems in many other countries that have a national heath care program designed to provide a set of equitable health services to all its citizens. Access to health care services in the US varies,...

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5