Action of Amylase on Starch

In: Science

Submitted By xlaonewbie
Words 1200
Pages 5
Experiment 8. The hydrolysis of starch with hydrochloric acid

(a) Prepare a water bath by half filling a 250 cm3 beaker with warm water and heating it to boiling point on a tripod and gauze, with a Bunsen burner. When the water boils, reduce the flame to keep the water at boiling point.

(b) Label four test-tubes 1-4.

(c) Copy the table given below into your notebook.

(d) In each tube place 5 cm3 3% starch solution.

(e) Using a syringe or graduated pipette, add 3 cm3 Benedict's solution to the starch solution in tube 1 and place the tube in the boiling water bath for five minutes.

(f) Rinse the syringe or pipette and use it to add 1 cm3 dilute hydrochloric acid to the starch solution in each of tubes 2, 3 and 4. Note the time and place all three tubes in the water bath. (They will be removed at five, ten and fifteen minutes respectively).

(g) Remember to remove tube 1 from the water bath after five minutes if you have not already done so.

(h) After five minutes, remove tube 2 from the water bath and cool it under the tap. Neutralize the acid by adding solid sodium bicarbonate, a little at a time, until the addition of one portion produces no fizzing. Place tube in the rack and return to tube 3.

(i) After ten minutes in the water bath, remove tube 3, cool and neutralize the contents as described in (h). Place the tube in the rack.

(j) After fifteen minutes in the water bath, remove tube 4; cool and neutralize as before, and place it in the rack.

(k) With a dropping pipette, remove a sample of the liquid from tube 2 and place 3 drops on a spotting tile. Rinse the pipette and repeat the procedure for tubes 3 and 4. Add one drop of dilute iodine to each drop of liquid on the tile.

(l) Rinse the syringe or pipette and use it to place 3 cm3 Benedict's solution in each of tubes 2, 3 and 4. Return all three tubes to the water bath…...

Similar Documents

Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions

...Title : Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions Objective : To investigate the action of saliva and 3 hydrochloric acid in two carbohydrate solution Results Table1: Observation Conclusion Solution A Benedict’s test: Blue coloration turned to brick red precipitate. Reducing sugar is present in the solution A. Iodine test: The coloration remained unchanged. Starch is absent in solution A. Solution B Benedict’s test: The blue coloration remained unchanged. Reducing sugar is absent in solution B. Iodine test: The coloration turn into dark blue coloration. Starch is present in solution B. Table 2: Tube Contents Temperature(°C) Benedict's Test-Colour Observation After min 5th min (from tubes 1 - 4 into 1' - 4') After 35th min (from tubes 1 - 4 into 1' - 4') 1 10 ml solution B 1 ml saliva 37 Blue coloration turned into translucent green. Blue coloration turned to green and finally moderate amount of brick red precipitate suspended in solution. The solution was opaque. 2 10 ml solution B 3 M HCI 37 The blue coloured solution remains unchanged. The blue coloured solution remains unchanged. 3 10 ml solution B 3 M HCI 95 White coloured translucent suspension formed in moderate amount. A very big amount of white suspension formed which is very opaque. Turned back into translucent and remaining solution was blue which is translucent. 4 10 ml......

Words: 587 - Pages: 3

Biol Lab Relationship Between Salivary Amylase & Phosphorylase

...to specific chemical reaction. In order for enzymes to process properly, they should maintain a specific three dimensional structure. When enzymes function, they combine with their substrates (reactant) to form susbtrate-enzyme complex. Then this complex converts into a product and unaltered enzyme. Substrate + Enzyme  Substrate-Enzyme Complex  Product + Enzyme OR Substrate –Enzyme Product (From this equation, in general, the reaction of enzyme is irreversible.) Some of the factors that affect the rate of reaction are temperature, pH, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, product concentration, etc. The rate of reaction is affected by the level of pH. The extreme level of pH can denature enzyme and result loss of its action. The optimum pH is 14 and this is the level of pH where the rate of reaction is the highest. Temperature also affects the rate of reaction. As temperature increases, the rate of reaction increases as well; however, it increases until the optimum temperature. After optimum temperature, the enzyme denatured. The concentration of enzyme and substrate affect the rate of reaction. In theory, the higher the concentration of substrate, the faster the reaction rate processes. This is because when the concentration of substrate increases, the higher the chance of substrates attaching with the enzymes; however, when the concentration reaches the optimum value, the reaction rate will not increase anymore. For enzyme concentration, as enzyme......

Words: 817 - Pages: 4

Effects of Different Ph Level on Amylase in Starch

...pH Level on Amylase in Starch Introduction Amylase, a family of proteins that differ in isoforms, is a digestive enzyme found in saliva and pancreatic fluid that helps digest starch into simple sugars. (Scannapieco et. al., 1993). Amylase is the first step in digesting starch, which is used for the intake of carbohydrates or energy in humans. (Butterworth et. al., 2011). Amylase functions in the hydrolysis of starches, which produces glucose monomers. (Karp, 2010). This is essential in glycolysis and the harvesting of ATP. Since amylase is also a protein that performs enzymatic reactions, the secondary and tertiary structures are affected by external stimuli like pH. (Karp, 2010). When the structure is altered the affinity of the enzyme is changed. (Luesse, 2012). The point where the majority of enzymes are found to be most active is in the neutral pH range near 7. (Guyot et. al., 2000). Therefore, it can be said that extremely high or low pH’s denature an enzyme. By finding the specific pH at which amylase is most active, optimum production can be achieved. (Guyot et. al, 2000). In our experiment, we want to determine what pH levels is optimum for the enzymatic activity of amylase. To see if starch is broken down to glucose amylase, a spectrophotomer is used to see the amount of light that passed through. The more light that passes through the test tube means more starch was broken down into glucose. (Luesse, 2012). We hypothesized that the enzyme amylase will be......

Words: 2927 - Pages: 12

Biology Amylase

...Anthony Bodnar Bio/ 211 Amylase/Osmolarity The reading I chose was the “Inhibition of salivary amylase activity by cigarette smoke aldehydes”. The first thing I read is this article is done by Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology in Haifa, Israel. This for me is always a good sign because it seems to be credible right off the jump. We begin by stating one of the most obvious or at least it should be the obvious that cigarette smoke is a leading cause of cancer and cardiovascular disease worldwide. This should be known no matter who you are. The effect of cigarette smoke has many damaging effects on the body that are irreversible. Some toxicity in CS are linked with alpha and beta unsaturated aldehydes and saturated aldehydes. The aldehydes have interactions with thiol compounds ( organosulfur compound) that contain a sulfur-hydrogen bond. When these reactions happen there is an alteration in function that is not good. With studies showing significant decrease in the ability for are amylase enzyme to function properly this can be detrimental for any positive function we need to digest and break down what is potentially harmful. Although they were able to find glutathione has protective effect against the damage CS has on the body I still feel that it is almost inevitable that CS will ruin all function of enzymes. It is great to find cures or help for something damaging don’t get me wrong. This article needs more to it for it was really......

Words: 391 - Pages: 2

Starch

...rch Experiment 2: Starch Hydrolysis by Amylase Theoretical Background Polymers of carbohydrates are called polysaccharides, and make up some of the most important naturally occurring compounds [1]. They have thousands of monosaccharide units linked to each other by oxygen bridges. They include starch, glycogen, and cellulose, all three of which yield only glucose when completely hydrolyzed [2]. A [pic] B [pic] Figure 1. Starch (amylose) (A) and cellulose (B) Starch occurs naturally in plants, which use it to storage glucose units for energy. It is often found in seeds and tubers (e.g., potatoes). It consists of two kinds of polymers of glucose. The simpler kind is called amylose, and it makes up about 20% of starch. It is basically a chain of glucose units linked by α – 1,4 – glycosidic bonds. During digestion, the oxygen bridges are hydrolyzed and the glucose units are broken up. 80% of starch is a water insoluble fraction called amylopectin [2], which is a branched chain polysaccharide with again α – 1,4 – glycosidic bonds. At approximately every 25 glucose units, a branching of glucose units, exists. Upon treatment with acid or under the influence of enzymes, the components of starch are hydrolyzed progressively to dextrins (mixture of low melting polysaccharides, made up of 3 – 8 glucose units), maltose and finally D-glucose [3]. Starch obtained by animals from plants is stored in the animal body in the form of glycogen....

Words: 1548 - Pages: 7

The Action of Saliva on Starch

...Experiment 9. The action of saliva on starch Study the flow chart on p. 9.02 for a few minutes to gain an idea of the outline of the experiment. (a) Prepare a water bath by using a Bunsen burner to heat some water in a beaker on a tripod and gauze till it boils; then turn the flame down to keep the water just boiling. While waiting for the water to boil, carry on from (b). (b) Label eight test-tubes 1 - 8 and in tube 1 collect saliva as follows: (i) Thoroughly rinse the mouth with water to remove food residues (ii) Collect about 50 mm saliva. (c) Pour half the saliva into tube 2 and place the tube in the boiling water bath for 3 minutes. (d) Using a graduated pipette or syringe, add 5 cm3 2% starch solution to tubes 3,4 and 7. (e) Rinse the pipette or syringe and use it to transfer 5 cm3 boiled saliva from tube 2 to tube 3. Shake the tube sideways to mix the contents. (f) Use the graduated pipette or syringe to transfer 5 cm3 unboiled saliva from tube 1 to tube 4. Shake the tube to mix the contents. (g) Leave tubes 3 and 4 to stand for five minutes and copy the table below into your notebook. (h) After five minutes, pour half the contents of tube 3 (the boiled saliva and starch) into tube 5 and add three drops of iodine solution to tube 5. (i) To the remaining liquid in tube 3, add about 20 mm Benedict's solution and place the tube in the boiling water bath for 5 minutes. (j) Pour half the contents of tube 4 (starch and saliva)......

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

Action of Saliva

...nvestigation of Action of Saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions Title : Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions Objective : To investigate the action of saliva and 3 hydrochloric acid in two carbohydrate solution Results Table1: Observation Conclusion Solution A Benedict’s test: Blue coloration turned to brick red precipitate. Reducing sugar is present in the solution A. Iodine test: The coloration remained unchanged. Starch is absent in solution A. Solution B Benedict’s test: The blue coloration remained unchanged. Reducing sugar is absent in solution B. Iodine test: The coloration turn into dark blue coloration. Starch is present in solution B. Table 2: Tube Contents Temperature(°C) Benedict's Test-Colour Observation After min 5th min (from tubes 1 - 4 into 1' - 4') After 35th min (from tubes 1 - 4 into 1' - 4') 1 10 ml solution B 1 ml saliva 37 Blue coloration turned into translucent green. Blue coloration turned to green and finally moderate amount of brick red precipitate suspended in solution. The solution was opaque. 2 10 ml solution B 3 M HCI 37 The blue coloured solution remains unchanged. The blue coloured solution remains unchanged. 3 10 ml solution B 3 M HCI 95 White coloured translucent suspension formed in moderate amount. A very big amount of white suspension formed which is very opaque. Turned back......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Starch on Saliva

...Experiment 9. The action of saliva on starch Study the flow chart on p. 9.02 for a few minutes to gain an idea of the outline of the experiment. (a) Prepare a water bath by using a Bunsen burner to heat some water in a beaker on a tripod and gauze till it boils; then turn the flame down to keep the water just boiling. While waiting for the water to boil, carry on from (b). (b) Label eight test-tubes 1 - 8 and in tube 1 collect saliva as follows: (i) Thoroughly rinse the mouth with water to remove food residues (ii) Collect about 50 mm saliva. (c) Pour half the saliva into tube 2 and place the tube in the boiling water bath for 3 minutes. (d) Using a graduated pipette or syringe, add 5 cm3 2% starch solution to tubes 3,4 and 7. (e) Rinse the pipette or syringe and use it to transfer 5 cm3 boiled saliva from tube 2 to tube 3. Shake the tube sideways to mix the contents. (f) Use the graduated pipette or syringe to transfer 5 cm3 unboiled saliva from tube 1 to tube 4. Shake the tube to mix the contents. (g) Leave tubes 3 and 4 to stand for five minutes and copy the table below into your notebook. (h) After five minutes, pour half the contents of tube 3 (the boiled saliva and starch) into tube 5 and add three drops of iodine solution to tube 5. (i) To the remaining liquid in tube 3, add about 20 mm Benedict's solution and place the tube in the boiling water bath for 5 minutes. (j) Pour half the contents of tube 4 (starch and saliva)......

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

Saliva on Starch

...Experiment 9. The action of saliva on starch Study the flow chart on p. 9.02 for a few minutes to gain an idea of the outline of the experiment. (a) Prepare a water bath by using a Bunsen burner to heat some water in a beaker on a tripod and gauze till it boils; then turn the flame down to keep the water just boiling. While waiting for the water to boil, carry on from (b). (b) Label eight test-tubes 1 - 8 and in tube 1 collect saliva as follows: (i) Thoroughly rinse the mouth with water to remove food residues (ii) Collect about 50 mm saliva. (c) Pour half the saliva into tube 2 and place the tube in the boiling water bath for 3 minutes. (d) Using a graduated pipette or syringe, add 5 cm3 2% starch solution to tubes 3,4 and 7. (e) Rinse the pipette or syringe and use it to transfer 5 cm3 boiled saliva from tube 2 to tube 3. Shake the tube sideways to mix the contents. (f) Use the graduated pipette or syringe to transfer 5 cm3 unboiled saliva from tube 1 to tube 4. Shake the tube to mix the contents. (g) Leave tubes 3 and 4 to stand for five minutes and copy the table below into your notebook. (h) After five minutes, pour half the contents of tube 3 (the boiled saliva and starch) into tube 5 and add three drops of iodine solution to tube 5. (i) To the remaining liquid in tube 3, add about 20 mm Benedict's solution and place the tube in the boiling water bath for 5 minutes. (j) Pour half the contents of tube 4 (starch and saliva)......

Words: 1107 - Pages: 5

Hydrolysis of Starch

...Experiment 8. The hydrolysis of starch with hydrochloric acid (a) Prepare a water bath by half filling a 250 cm3 beaker with warm water and heating it to boiling point on a tripod and gauze, with a Bunsen burner. When the water boils, reduce the flame to keep the water at boiling point. (b) Label four test-tubes 1-4. (c) Copy the table given below into your notebook. (d) In each tube place 5 cm3 3% starch solution. (e) Using a syringe or graduated pipette, add 3 cm3 Benedict's solution to the starch solution in tube 1 and place the tube in the boiling water bath for five minutes. (f) Rinse the syringe or pipette and use it to add 1 cm3 dilute hydrochloric acid to the starch solution in each of tubes 2, 3 and 4. Note the time and place all three tubes in the water bath. (They will be removed at five, ten and fifteen minutes respectively). (g) Remember to remove tube 1 from the water bath after five minutes if you have not already done so. (h) After five minutes, remove tube 2 from the water bath and cool it under the tap. Neutralize the acid by adding solid sodium bicarbonate, a little at a time, until the addition of one portion produces no fizzing. Place tube in the rack and return to tube 3. (i) After ten minutes in the water bath, remove tube 3, cool and neutralize the contents as described in (h). Place the tube in the rack. (j) After fifteen minutes in the water bath, remove tube 4; cool and neutralize as before, and place it in the......

Words: 1200 - Pages: 5

Starch Hydrolysis by Amylase

...Experiment 2: Starch Hydrolysis by Amylase Theoretical Background Polymers of carbohydrates are called polysaccharides, and make up some of the most important naturally occurring compounds [1]. They have thousands of monosaccharide units linked to each other by oxygen bridges. They include starch, glycogen, and cellulose, all three of which yield only glucose when completely hydrolyzed [2]. A [pic] B [pic] Figure 1. Starch (amylose) (A) and cellulose (B) Starch occurs naturally in plants, which use it to storage glucose units for energy. It is often found in seeds and tubers (e.g., potatoes). It consists of two kinds of polymers of glucose. The simpler kind is called amylose, and it makes up about 20% of starch. It is basically a chain of glucose units linked by α – 1,4 – glycosidic bonds. During digestion, the oxygen bridges are hydrolyzed and the glucose units are broken up. 80% of starch is a water insoluble fraction called amylopectin [2], which is a branched chain polysaccharide with again α – 1,4 – glycosidic bonds. At approximately every 25 glucose units, a branching of glucose units, exists. Upon treatment with acid or under the influence of enzymes, the components of starch are hydrolyzed progressively to dextrins (mixture of low melting polysaccharides, made up of 3 – 8 glucose units), maltose and finally D-glucose [3]. Starch obtained by animals from plants is stored in the animal body in the form of glycogen.......

Words: 1547 - Pages: 7

Effect of Water Temperature on Amylase Using Colorimetric Starch Assay

...Effect of Water Temperature on Amylase Using Colorimetric Starch Assay Introduction For plants to function properly, chemical reactions must take place within the cells of each individual plant. Energy is necessary for each reaction to occur. The amount of energy that is necessary for a reaction is called the activation energy. Enzymes are used to reach the correct activation energy in plants. They lower the activation energy to the correct amount for the reaction to take place. Certain enzymes catalyze certain reactions, which means that many enzymes to operate the cell. On each cell, there is a spot where the substrate will attach to the enzyme (active site). When the substrate and the enzyme come in contact with each other, it creates an enzyme-substrate complex. The enzyme and substrate then connect. This connection causes the pace of the reaction to speed up, causing a chemical reaction. Once the reaction has taken place, the enzyme is released out so it can perform more reactions with more substrates. Without enzymes, a cells metabolism would not be fast enough for the organism to function in the correct manner. This is evident when pertaining to the enzyme, amylase, which is found in corn. Amylase is in a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules, such as maltose. It is the also the digestive enzyme needed to digest carbohydrates. Corn is an important crop farmed in the US. Amylase is used in germinating seeds by...

Words: 1524 - Pages: 7

Ph on Amylase Function

...The effect of pH on salivary amylase Introduction: Saliva in the mouth contains the protein salivary amylase which acts on starches to break them down into mono- and disaccharides.(2) Saliva has been found to have an average pH level of about 6.78 +/- when tested in various locations of the mouth from multiple healthy individuals.(1) Saliva acts as a buffer against any possible changes in the pH from acids produced from bacteria, maintaining the oral cavity at an almost neutral pH level.(3) If saliva was introduced to a differing pH than its optimal pH, it would cause the amylase action to either decrease or cease functioning all together if the pH changed dramatically enough. With the given information, it could be said that salivary amylase would be at its optimal functioning level at around the average saliva pH of 6.78.(1) A change in pH would be detrimental to amylase given the protein nature of amylase and the instability of proteins in more acidic or basic pH concentrations.(3) When proteins are surrounded by an acidic pH, they become unstable due to the increase in positive charge from the disassociated hydrogen ions, the positive charge acting to pull the proteins out of their folded shape.(3) In similar opposition, when proteins are surrounded by a basic pH, they are instead pulled apart by the negative charge produced by the increased amount of hydroxide ions.(3) Methods: In this experiment, a saliva solution was procured by......

Words: 999 - Pages: 4

Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions

...Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions Title : Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate Solutions Objective : To investigate the action of saliva and 3 hydrochloric acid in two carbohydrate solution Results Table1: Observation Conclusion Solution A Benedict’s test: Blue coloration turned to brick red precipitate. Reducing sugar is present in the solution A. Iodine test: The coloration remained unchanged. Starch is absent in solution A. Solution B Benedict’s test: The blue coloration remained unchanged. Reducing sugar is absent in solution B. Iodine test: The coloration turn into dark blue coloration. Starch is present in solution B. Table 2: Tube Contents Temperature(°C) Benedict's Test-Colour Observation After min 5th min (from tubes 1 - 4 into 1' - 4') After 35th min (from tubes 1 - 4 into 1' - 4') 1 10 ml solution B 1 ml saliva 37 Blue coloration turned into translucent green. Blue coloration turned to green and finally moderate amount of brick red precipitate suspended in solution. The solution was opaque. 2 10 ml solution B 3 M HCI 37 The blue coloured solution remains unchanged. The blue coloured solution remains unchanged. 3 10 ml solution B 3 M HCI 95 White coloured translucent suspension formed in moderate amount. A very big amount of white suspension formed which is very opaque. Turned......

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Starch Structure

...Ethyl acetate Starch structure Naoh Appearance:Clear, colorless solution.Odor:Odorless.Solubility:Miscible in water.Density:5% solution: 1.05pH:14.0Boiling Point:102C (216F) (5% solution)Melting Point:-4C (25F) (5% solution)Label Hazard Warning:DANGER! CORROSIVE. HARMFUL IF SWALLOWED OR INHALED. CAUSES BURNS TO ANY AREA OF CONTACT. REACTS WITH WATER, ACIDS AND OTHER MATERIALS.Label Precautions:Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.Do not breathe mist.Keep container closed.Use only with adequate ventilation.Wash thoroughly after handling.Label First Aid:If swallowed, give several glasses of water or milk to drink. Vomiting may occur spontaneously, but DO NOT INDUCE! Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes or skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash clothing before reuse. If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. In all cases get medical attention immediately. Ethanol Physical State: Clear liquid Appearance: colorless Odor: Mild, rather pleasant, like wine or whis pH: Not available. Vapor Pressure: 59.3 mm Hg @ 20 deg C Vapor Density: 1.59Viscosity: 1.200 cP @ 20 deg C Boiling Point: 78 deg C Freezing/Melting Point:-114.1 deg CSolubility: Miscible. Specifi Gravity Densit :0.790 @ 20°C Molecular Formula:C2H5OH Molecular Weight:46.0414Warning! Causes severe eye......

Words: 819 - Pages: 4