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Applying the Lesson of History to Modern Police Leadership Training

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kwblad
Words 4976
Pages 20
The Bill Blackwood
Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas

_________________

Applying the Lessons of History to
Modern Police Leadership Training

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A Leadership White Paper
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment
Required for Graduation from the
Leadership Command College

_________________

By
Kenneth W. Sidenblad

Bee Cave Police Department
Bee Cave, Texas
Date Submitted (month year)

ABSTRACT

Law enforcement continues to move in the direction of a profession and away from being only a vocation. Police officers of today are better trained and educated than at any time in the past. This demands police leaders be up to the challenge to lead them. Law enforcement leaders must enhance their knowledge and incorporate training ideas in use by other professions. Applying lessons from academic subject material is an important part of leadership development in many professions, and should be emphasized in training future police leaders. This will enable law enforcement leaders to develop as leaders in a profession. One academic subject used in other professions to develop leaders is the study of history. History provides a wealth of material from which valuable insights and examples of leadership may be drawn from. Lessons drawn from history are used by other professions to enhance the quality of leadership within those professions. Leadership lessons from history should be incorporated into modern police leadership training. Material supporting the importance of history as leadership training was found in a variety of sources. Documentation was found in books and on websites which supported the thesis. Artwork and descriptions of curriculum which reinforced this idea were also located. Police officers have much in common with the warrior classes of past civilizations, and perform the function of protecting civilization, as the warriors of the past did. Three separate and distinct cultures from history could provide leadership lessons to police leaders today. Separated by time and geography, the culture of the medieval knight, the Japanese samurai, and the Native Americans of North American Plains, all offer valuable lessons to modern police leaders. Lessons in courageous leadership, transpersonal loyalty, spiritual leadership, and team building are present in a study of these three cultures. Incorporating lessons from history into modern police leadership training will greatly benefit police leaders, the departments, and the communities they serve. There is an extremely large amount of source material to extract leadership lessons from, given the scope of human history. Leadership lessons from history would also create a bond with the past and sense of a legacy.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Abstract

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Counter Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 9

Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . ……………. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

References . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Appendices ………………………………………………………………… 18
INTRODUCTION

Niccolo Machiavelli advised one should read histories, and study the actions of great men to see the causes of their victories and defeats (Machiavelli 2008). Machiavelli was one of Florence’s leading soldier statesmen in the sixteenth century. Machiavelli is best known for his work “The Prince.” This work is still in print and selling copies today. The reason books like “The Prince” or “The Art of War” by Sun Tzu are still popular in leadership and management circles is that the lessons they teach are timeless, and the wisdom gained from them is as important today as it was when they were written. There are valuable leadership lessons from history that are applicable to leadership training today. It is often said that experience is the best teacher. History is the record of man’s experience over the last few thousand years. The ability to draw on thousands of years of experience has great benefit for leaders of all types, including police leaders.
History is the story of the human race; it is the story of great cultures and of the great leaders of those cultures. Consider the fact that police officers of today are the warrior caste of their societies. Grossman (2007) stated “Around the world, warriors in blue (police and other peace officers) and warriors in green (soldiers, marines and other peacekeepers) find themselves facing the same kind of missions” (p.xix). He goes on to say that until society puts an end to terrorism citizens will not be safe and there will be a need peace officers and peacekeepers (Grossman & Christensen, 2007).

Police officers are charged with the task of fighting crime. They do not monitor it, and they do not experiment with it; they oppose it, and they fight it. Police leaders direct the actions of police officers who are in conflict and competition with criminals. History is full of lessons and examples of those who have struggled in conflict. These lessons can provide useful insight for modern police leaders.
Robert Greene summed it up as war being the height of human competition, and strategy developed out of a need to maximize results and reduce losses. The study of strategy is therefore a benefit to anyone who is in competition. Greene (2006) said, “If there is an ideal to aim for, it should be that of the strategic warrior, the man or woman who manages difficult situations and people through deft and intelligent maneuver” (p. xvi). Greene’s (2006) book laid out 33 strategies for handling conflict and provided multiple examples from history for each strategy.
Police leaders are also managers. There are many sources that draw on history to provide tools for managers. Wheeler (2000) combined examples from the strategy and tactics of the leaders in the Civil War with examples of the maneuvering and tactics of modern communications corporations. The end result was a work where lessons from history were compared with modern business and had an application to leadership.
Modern police leadership training frequently focuses on the qualities that make up a good leader. In Clausewitz on Strategy (2001), The Strategy Institute of the Boston Consulting Group distilled some of the writings of the nineteenth century Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz for the use of modern business strategists. Under the Moral Virtues of the Commander chapter it defined the moral virtues Clausewitz felt were imperative for a commander. These were Honor, Boldness, Perseverance, and Self-Control. These same moral virtues and Clausewitz’s description of them are as applicable today as when he wrote them in the 1800’s.
(The Strategy Institute of the Boston Consulting Group, 2001)
In the world of business strategy and leadership, the work of Niccolo Machiavelli stands out. Modern business and management writers have used his work as the basis for books incorporating the lessons Machiavelli wrote for Lorenzo de Medici during the Italian Renaissance, and applied them to modern business leadership. Business writer and humorist Stanley Bing wrote, “ask the one pertinent question for those who wish to conquer the twenty first century: “What would Machiavelli do?” Answer? He would play to win” (Bing, 2000, p. xxii). In a humor-laced style, Bing offered insight into the teachings and principles of strategy of Machiavelli and their application to modern business. Besides being useful to traditional business leaders these insights were applicable to modern police leadership.
Past cultures provide excellent examples of leadership that are timeless. An examination of different cultures, from different time periods, and separated by geography shows leadership philosophies that are applicable to modern police leadership training. Despite their origins being many years apart and on three different continents, three distinct cultures provide important leadership lessons.
The culture of Medieval Europe, exemplified by the Code of Chivalry, the culture of the Japanese Samurai class with its Code of Bushido, and the culture of the American Plains Indians, with their spiritual and holistic approach to leadership, all provide leadership lessons from history that should be incorporated into modern police leadership training.
POSITION

The medieval knight was an icon of that era, and continues to be a symbol of that time period. Medieval society was divided into three distinct segments: those who work, those who fight, and those who pray. The warrior class was also the ruling class. The paragon of the warrior class was the knight in shining armor. He was gallant, courtly, protector of the weak, brave and gentle, proud and courteous, riding off on a quest (Fields, 1991).
A study of the culture of the medieval knight provides important leadership lessons in courageous leadership. Modern police leaders can draw from the examples of leaders from this period and identify with the concepts of courageous leadership they provide. Henry V’s speech to his men at the siege of Harfleur, immortalized by Shakespeare is an excellent example of courageous leadership. Modern police leaders can gain an insight into the importance of leading from the front and sharing the dangers of those they lead by an exposure to examples from history.
Warrior energy in every culture needs to be channeled; therefore cultures tend to develop warrior codes. These warrior codes help provide a positive direction for the warrior class and channel their energy in constructive ways. Chivalry derives from the word “cheval” meaning horse. Chivalry was the warrior code of the medieval knight. Police officers as the modern equivalent of the medieval knight, could take away valuable lessons from an examination of the code of chivalry.
A turning point was reached at the millennium, when in honor of the thousand years since the birth of Christ, the Peace of God movement gained momentum and the warrior class began to abide by strictures placed on it by the Church. The medieval knight was the protector of his society; he protected the other two classes, those who worked and those who prayed (Fields, 1991). This was the birth of Chivalry. This energy was later directed towards the crusades. The Code of Chivalry was refined in later years, reaching it height in the fourteenth century.
Under the Code of Chivalry, the knightly virtues were loyalty, prowess, and largess to one’s fellows and followers, and courtesy to women, children, and the elderly. (Braudy,2003). These virtues mirror those of many police department mission statements and codes of ethics. Incorporating a study of the Code of Chivalry into modern police leadership training would reinforce these values and provide a sense of continuity and a link to the past. Grossman and Christensen (2007) provided a comparison of the medieval knight and the modern police officer in which both put on armor, weapons, shield (badge) and go out to do good deeds and administer justice.
German artist Albrecht Durer created a woodcut in 1513 entitled “Knight, Death and the Devil”. The print shows a knight fearlessly going out to face danger. A dog, the symbol of loyalty runs beside him, Death holds an hourglass symbolizing mortality, while the Devil, armed, looks on, representing temptation. The knight rides through a bleak and twisted landscape with a castle in the far distance (Cyber Muse, 2010). A copy of the image can be found in appendix A. Durer’s artwork is an image that reflects the core values of the medieval knight, when viewed in the context of the modern police officer it is a reflection of similar values. There are similarities between the medieval knight and his Code of Chivalry and the modern police officer and his code of ethics and oath of honor. See appendices B and C for Law Enforcement Oath of Honor and Law Enforcement Code of Ethics. An examination of this iconic figure from history could provide valuable lessons for modern police leaders. Incorporation of historical subject material like this should be used to reinforce the training of positive leadership traits during the training of police leaders.
As the medieval knight was becoming obsolete with the rise of state sponsored armies and the introduction of gunpowder into warfare in Europe; another warrior culture was blossoming on the other side of the world. In Japan, the culture of the samurai was in its height. The samurai were the warrior class of feudal Japan. The samurai followed the warrior code of bushido. Bushido is a two part word meaning the way of the warrior.
A study of the Japanese samurai and his Code of Bushido from history would provide opportunities for an examination of a leadership style with a focus on loyalty, duty and honor. Historical examples would reinforce these traits, which are key components to developing modern police leaders. Bushido is based on moral principals and an ethical code of conduct which established a way of life for the samurai. Bushido was a complete way of thinking that encompassed every aspect of the life of a samurai. Police leaders are also examples to those they lead, in both their professional and private lives. They also lead a way of life that emphasizes loyalty, duty, and honor, similar to that of a Japanese samurai.
The concept of loyalty was deeply ingrained in the samurai culture. Samurai warriors had a deep personal loyalty to their daimyo, or lord. This loyalty ran so deep at times they would commit junshi, by killing themselves upon the death of their lord (Fields, 1991). Life was considered a means of being able to serve, and was based on honor (Nitobe, 2009). Police leaders must demonstrate loyalty to their superiors, thier organization, and the community they serve.
Duty in bushido was known as Gi-ri. It was the duty owed to parents, superiors, to inferiors, and to society at large. Duty is what right reason orders us to do (Nitobe, 2009). Duty played a large part in shaping the commitment to service exemplified by the samurai. Law enforcement professionals rely on a sense of duty to provide the best service to the communities they protect.
Honor was a characteristic of great importance to the samurai culture. It was a warrior’s dignity and worth. High value was placed on having a good reputation. If a samurai committed a dishonorable act his entire family and clan would be dishonored, He was required to safeguard his own honor as well as that of his daimyo (French, 2003). A sense of honor is a foundation on which integrity is built. Integrity is a vital attribute for a police leader.
These same concepts of loyalty, duty, and honor are important characteristics that modern police leaders should be well acquainted with. Pendry (2008) stated that duty is about self discipline to do what must be done, to your best ability. He indicates that loyalty, to teammates makes higher loyalty possible. He wrote that honor includes all the values we live by and the commitment to abide by those values.
Loyalty, duty and honor are essential traits of police leaders. Valuable lessons related to these traits can be gained from an examination of the samurai culture of feudal Japan. The Feudal Period lasted from the 1500s till the late 1800s. This was the height of samurai culture and that period alone offers a wealth of material that could be applied to modern police leadership training. The American Plains Indians developed a warrior culture a world away from the medieval knight and the Japanese samurai. Separated from the others by both time and geography, the Plains Indians had a culture that had a strong sense of community and that was deeply spiritual. Warrior energy permeated nearly every aspect of their lives.
Police leaders of today can take away insightful lessons by examining the culture and history of the American Plains Indians. Their role as the protectors of their communities and the land that they inhabited has parallels with the function of police services in modern times. Therefore the inclusion of the lessons learned from a study of this culture in police leadership training would be beneficial.
The warriors of the American Plains Indians were required to protect as well as provide for their people. They also served as a sort of police force. They kept order and handled justice and retribution for the tribe. Their religious beliefs tied them to the earth and each tribe had a certain superiority associated with their own creation myth (French 2003).
Males of the tribe formed warrior societies that were responsible for the protection of the tribe. These were also hunting groups that provided for the community. Admission into a warrior society was based on merit. These were close knit groups. They fought and hunted together, much of their life revolved around the group. Pride and accomplishment were of the utmost importance in the group and in the tribe. Most importantly they vowed to protect the tribe (Fields,1991).
Modern police leaders are often responsible for developing teams. Building teams that have a reputation of high standards and a sense of tradition is an important part of the leader’s job. Looking at Plains Indians warrior societies provides police leaders with lessons on creating teams and the dynamics of team development. The Dog Soldiers of the Cheyenne were a fierce warrior society with the tradition of pinning themselves to a spot and fighting to the end (French, 2003). The study of the culture of these warrior societies provides applicable lessons for police leaders charged with the task of building teams.

COUNTER POSITION

History is written by the victors, and is subject to interpretive errors and biases of the historian. History is based on the interpretation of scarce and conflicting data, much of it lost over the intervening years. Every historian must therefore formulate his or her own interpretation of events, subject to any errors made by the historian and his or her biases on the subject. Since history is subject to these errors and biases a counter claim can be made that its worth as a training tool for police leadership is doubtful.
History is subject to the interpretation and biases of the historian. Since the historian must rely on incomplete data from the past each historian has to form his or her own interpretation of events. History being dependant on this interpretation is potentially flawed and is subject to the ideas and biases of the historian. The Romans defeated the Carthaginians and destroyed their entire civilization. The destruction was complete, to the point of the Romans sowing salt in the soil to prevent the Carthaginians from replanting their crops; ensuring they never came back. There are no Carthaginian records to draw from; they were destroyed. The only source material is Roman. Historians can only draw conclusions based on the limited information available. Historians must rely on the Roman point of view when researching contemporary accounts.
Revisionist history counters the claim of bias and interpretation error. History corrects itself as the field broadens and as more information becomes available through research and the discovery of new sources and pieces of evidence related to historical events and figures.
New information from recently discovered payrolls and ship manifests has fundamentally changed past beliefs about the Battle of Agincourt. Always considered a major English victory; where the English defeated a French force four times their number. The battle is frequently considered to be the formation point of British nationalism.
Newly uncovered records have shed light on the fact that the forces involved were more closely matched in number. This dispels centuries of historical belief about the extent of the English victory (Curry, 2005).
Novick (1988) stated that with continued growth in the profession of history, and the incorporation of other disciplines into the study of history, bias and interpretation becomes less of a factor. History will be revised and corrected on a continuing basis.
As the political world moves toward liberal democracies there is a tendency to meld history into a Universal History. This Universal History is a collective history of mankind and is a process moving to a certain endpoint. History, being a shared human history without regards to culture; diminishes the value of individual cultures and lessens the importance of the lessons learned from them (Fukuyama 1991). The lessons learned from history become less important to leadership as society becomes more just and socially ordered.
The rapid growth of the number of liberal democracies has increased markedly in the last half century. This gives rise to the concept of Universal History. The concept of Universal History sets forth the idea that all human history is shared and there is an end point of history. Universal History has the development of freedom as a central issue. History is considered a total concept where shared human history realizes that just political and social order are developed to a point where we can reach no further improvement. This would bring us to a theoretical point where history would end (Fukuyama, 1991).
The expansion of liberal democracy as a dominant form of government shows that mankind is moving to a more just and socially equitable world society. The number of liberal democracies doubled from 1975 to 1990. In the last century the number increased from thirteen to sixty one. This shows a pattern for all human societies, or a Universal History of mankind in the direction of liberal democracy. (Fukuyama, 1991, p. 48-50) If the function of history is to bring mankind’s existence to a common point then the importance of the history of separate cultures is diminished. The concept of Realism, being the pessimistic, framework for international relations, contrasts with the idea of Universal History. Realism proposes that all individual nations are threatened by others and must prepare to defend themselves. This defense will then be misinterpreted by others as aggression and they will look to arm themselves. Those states not in power will attempt to exert power over those that they can. Henry Kissinger, an advocate for Realism held the view that Universal History could not provide meaning or order to the chaos of competing nations and that liberalism was not special in that regard (Fukuyama, 1991). The concept of Realism refutes the idea of Universal History. The history of different nations and cultures then provide a set of unique, independent, lessons not associated with a unifying history. The lessons learned from each of these are then of value, and therefore useful for application to police leadership training.
Tactical training is more important to modern police leaders than academic training subject matter, such as history. Police operate in a tactical environment. Training that focuses directly on the leadership of police personnel by the police leader, at a tactical level, to accomplish specific goals, is more useful than academic subject material.
A review of course titles listed on the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officers Standards and Education (TCLEOSE) shows that tactical and technical courses are far more prevalent than academic courses (TCLEOSE 2011). The greatest amount of theses courses are Patrol/Tactical or Criminal Investigation. Common general knowledge about the duties of police officers is that they perform tactical and technical functions on a regular basis.
Academic subject matter such as the study of history has a strong application to the training of modern police leaders. While police do operate in a tactical environment, it is leadership that ensures that tactics are developed and implemented properly. This can be exemplified by the fact that leadership studies are taught in most academic institutions. The instruction of future military leaders at West Point has a strong foundation in academic training. The institution is in the business of creating leaders; leaders that will implement tactical methods (United States Military Academy at West Point Office of the Dean 2011).
Law enforcement leadership training programs recognize the importance of academic curricula. The Law Enforcement Management Institute of Texas places an emphasis on academic education. In describing the curriculum, the Leadership Command College (2011) stated “The instructional curriculum is a careful balance of proven management practice and sound academic research”.
RECOMMENDATION
Lessons from history are of great value and should be applied to modern police leadership training. The span of history provides centuries of material to draw from. Using leadership lessons from the past would provide useful insights to police leaders today.
Leadership training should be developed that has a focus on incorporating historical leadership examples from different cultures from different time periods. The training should provide insight into the qualities and virtues of a leader, and show examples from history. An examination of successful implementation of different strategies and tactics in an historical context should also be incorporated.
The application of historical subject material is applicable to modern police leadership. There are many sources that make the connection between leadership lessons of the past and modern leadership training. History provides a large amount of material to gain leadership insights from.
Modern police leaders operate in a culture that has much in common with warrior traditions from the past. Warrior cultures that developed on different continents during different time periods still provide useful lessons that can be applied to modern police leadership training. These lessons are timeless and are as valid today as when the concepts were formulated in the past.
The medieval knight with his Code of Chivalry provides an example of courageous leadership. There are parallels to his role in society and the role of modern police officers. The code of behavior he lived by is reflected in the modern police Oath of Honor and the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics.
The Japanese samurai culture was based on the virtues of loyalty, duty and honor. These same principles are the building blocks of modern police leadership. An examination of these virtues in their historical context could provide insight to modern police leaders.
A study of the warrior culture of the American Plains Indian provides examples of spiritual leadership. An examination of this culture shows definitive mirroring of modern police forces and the warrior societies of the different tribes. Historical lessons taken from this culture provides applicable information for modern police leadership training; notably in the area of team building.
The counter claim that history is not useful due to bias and interpretation errors is refuted by the fact that history revises itself as additional sources and research become available. The study of history as a vocation continues to grow and this allows for a broader range of topics to be explored more fully. The incorporation of other disciplines in historical study also allows for a decrease in error and bias.
The argument that history is moving to a Universal History with the world wide shift to liberal democracy, thereby diminishing the importance of individual civilizations is disputed by the concept of Realism, as viewed in the arena of international relations.
Realism puts forth the idea that states will always distrust each other and that no Universal History can bring order to the chaos. Nations remain distinct with their own individual cultural histories.
The opposing position that tactical training is more beneficial to police leaders than academic material such as history is challenged by the idea that leadership allows tactics to be carried out. The academic subject matter that develops leaders allows for development and implementation of tactics by modern police leaders and improves their effectiveness. Armed forces training academies are in the business of developing leaders and all have an academic focus that incorporates leadership lessons from history.
Given the amount of available source material and the widespread implementation of the lessons from history used in business and armed forces training academies for leadership development; there is a strong argument for their use in training modern police leaders. The counter positions that challenge the usefulness and applicability of historical subject material in the training of police leaders do not hold up. History remains an excellent source of lessons that should be applied to modern police leadership. There are established precedents that lessons from history are used to train other types of leaders. The use of history in those fields refutes arguments against its usefulness and applicability.
Police leaders whose leadership development training takes into account the leadership lessons of history will be better educated leaders. The lessons of history will provide a link to the past and carry a legacy forward to the modern police leader. By knowing what has been; police leaders will have a better idea of what may be. Well rounded police leaders are a benefit to the departments they work for, the officers they lead, and the communities they serve.

REFERENCES

Bing, S. (2000). What would Machiavelli Do? New York: Harper Collins

Braudy, L. (2003). From Chivalry to Terrorism New York: Knopf

Curry, A. (2005). Agincourt A New History Stroud, Gloucestershire, England: Tempus Publishing Limited

Cyber Muse (2010). Albrecht Durer: Knight, Death, and the Devil 1513 Retrieved from http://Artwork Page The Knight, Death, and the Devil.mht

Fields, R. (1991). The Code of the Warrior in History, Myth, and Everyday Life New York: Harper Collins

French, S. (2003). The Code of the Warrior: Exploring Warrior Values Past and Present Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield

Fukuyama, F. (1992). The End of History and the Last Man New York: Avon Books

Grossman, D & Christensen L. (2007). On Combat (2nd ed.) United States: PPCT Research Publications

Greene, R. (2006). The 33 Strategies of War New York, Viking Publishing

Leadership Command College (2011) Retrieved from http:// www.lemitonline.org/lcc/index.php

Machiavelli, N. (2008). The Prince and Other Writings (W.K. Marriott, Trans.) New York: Fall River Press

Nowick, P. (1988). That Noble Dream: The “Objectivity Question” and the American Historical Profession
Cambridge, England: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge

Nitobe, I. (2009). Bushido, the Soul of Japan [Kindle DX Version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com

Pendry, J. (2008). The Three Meter Zone: Common Sense Leadership for NCOs [Kindle DX Version]. Retrieved from Amazon.com

TCLEOSE (2011). General Course Reporting Numbers Retrieved from http:// www.tcleose.state.tx.us/content/training course list general.cfm

The Strategy Institute of the Boston Consulting Group (2001). Clausewitz on Strategy
New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

The United States Military Academy at West Point Office of the Dean (2011) Retrieved from http://www.dean.usma.edu/TeachingAndLearning/

Wheeler, T. (2000). Leadership Lessons from the Civil War New York: Doubleday

APPENDICES

A. The Knight, Death, and the Devil, woodcut by Albrecht Durer.

B. Law Enforcement Code of Honor

C. Law Enforcement Code of Ethics…...

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...Police History Nichole Perry CJA/214 August 24, 2014 Kevin Marshall Police History The history of the American police is fascinating because it gives insight to understanding policing today. American policing has changed drastically over the years and within the last decade of the twentieth century; the most creative period of policing has taken place (Walker & Katz, 2011). Sir Robert Peel and his principles of policing helped organize and establish clear chains of command and rules of conduct (Grant & Terry, 2012). These principles encouraged accountability and professionalism amongst officers (Grant & Terry, 2012). The U.S. government and the policing organizations throughout the United States have a working relationship but this relationship may affect police practices. The first police officer to go on patrol was a civilian that had received no training, patrolled on foot, had no radio to communicate with a dispatch, and did not carry a weapon (Walker & Katz, 2011). Furthermore, the officer had little education and did not have any manuals of policies or procedures to follow (Walker & Katz, 2011). In 1829 this all changed with the introduction of Sir Robert Peel’s Principles of policing. Peel operated the first modern police force that encouraged accountability and professionalism organized by military lines subject to clear chains of command and rules of conduct (Grant & Terry, 2012). Sir Robert Peel’s Principles are as follows: the police must be......

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Police History

...Police history plays an important role in today’s policing styles in the nation. Some individuals thinking policing styles and the history is based off of television shows and movies that are released which in reality is not true to a certain extent. “Up until the last two hundred years, most societies relied on individual citizens and communities to ensure that laws were upheld and criminals were apprehended (Grant and Terry, 2012).” After many years, societies and communities upheld this responsibility and implemented effective ways to enforce the law and maintain order. This is where law enforcement was originated after the Code of Hammurabi took place and soon England formed law enforcements based on individuals and tribal justice. After the collapse of the England law enforcement, in the early nineteenth century Sir Robert Peel became an important person on having an impact on American policing which has been used until this day. Sir Robert Peel served as Home Secretary in 1828 in which he wanted to set law enforcement in the city which later would be London Metropolitan Police. He served in “Ireland for many years and successfully organized the Royal Irish Constabulary, Peel was keen to reform the way in which law was enforce in England and create a new police force for the city of London (Grant and Terry, 2012).” By 1829, parliament passed the London Metropolitan Act in which it provided funds for establishing 1,000 police officer force and strict standards of......

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...Police History Gamaliel Diaz- Maldonado University of Phoenix Introduction To Police Theories And Practice (CJA/214) April 11, 2013 Police history The United States and Puerto Rico have a fast growing society. This Society with a different points of view and social class who divide the people and his positions in our community. Analyzing the situation in deferent’s point of views we always see a common merge to make the real situation work out for us and the persons who surrounds us. For some people the souses of strong punish laws and for other the respect for the authorities roles like cops, agents or detectives. But the base of a souses is the discipline of the laws enforcement it self. Some person’s base his trust in heroes or super heroes but the real “heroes” are the one who implement his discipline and work with passion. One of the principal subject or person to implement a innovative and modern concept police force is Sir Robert Peel. This person implement in the United Kingdom police force new and very useful techniques to have a better force. He star using identification number or batch numbers to identify the police man. This batch give the a position of authority in the society. This idea helps to have a perfect accountability of the police force personnel and different the public from the police in a typical situation. He implement a new principles of policing helping the force to have a better control of the situations and lowering down the crimes....

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...Police History Throughout the years, the United States has maintained a strong federal and state policy system, and because of this America has strong police history. When policing first began, colonists pursued the English style of policing. English style of policing consisted of monitoring the community on behaviors, morals, and civil obligations instead of criminal issues. Citizens carried out these policing responsibilities and were referred to as civic duties. There was no training or pay offered for these services. Wealthier people who didn't want to serve began to pay others to do their duties for them. Policing has continued to change in a positive way for America. (NY Region, 2014) In 1658 Philadelphia offered compensation for citizens for their service, and wardens employed watchmen. Watchmen's responsibilities were increased, and they were offered a salary as well. Motoring became a priority when towns and villages were formed and crime increased. Colonies began a system of sheriff's similar to the traditional policing in the English countryside. The sheriff's patrolled the community, and they also collected taxes and served court papers for a small fee. These sheriff's weren't too worried about crime being committed. (Davis, 2009) As time went on, policing focused more on crime prevention rather than crime detection and punishment for the crime that was committed. In the 1840's, guidelines improved relations between the community and......

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...Police History CJA 214 April 23, 2014 Police History The criminal justice system has changed throughout the centuries. The police force went from being non –participant in the lives of their communities to being active to make sure that their citizens were safe. They went from being called by their badge numbers to being called by their names. The government always had some participant in the police system, because they are who the department goes to when they have to make major decisions. If it was not for the justice system that we have had throughout the years then we would not be living in a safe community that we live in today. Most of us will agree that the system could use some work, but we are happy with what we have because we know that we are safe and there are people that we can go to if we feel like we are in trouble. The police and government are there to protect and serve the community to the best of their ability and the government is there to protect all of the citizens. Sir Robert Peel was a member of the Ireland forces and after serving many year, Peel was keen to reform the law in England. Peel’s ideas were resisted by Parliament because they feared his idea of introducing military tactics to improve police forces. Parliament eventually gave into Peel’s ideas and a number of officers were established by a strict standard of conduct and discipline. The officers were subjected to a chain of command and rules of conduct they had to follow. The chain...

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