A Level Geography Mass Movement

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Sempi
Words 516
Pages 3
Subaerial Weathering
Sub-aerial processes are land based processes which alter the shape of a coastline. They’re a combination of both weathering and mass movement.
Freeze Thaw:
Freeze thaw weathering involves water entering cracks in rocks and freezing. When the water freezes it expands, fracturing the rock.

The repeated action of heating and cooling rocks causing them to “shed” off layers.
Biological Weathering:
Plant seeds get into cracks in rocks and begin growing. As they grow, they exert pressure on the rocks, causing them to fracture. Seaweed, under the sea, can attach itself to rocks so that, as the sea moves the seaweed, chunks of rock are pulled away.

Chemical Weathering:
Corrosion is technically a form of weathering and not erosion. Processes such as hydrolysis and oxidation can weather away rocks. Hydrolysis involves the splitting of minerals due to their reactivity with water. * Oxidation: Oxidation is, basically, rusting. Elements such as iron are susceptible to oxidation and can be found within minerals on coastlines. * Hydrolysis: Hydrolysis involves the splitting of minerals due to their reactivity with water. * Hydration: Where rocks that may include salts absorb water and swell, making them more susceptible to deposition. * Carbonation: Carbon Dioxide in solution found in rainwater produces carbonic acid (H2CO3). This attacks the calcium carbonate found in limestones and many other rocks, with the soluble product being washed away.

Mass Movement
Mass movement can be defined as the large scale movement of weathered material in response to gravity. Essentially, it’s when a cliff or other structure that is not horizontally orientated has been weathered to the point at which it starts to collapse. There’s five types of mass movement: rockfall, soil creep, landslides, mudflow and slumping.

Similar Documents


...Chapter 1 Introduction A roundabout is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic is slowed and flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island to several exits onto the various intersecting roads. The Oakes field Roundabout got its name from Sir Harry Oakes who was a Canadian; one of the rich guys that owned the whole area. The Oakes field Roundabout was chosen because it is the busiest roundabout in Nassau, and it leads into a lot of business areas and has 7 schools in that area, commercial banks and also restaurants. The geography coursework was about the study of traffic movement at the Oakesfield roundabout, in Nassau, New Providence which is located near to the College of the Bahamas. The study was done to fulfil coursework requirement for the BGCSE examination in geography. This study was carried out on Friday 20th 2011. Advantages of a roundabout * Reduces frequency and severity of crashes * Can slow excessive traffic speeds while still improving traffic flow * Reduces Traffic Delays * It is a lot easier to make a U-turn Disadvantages of a roundabout * Accidents may temporarily increase due to improper driver education. * During emergencies, signalized intersections can pre-empt control. * As lines develop, drivers accept smaller gaps which may increase crashes. * Possible higher construction cost. The nature of the traffic using the Oakesfield roundabout varies in intensity from......

Words: 259 - Pages: 2

Geography Topics

...#2 Geography is similar to other scientific disciplines because they evolved from geography. Geography in my opinion is one of the oldest science disciplines. Astronomy, biology, geology, oceanography, etc. are all a product from geography. Geography is derived from the Greek words meaning “Earth description” (Hess & McKnight, 2014, p. 3) “Geography is the world discipline.” (Bonnett, 2008, p. 121) “Geography is rooted in the human need for survival; in the necessity of knowing and making sense of the resources and dangers of our human and physical environment. But it also seeks the bigger picture: geography helps us imagine that there is meaning and sense in the world. Geography allows us to see order in, and impose order on, what otherwise would be chaos.” (Bonnett, 2008, p. 121) “Geography is both pre-modern and modern. It is a paradoxical and necessary combination. Geography’s wide horizons and holistic sensibility are antithetical to an age of intellectual fragmentation and specialism. Yet a commitment to world knowledge is essential in a globalizing era defined by environmental and political crises.” (Bonnett, 2008, p. 121) Geography is misinterpreted as a discipline in which you study maps, but in fact once you study geography, you are enlightened with the knowledge of how everything on Earth and the universe are tied together. Geography is broken down into two groups physical geography (environmental geography) and cultural geography( human geography. ......

Words: 3216 - Pages: 13


...Geography Israel, slightly larger than Massachusetts, lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered by Egypt on the west, Syria and Jordan on the east, and Lebanon on the north. Its maritime plain is extremely fertile. The southern Negev region, which comprises almost half the total area, is largely a desert. The Jordan, the only important river, flows from the north through Lake Hule (Waters of Merom) and Lake Kinneret (also called Sea of Galilee or Sea of Tiberias), finally entering the Dead Sea 1,349 ft (411 m) below sea level—the world's lowest land elevation. Government Parliamentary democracy. History Palestine, considered a holy land by Jews, Muslims, and Christians, and homeland of the modern state of Israel, was known as Canaan to the ancient Hebrews. Palestine's name derives from the Philistines, a people who occupied the southern coastal part of the country in the 12th century B.C. A Hebrew kingdom established in 1000 B.C. was later split into the kingdoms of Judah and Israel; they were subsequently invaded by Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Persians, Romans, and Alexander the Great of Macedonia. By A.D. 135, few Jews were left in Palestine; most lived in the scattered and tenacious communities of the Diaspora, communities formed outside Palestine after the Babylonian exile. Palestine became a center of Christian pilgrimage after the emperor Constantine converted to that faith. The Arabs took Palestine from the Byzantine empire in......

Words: 909 - Pages: 4


...a consistent foreign policy stance capable of systematically addressing minority succession movements. One of the prime difficulties in developing a policy is our inability to identify the "right" and "wrong" parties. Philosophically, we should recognize the right of self-determination for all nations, but realistically the creation of thousands of micro-national states presents enormous potential for conflict. The best strategy we could embrace would be a preventative one. We should monitor the human and civil rights records of foreign country and keep a close eye on the treatment of minority populations. We may be able to pressure majority populations to respect the rights of minority, thereby undermining the creation of secessionist sentiment. In cases where violence erupts, we can not automatically send in American peacekeeping forces. We can not afford such a policy in terms of lives or tax dollars. The United Nations should be the final arbiter on these matters. If the UN can not act in a manner that is to our liking, then we should consider our geographic and historical relationship with the warring parties. In the case of East Timor, they are clearly out of our geographic realm of influence. We should count on our allies in the region, particularly Japan and Australia, to keep the peace and monitor the behavior of the Indonesians. On the other hand, geography is of no value in making this decision because the worlds’ economy is interdependent. ......

Words: 434 - Pages: 2


...[pic] Information on the exam: Unit 3 – GEOG3 - Contemporary Geographical Issues • 30% of A Level • 2 hour 30 minutes written examination • 3 questions: o 1 from Section A – Physical Geography Structured Questions o 1 from Section B – Human Geography Structured Questions o 1 from Section C – Essay Questions (You must not answer the option answered in either Section A or Section B) [pic] |Plate tectonics and associated hazards |Ecosystems: Change and Challenge | | | | |Plate movement |Nature of ecosystems | |Earth structure, plate tectonics theory: convection |Structure of ecosystems, energy flows, trophic levels, | |currents and sea-floor spreading. Evidence: |food chains and food webs. | |continental drift and palaeomagnetism. | | |Destructive, constructive and conservative plate ...

Words: 2405 - Pages: 10

Geography Sba

... * Presentation of Data and Analysis...................................7 * Conclusion...................................................................... 16 * Bibliography ...................................................................17 * Appendix ........................................................................18 Aim of Study This study aims to examine what processes have affected the features on the stretch of the coastline at Archer’s Bay, St. Lucy, Barbados. Location of Study Fig 1 A Sketch Map of Barbados Fig 1.2 A Sketch Map of Archer’s Bay St. Lucy Fig 2 A Sketch Map of Archer’s Bay St. Lucy Barbados Methodology: Methodology On Wednesday, 5th November, 2014, a group of geography students from Harrison College visited Archer’s Bay, St. Lucy Barbados to study the influence of wave action on the visited coastal landforms. The data was collected between 10:00 am and1:30pm.The used equipment were : a ruler, a compass, a protractor, a stopwatch, a camera, tape measure, clinometers, ranging poles pencils, a sketchpad and sample bags. To begin with, field sketch maps were drawn using a sketch pad and pencil and photographs were taken of Archer’s Bay using a camera. Next, data was collected to construct a beach profile. Using the ruler, ranging pole, protractor and compass, information for a beach cross section was collected. Using two one-metre poles, a compass and a measuring tool of over 50 feet a beach......

Words: 2170 - Pages: 9

Economic Geography

...ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY Y U K O A O YA M A J A M E S T. M U R P H Y SUSAN HANSON KEY CONCEPTS IN key concepts in economic geography The Key Concepts in Human Geography series is intended to provide a set of companion texts for the core fields of the discipline. To date, students and academics have been relatively poorly served with regards to detailed discussions of the key concepts that geographers use to think about and understand the world. Dictionary entries are usually terse and restricted in their depth of explanation. Student textbooks tend to provide broad overviews of particular topics or the philosophy of Human Geography, but rarely provide a detailed overview of particular concepts, their premises, development over time and empirical use. Research monographs most often focus on particular issues and a limited number of concepts at a very advanced level, so do not offer an expansive and accessible overview of the variety of concepts in use within a subdiscipline. The Key Concepts in Human Geography series seeks to fill this gap, providing detailed description and discussion of the concepts that are at the heart of theoretical and empirical research in contemporary Human Geography. Each book consists of an introductory chapter that outlines the major conceptual developments over time along with approximately twenty-five entries on the core concepts that constitute the theoretical toolkit of geographers working within a specific subdiscipline. Each entry......

Words: 94626 - Pages: 379


...CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL Caribbean Certificate of Secondary Level Competence® SOCIAL STUDIES SYLLABUS Effective for examinations from May–June 2014 CXC CCSLC/SS/05/12 Published in Jamaica, 2012 by Ian Randle Publishers 11 Cunningham Avenue P O Box 686 Kingston 6 www.ianrandlepublishers.com © 2012, Caribbean Examinations Council ISBN ---------------------------------------- (pbk) All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means electronic, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission of the author or publisher. Cover and book design by Ian Randle Publishers Correspondence related to the syllabus should be addressed to: The Pro-Registrar Caribbean Examinations Council Caenwood Centre 37 Arnold Road, Kingston 5, Jamaica Telephone Number: +1 (876) 630-5200 Facsimile Number: +1 (876) 967-4972 E-mail Address: cxcwzo@cxc.org Website: www.cxc.org Copyright © 2012 by Caribbean Examinations Council The Garrison, St Michael BB14038, Barbados CXC CCSLC/SS/05/12 This document CXC CCSLC/SS/05/12 replaces CXC CCSLC/SS/05/2006 issued in 2006. Please note that the syllabus has been revised and amendments are indicated by italics. First issued 2006 Revised 2012 Please check the website www.cxc.org for updates on CXC’s syllabuses. CXC CCSLC/SS/05/12 Contents INTRODUCTION .......................................................

Words: 14343 - Pages: 58

A-Level Geography Revision

...breakers that have a high downward force and a strong backwash. Their frequency is high with between 13 and 15 waves per minute. Their strong downward energy helps erode beach material and cliffs. The strong backwash results in narrow beach profiles. Tides Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and to a lesser extent the sun. When the earth, the moon and sun are aligned the gravitational pull is at it’s greatest. This creates a Spring tide. A Spring tide results in a high, high tide and low, low tide. This creates a high tidal range (difference between the highest and lowest tide) and results in stronger tidal currents than normal. Spring tides usually occur twice a month when there is a full moon. When the sun and moon are at a right angle to the earth we experience Neap tides. The gravitational pull of the sun partially cancels the moon’s.  This results in a low, high tide and a high, low tide. This creates a low tidal range and results in weaker tidal currents than normal. Sub-Aerial Processes Sub-aerial process are land based processes which alter the shape of the coastline. These are a combination of weathering and mass movement. Sub-aerial processes – weathering Weathering is the decay and disintegration of rock in situ.  There are two main types of weathering that affect the coast. These are mechanical and biological weathering. Mechanical (physical) weathering Mechanical or physical weathering is the......

Words: 2566 - Pages: 11


...Version 2 General Certificate of Education (A-level) June 2011 Geography GEOG1 (Specification 2030) Unit 1: Physical and Human Geography Post-Standardisation Mark Scheme Mark schemes are prepared by the Principal Examiner and considered, together with the relevant questions, by a panel of subject teachers. This mark scheme includes any amendments made at the standardisation events which all examiners participate in and is the scheme which was used by them in this examination. The standardisation process ensures that the mark scheme covers the candidates’ responses to questions and that every examiner understands and applies it in the same correct way. As preparation for standardisation each examiner analyses a number of candidates’ scripts: alternative answers not already covered by the mark scheme are discussed and legislated for. If, after the standardisation process, examiners encounter unusual answers which have not been raised they are required to refer these to the Principal Examiner. It must be stressed that a mark scheme is a working document, in many cases further developed and expanded on the basis of candidates’ reactions to a particular paper. Assumptions about future mark schemes on the basis of one year’s document should be avoided; whilst the guiding principles of assessment remain constant, details will change, depending on the content of a particular examination paper. Further copies of this Mark Scheme are available......

Words: 8688 - Pages: 35


...Examiners’ Report June 2013 GCE Geography 6GE02 01 Edexcel and BTEC Qualifications Edexcel and BTEC qualifications come from Pearson, the UK’s largest awarding body. We provide a wide range of qualifications including academic, vocational, occupational and specific programmes for employers. For further information visit our qualifications websites at www.edexcel.com or www.btec.co.uk. Alternatively, you can get in touch with us using the details on our contact us page at www.edexcel.com/contactus. Giving you insight to inform next steps ResultsPlus is Pearson’s free online service giving instant and detailed analysis of your students’ exam results. • See students’ scores for every exam question. • Understand how your students’ performance compares with class and national averages. • Identify potential topics, skills and types of question where students may need to develop their learning further. For more information on ResultsPlus, or to log in, visit www.edexcel.com/resultsplus. Your exams officer will be able to set up your ResultsPlus account in minutes via Edexcel Online. Pearson: helping people progress, everywhere Pearson aspires to be the world’s leading learning company. Our aim is to help everyone progress in their lives through education. We believe in every kind of learning, for all kinds of people, wherever they are in the world. We’ve been involved in education for over 150 years, and by working across 70 countries, in 100......

Words: 3302 - Pages: 14

‘Risks from the Venezuela Mass Movement Event Owed More to Physical Factors Than Human Factors’

...The Venezuela mass movement event was a series of mudslides and landslides resulting from a series of floods in December 1999.There was many causes to this, some being human and some being more physical causes like heavy rainfall. This effected most settlements in the state of Vargas the largest of which being Caracas. It was the combination of these two things, a natural event being the mud and landslides and the vulnerable population in Vargas, many of which were living in shanty towns making them particularly vulnerable which made the event into a hazard and disaster. This can clearly be shown by Dregg’s model. As is clear from the first diagram that when the natural event does not affect people in anyway (shown as the two circles do not touch) then it is only called an event and no loss of any kind is observed. However when the people are affected by the event and in the case of Venezuela this effect was very large with many of the people defenceless in shanty town accommodation as well as living in a crowded and dense and living near in the shadow of the mountain. All of this meant a large interaction between the event and the vulnerable non resilient population creating the disaster. There were a number of physical causes to the event of both climatological and geomorphical nature. The largest cause of all and the trigger for the slides is the heavy rainfall in the weeks and days especially before the event. As can be seen by the graph, December had been an......

Words: 2008 - Pages: 9

Geography Revision

...Geography unit 4 Consuming the Rural Landscape – Leisure and Tourism Leisure: Freedom from time-consuming duties, responsibilities, or activities. Tourism: Temporary movement of people to destinations outside places where they normally live and work. Local Recreation: Surfing, hiking, exploring but it all involves your own local area Non-local Recreation: Going somewhere else to find activities e.g. surfing Business and recreational travel: Travel for pleasure e.g. city guides, coach drives Business and Personal travel: conferences, courses, training, interviews Leisure & non-working time: shopping, visiting museums, toured guides GROWTH OF LEISURE AND TOURISM: Since WWII: * Paid holidays from businesses →1938 UK holiday with pay act 4 days * Increased availability of free time → technology * Incomes have increased, mainly in MEDCs * Access to media e.g. travelling shows and documentaries about distant lands * Development of transport methods: train, car and aircraft carry more people, are faster and safer * People work less hours and have more holidays * Average worker in the EU 4 weeks paid holiday + public holidays * Average USA worker has only 2 paid weeks THE PLEASURE PERIPHERY MODEL: * INVENTED BY Turner and Ash → 1975 * The furthest distance tourist will travel is known as the Pleasure Periphery (PP) PLEASURE PERIPHERY MODEL: Country of origin: UK ......

Words: 3241 - Pages: 13


...Themes and Traditions of Geography Jennifer Friedrichsen Geography 100 4/20/2012 Dr. Siri Nimal Wickramaratne Themes and Traditions of Geography “Geography is the science that studies the relationships among natural systems, geographic areas, society, culture activities, and the independence of all of these over space.” (Christopherson, 2010, p. 4) Over time there have been two attempts that have influenced the basic understanding of geographic information, which allows us to gain additional and improved knowledge as well as appreciation for environmental changes and the different cultures around the world. These attempts are The Four Traditions of Geography and The Five Themes of Geography. Four Traditions of Pattison The four traditions consist of the spatial tradition, area tradition, man-land tradition and earth science tradition. Spatial Tradition is an “academic tradition in modern Geography that investigates geographic phenomena from a strictly spatial perspective” (Pidwirny, 2006). Spatial Tradition focuses on the mapping, positioning, direction, and distance, the characteristics of the form and movement related to these aspects or the distribution of phenomena. Area Studies Tradition is “an academic tradition in modern Geography that investigates an area on the Earth from a geographic perspective at either the local, regional, or global scale” (Pidwirny, 2006). This is the descriptions of different areas or regions. The nature of......

Words: 900 - Pages: 4


...CURRICULUM OF GEOGRAPHY For 4 years BS & 2 years MS (Revised 2009) | | HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Executive Director Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shahikh Member (Acad) Miss Ghayyur Fatima Director (Curri) Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Deputy Director (Curri) Mr. Shafiullah Deputy Director Composed by Mr. Zulfiqar Ali, HEC Islamabad CONTENTS 1. Introduction………………………………… 6 2. Aims and Objectives……………………… 10 3. Standardized Format for 4-years BS degree programme ………………………. 12 4. Scheme of Studies for BS …………………. 14 5. Details of Courses for BS …………………. 16 6. Elective Group Papers ……………………. 45 7. Scheme of Studies for MS Programme …. 48 8. Details of Courses for MS …………………. 50 9. Optional Courses Model……………………. 56 10. Recommendations …………………………. 61 11. Annexures A,B,C,D & E …………………… 63 PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. The world has turned into a global village; new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream. It is, therefore, imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. In......

Words: 17448 - Pages: 70