Alpine Glacier Reconstruction

In: Science

Submitted By mjdlht
Words 789
Pages 4

Last Time
Glaciers and Glacial Mechanics
• • Types of glaciers (alpine) Formation of glacial ice • Movement of ice

GY 301: Geomorphology
Lecture 22: Glacial Geomorphology 1: Alpine Glaciers Glaciers
Glaciers are thick masses of ice that originate on land through the accumulation of snow.

Glaciers are thick masses of ice that originate on land through the accumulation of snow. Glaciers form through a 3 step process Snow Firn Glacial Ice

All that is required is for more snow to fall in the cold winter months than melts in the warm summer months.

Alpine Glaciers
Alpine or Valley Glaciers
(Zone of Accumulation; Zone of Wasting/Ablation, Calving,)

Ice Movement
Ice moves down slope from the zone of accumulation to the zone of ablation due to a combination of plastic flow and basal slip.


Ice Movement
Ice moves down slope from the zone of accumulation to the zone of ablation due to a combination of plastic flow and basal slip.

Geological Effects of Glaciers
Ice exerts tremendous erosive force on bedrock forming unique geomorphologic features and transporting great quantities of sediment …. … to be continued Firn 50 m


Today’s Lecture
Glacial Geomorphology (alpine variety)
• • Erosive features Depositional features

Alpine Glaciers and Erosion
When alpine glaciers form and advance, significant changes to the terrain will occur
Before Glaciation…...

Similar Documents


...* 1. Some historians argue that Radical Reconstruction was not radical enough. After studying the events of the late 19th century, defend whether or not you agree with this position. What are the long-term implications? * * From what I have learned from this class already this week is that the Radical Reconstruction was not as radical as it should have been. If President Lincoln would have lived longer after the Civil War the Reconstruction of the south Might have been handled better due to the fact that Lincoln could have handed it better than those that succeed him. With the intent of the Radical Reconstruction being to change the culture and in essence make the southern culture more like that of the culture of the north. The constant bickering between the different branches of our government at that time did not make the reconstruction as successful as it could have been. If the government would have used the same force in the enforcement of their laws as was done during the Civil War. The Reconstruction if it would have been true radical could have affected the south in two different ways one being a second uprising from the south which could have separated the United States permanently. Or the other way it could have gone as a situation where the entire country was under martial law and military control. The country could have easily fell into two different countries with the amount of differences that were had between the north and south, although it if......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3


...Reconstruction: The Post War Era Lindsay Pone Professor Goldstein History 105 Strayer University 01/30/2013 Reconstruction: The Post Civil War Era Friday April 12, 1861, America embarked into war with its biggest adversary; America! The American Civil War broke out, and what was believed to be a quick battle by the North, turned out to be a long bloody four years and left the country devastated. President Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, successfully lead this country through its greatest constitutional, military and moral crisis. Everything he did was in the best interest in preserving this nation to what it is today. If President Lincoln task of preserving the union would have failed, our nation would be a split nation today. All the events of the Civil War are what truly shaped the face of America today. The President knew that if he wanted to preserve this nation as a whole, not only would he have to win the war, but he would have to have a plan in place to immediately fix the nation to help it move forward from war. During his time in the white house and towards the end of the war, when it was evident the North would prevail, he worked on a reconstruction plan to get the South up and moving. During the war, the northern armies had gone through the South destroying everything that would help the south to prevail in the war. The agricultural belt that was the strength of the was nothing more than ashes......

Words: 1366 - Pages: 6


...Reconstruction The time period known as the Reconstruction was a turbulent, unstable, and scary one. The Southerners believed in white supremacy at all costs while the Northerners believed that all men should be free and equal. The problems that arose during this time are many. The ones that caused the most trouble in the deliverance of peace to all involved and the rebuilding of the south were the disagreements about how the reconstruction of the south should be handled between both the Republican and Democrat parties, there was also the belief that white supremacy should be put above all else in the white Southerner’s minds, and last but not lease was the violence that the newly freedmen and women faced as they tried to take advantage of the new rights that they had been given. The ‘New South’ was new in some ways but still the same old south in many ways. The president, Andrew Johnson, was an impediment to how the south was to be rebuilt. He was a Southern gentleman and was devoutly against the black man having any rights since according to him they would “relapse into barbarism” (p.8). They didn’t know how to govern themselves and wouldn’t know where to start. He refused to offer any support to the newly freed African Americans while they tried to avail themselves of their right to vote. It was fear and pride and the white supremacy that kept Andrew Johnson from enforcing the Klan Act that was passed. The ideas of......

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5


...Reconstruction was the time period after the Civil War, were rebuilding and equality was goal. The rebuilding part was a success while equality in the lives of blacks and whites were not. The failure of reconstruction to bring social and economic equality of opportunity for formers slaves were because of Anti-black violence groups, scandals in the government, and economic turmoil's. The most prominent founded social club for Confederate veterans formed an organization or group called The Ku Klux Klan or KKK, which started in Tennessee. The goal of the KKK was to restore white superiority and to turn the Republicans who had established the Reconstruction governments out of power. Their methods were mainly to keep blacks from using their political power which includes voting rights. The KKK was not the only organization with the same goals in mind. The KK and other secret groups killed thousands of men, women and children; they also burned down schools, churches and property's not only of blacks but whites who tried to help them. Due to scandals plagued in Grant administration attention was took away from circumstances in the South. Grant often choice friends and associates as appointees which frequently turned out to be dishonest. During 1872 long-simmering scandals took place on with a construction company that had ripped off large profits from a government railroad contract. A group angered by all the scandals, the Liberal Republican party set out to drive out Grant for......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2


...Reconstruction Ramon Diaz HIS/125 12/8/2013 Kristopher Daniels 1. Columbian historian Eric Foner (1983) quotes W. E. B. DuBois in calling Reconstruction a “splendid failure (p. 16).” After studying the events of the late 19th century, defend whether or not you agree with his position. What are the long-term implications? After having an opportunity to research and study the facts of the events of the late 19th century, I definitely have to agree with W. E. B. DuBois quote, which calls Reconstruction a “splendid failure”. When President Lincoln introduced the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in 1863, the three main goals were to restore the Union, transform southern society, and enact some type of progressive legislation protecting the rights of blacks. Soon after the Civil War ended the process of reconstruction began and some progress was made. A number of new liberal laws and amendments were enacted by Congress that protected the rights of all blacks under constitutional law. This laws and amendments included; the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery, the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment which granted blacks citizenship, the Fifteenth Amendment which gave black men the right to vote, and the Civil Rights Act of 1875 which banned racial discrimination in all public places. By the end of the 19th century, the Nation was reunited once again, and all the states in the south had abolished slavery in their own individual......

Words: 932 - Pages: 4


...The essay below was a very strong essay answering the question about Reconstruction. It was an actual essay (word for word) written by one of the students in class. It received 28.5 points out of 30. This was a great essay; about the only comment I would write was that the thesis in the introduction could have been a little more direct: As a country, America has gone though many political changes throughout her lifetime. Leaders have come and gone, all of them having different objectives and plans for the future. As history takes its course, though, most all of these “revolutionary movements” come to an end. One such movement was Reconstruction. Reconstruction was a time period in America consisting of many leaders, goals and accomplishments. Though, like all things in life, it did come to an end, the resulting outcome has been labeled both a success and a failure. When Reconstruction began in 1865, a broken America had just finished fighting the Civil War. In all respects, Reconstruction was mainly just that. It was a time period of “putting back the pieces”, as people say. It was the point where America attempted to become a full running country once more. This, though, was not an easy task. The memory of massive death was still in the front of everyone’s mind, hardening into resentment and sometimes even hatred. The south was virtually non-existent politically or economically, and searching desperately for a way back in. Along with these things, now......

Words: 1268 - Pages: 6


...Glaciers by Crystal Sweet Rasmussen College Author’s Note This paper is being submitted for Introduction to Geology course at Rasmussen College to Dr. Nikki Strong on June 16, 2013, by Crystal Sweet. When you think fresh water what comes to mind? Perhaps a bottle of water or a stream that is so clear you can see the bottom, did you ever think of glaciers? Glaciers actually store up to 75% of our fresh water (NSIDC, 2013). This natural occurrence has happened many years and at one time it actually had covered up to 32% (NSIDC, 2013) of the earth which occurred when there was an ice age. Figure [ 1 ]: Layers of Glaciers ( Figure [ 1 ]: Layers of Glaciers ( Glaciers are all over the world the only place that doesn’t have glaciers is Australia. You may not believe it but even Africa has glaciers. Glaciers start out as snowflakes but need to have the right environment to grow into a glacier. Most are found in areas that have large amounts of snow fall in the winters and the warm seasons stay cool so the snow doesn’t melt completely. So the snow from the winter starts to melt but does not completely melt, then it forms into ice and new snowfalls on the layer of ice that winter; this circle keeps happening and the glaciers grow and eventually start to move because of its own weight. They can be as small as a football field or as enormous as......

Words: 2470 - Pages: 10


...Reconstruction Essay By the time that the civil war came to an end the South was in shambles in just about every area imaginable. Many things were destroyed in the South, entire cities, farms and plantations were destroyed and left the South in much need of being rebuilt. The economy of the South was also very bad, inflation became such an issue that very simple items began to cost hundreds of dollars each and as a result many people died of starvation and couldn’t afford essential items. Taking all of this into account, by 1865 Washington had a pretty daunting task of rebuilding the South. Right after major victories in Gettysburg and Vicksburg in 1863 President Lincoln began putting his plan into action to reunify the North and the South. Lincoln was under belief that the South had never legally seceded from the Union so as a first act to get reconstruction under way he announced the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction in 1863. Lincoln created another plan to move reconstruction forward and this was the Ten Percent Plan. The Ten Percent Plan specified that a Southern state could be readmitted to the Union after ten percent of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to the Union. This plan effectively and efficiently ended the war quickly although radical republicans clamored for a higher percentage of people to swear an oath to the Union. It was definitely a plan that enticed the South to surrender quickly. Similar to Lincoln, President Johnson wanted to get......

Words: 931 - Pages: 4

A Gis‐Based Reconstruction of Little Ice Age Glacier Maximum Extensions for South Tyrol, Italy

...Research Article  A GIS‐based reconstruction of Little Ice Age glacier maximum  extensions for South Tyrol, Italy    5 Christoph Knoll    Department of Geography  University of Innsbruck          Hanns Kerschner        Department of Geography    University of Innsbruck    Armin Heller   10     Philipp Rastner  15 20 25 30 35 40 Department of Geography     Institute for Applied Remote Sensing  University of Innsbruck     EURAC Bolzano    Keywords: Little Ice Age, glacier reconstruction, glacier development, GIS    Abstract  A reconstruction method of historical glacier topographies and a possibility of the usage  of these results are demonstrated in this paper. This reconstruction was accomplished  for 310 Alpine glaciers in South Tyrol, Italy. These glaciers are featured with a wealth of  different  historical  (e.g.  paintings,  photographs  and  historical  maps)  and  recent  data  sources  (airborne  laser  scan  based  digital  terrain  model  and  digital  orthophotos)  that  allow  the  reconstruction  of  the  Little  Ice  Age  maximum  extension.  These  sources  are  among the best historical and recent documents of glaciers for the mid 19th century.  The  results  of  this  reconstruction  visualize  the  ongoing  climate  change  in  a  comprehensive way. The area changes between the time of the Little Ice Age maximum  extent  (around  the  year  1850)  and  the  recent  glaciation  in  2006  amounts  in ......

Words: 4089 - Pages: 17

Glaciers • The current sea-level rise is about 3mm/year Source: Some examples of glaciers on Earth • Arctic Sea Ice › Location: Arctic Ocean › has shrunk by 6 percent since 1978 with a 14 percent loss of thicker, year-round ice. Has thinned by 40 percent in less than 30 years. • Greenland Ice Sheets › Location: Greenland › has thinned by more than a meter a year on its southern and eastern edges since 1993. • Columbia Glacier › Location: Alaska, U.S. › has retreated nearly 13 kilometres since 1982. In 1999, retreat rate increased from 25 metres per day to 35 metres. Physics SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT (L) - the specific latent heat of a material is the amount if heat required to chance the state if 1 kilogram of the material without changing its temperature. (Unit: J/kg) • Specific latent heat (L)- 334 kJ/kg • Heat required to change the state of ice to liquid (Q)- 8.037042 x 1024 J Sources: Lf – Q – I calculated it. In this presentation we will be talking about ICE. Which is one of the 3 states water can be. This presentation will focus on the environmental and social consequences that we would face if all the glaciers on earth would melt. We will talk about how much ice there is on earth, where they can be found and the ways we can do to minimise the melting of ice. We will......

Words: 367 - Pages: 2


...freedmen and white refugees. Union general Oliver O. Howard led the bureau. The bureau's greatest success was teaching blacks to read. Because it was despised by the President and by Southerners, the Freedmen's Bureau expired in 1872. Johnson: The Tailor President When Andrew Johnson was in Congress, he refused to secede with his own state of Tennessee. Johnson was listed as the Vice President on Lincoln's 1864 election ticket to gain support from the War Democrats and other pro-Southern elements. Johnson was a strong supporter of state's rights and of the Constitution. He was a Southerner who did not understand the North and a Democrat who had not been accepted by the Republicans. Presidential Reconstruction In 1863, Lincoln released his "10 percent" Reconstruction plan which dictated that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of its voters in the presidential election of 1860 had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States and pled...

Words: 271 - Pages: 2


...Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Glacier Glacier, any large mass of perennial ice that originates on land by the recrystallization of snow or other forms of solid precipitation and that shows evidence of past or present flow. Exact limits for the terms large, perennial, and flow cannot be set. Except in size, a small snow patch that persists for more than one season is hydrologically indistinguishable from a true glacier. One international group has recommended that all persisting snow and ice masses larger than 0.1 square kilometre (about 0.04 square mile) be counted as glaciers. Glaciers are classifiable in three main groups: (1) glaciers that extend in continuous sheets, moving outward in all directions, are called ice sheets if they are the size of Antarctica or Greenland and ice caps if they are smaller; (2) glaciers confined within a path that directs the ice movement are called mountain glaciers; and (3) glaciers that spread out on level ground or on the ocean at the foot of glaciated regions are called piedmont glaciers or ice shelves, respectively. Glaciers in the third group are not independent and are treated here in terms of their sources: ice shelves with ice sheets, piedmont glaciers with mountain glaciers. A complex of mountain glaciers burying much of a mountain range is called an ice field. Distribution of glaciers A most interesting aspect of recent geological time (some 30 million years ago to the present) has been the recurrent expansion and......

Words: 927 - Pages: 4


...The Reconstruction IB History of the Americas HL November 10, 2014 The Reconstruction from 1865—1877 would prove to be, in many ways, more difficult than the war itself, despite the victory of the Northern States. Furthermore, many questions began to arise regarding post-war reparations. Because there were so many different views of how the Reconstruction was to be accomplished there was tremendous conflict. After four years of war, despite defeat, some of the southerners remained defiant in returning to the Union. In addition, the roles of liberated blacks were also in question. Although there was conflict, the Reconstruction fulfilled its aims to the extent of granting freedom to liberated blacks, restoring the southern states to the Union and reestablishing their political structure, and the establishment of civil rights for liberated blacks. This was executed through the Presidential, Congressional and Military Reconstructions. To begin, the Presidential Reconstruction was the beginning of defining the voice of freedom for liberated blacks after the civil war. Furthermore, the Presidential Reconstruction began the upstart of a political war as principal Reconstruction proposals and plans were beginning to be implemented in order reform the Union. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln introduces his “10 percent” Reconstruction Plan. Although it is eventually replaced by Andrew Johnson’s own Reconstruction proclamation in 1865, it proposed that a state could be readmitted......

Words: 883 - Pages: 4


...After the end of the civil war in 1865 and the abolition of slavery, a period of reconstruction followed where by the government hoped to seize control of the south and rebuild America. Some historians argue this was a promising period for the newly freed slaves where as others would argue it was a crisis and thus a negative period for the African Americans. When looking at reconstruction one must consider the economic, legal, social and political impacts it had on the African Americans. One argument that suggests that reconstruction was promising for the African Americans was the passing of the 14th amendment. This stated that all persons born or naturalized in America were citizens. Not only did this overturn the black codes but also meant that states could not limit the right of citizenship for African Americans, resulting in them having the full protection of the law. Moreover the passing of this law secured the rights for black children (from two freed slaves) as well as securing the rights for black Americans in the future. Therefore providing strong evidence to why reconstruction was promising for AA’s. Furthermore, the 15th amendment was also passed during the period of reconstructions which intended to secure the voting rights for AA’s. As a result of this 700,000 AA’s registered to vote, not only was this a success for AA’s, some historians argue that it was also a big success for the republican party as it secured the vote of the African Americans,......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2


...Glaciers A glacier is a huge mass of ice on land or floating in the sea next to land. Glaciers move extremely slowly. Regions with continuous snowfall and freezing temperatures are the perfect place for glaciers. It is so cold that when a snowflake hits the ground it does not melt, it combines with other snowflakes to form large grains of ice. As it snows more, the weight and pressure squeeze these grains of ice together to form a glacier. Most glaciers form in high mountain regions such as the Himalayas or the Alps. Glaciers are also found in Antarctica, Greenland, Iceland, Canada, Alaska, and the Andes of South America. Glaciers cover about 10% of Earths land and hold around 77% of Earths freshwater. There are two types of glaciers. They are alpine and continental. Most glaciers that form in a mountain are alpine glaciers. There are several types of alpine glaciers. Crique: A crique is a bowl shped hollow at the head of a valley. Inside there is a snowfield, this is the place where snow accumulates to form a cirque glacier. Valley: A glacier that is in an area eroded by a stream is called a valley glacier. Piedmont: A piedmont glacier is formed when multiple vally glaciers come together as a large stretch of flat line. Tidewater: A tidewater glacier is a glacier that meets the sea. A process called Calving occurs when a piece of the glacier breaks off into the sea forming a large mass of floating ice known as an iceburg...

Words: 486 - Pages: 2